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The history and antiquities of the 
parish ofMid-Calder 

Hardy Bertram M'Call, McCall (Hardy.Eertom) 

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Topographical and Physical details—Prehistoric and Roman Remains- 
Civil History and Institutions — The Reformation — ^John Knox at Calder — 
Raids and Deeds of Violence— The Civil War— Montrose at Calder— The 
Religious Persecution — Administration of Justice — The Baron Court — The 
Kirk Session— The Stocks— Witchcraft in the Parish— The Plague, 1645— 
The Church— The Grammar School— Calder Fair— Erection of the West 
Parish— Population, Industries, etc. .... Page 7 


Architectural and historic details of. Calder House — The Earls of Fife — 

The Douglas Succession— Sandilands of Calder — John Knox— Lord St 

John, Preceptor of Torphichen — Sandilands of Slamannan — Fatal Affray on 

the High Street of Edinburgh— Attempts of the Earl of Bothwell on the 

person of King James VI. — The Family Arms and Pedigree of the Lords 

Torphichen — Notices of the lands of Craigs, Letham, Williamston, etc. 

Page 43 

Architectural and historic notices of the following Seats and Lands, with 
succession of Proprietors from the earliest times to the present day— Genea- 
logical and Biographical Notices, etc.— Alderston— Nether Alderston— 
Bankton — Cairns — Wester Causewayend — Calderbank — Charlesfield — 
Grange — Howatston — Colzium— Greenbank— Harperrig — Howden— Nether 
Howden — Linhouse — Skivo — Over- Williamston — Blackball — Murieston 
— Dressilrig — Newpark— Pumpherston — Westfield and Wester Murieston 

Page 85 

Founded prior to 11 60 — Rebuilt by the Rev. Peter Sandilands, Rector of 
Calder, 1540-5 — Architectural details — Heraldic Carvings— Ancient Pew, 
dated 1595 — Communion Cups, 1673— Extension of the structure in 1863 — 
Tombstones, etc. ...... Page 195 

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Saint Cuthbeifs Church, 1160— Early references to Calder Church in Papal 
and other Confirmations of the 12th century— Pre-Reformation Clergy — 
Superintendent Spottiswood — ^John, Archbishop of Glasgow — Succession 
of Ministers until the present day — Ecclesiastical discipline— The Manse 
— United Presbyterian Congregation — The Ecclesiastical Records — List of 
Elders of the Parish from 1600 to 1700 . Page 213 


Origin of the Order of St John of Jerusalem— First Settlement of the 
Knights in Scotland— Sir William Wallace and King Edward I. both at 
Torphichen Priory — Suppression of the Knights Templars— Notices of the 
Preceptors from 1296 to 1560— The Heart of James I. taken on a pilgrimage 
to the Holy Land by the Knights of Torphichen — Suppression of the Order 
at the Reformation— Architectural Notices of the Preceptory Page 249 


The Text of the Original Specification for re-building the Parish Church, 
dated 30th January i'S4i — Also a copy of a Valuation Roll of the Parish, 
compiled in 1726 ...... Page 263 

INDEX: Page 267 

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Introductory Observations 

** The treasures of antiquity, laid up in old historic rolls, I opened." — Beaumont. 

EVERY one acknowledges the value and usefulness of history. Most 
people like to know something more than the mere passing events 
of the day or the hour. The fireside tale of other days — the old man's 
reminiscences — and the story of the land which gave us birth, possess a 
certain fascination for most of us. But if this feeling be a proper and a 
right one, it must be allowed that the means of gratifying it have been of 
too restricted a nature. It is not enough for us to read the history of 
kings and of courts, of wars and national convulsions ; the interest which 
we feel and take in our own immediate surroundings demands information 
of a more special and local kind. We desire to know concerning ordinary 
mortals like ourselves, how they lived and thought in olden times ; what 
was the condition of the people at large ? In the arena of human life 
what part did our predecessors play amid the shifting scenes of the great 
drama of our country's history ? These are questions which are seldom 
answered — with any approach to accuracy, at all events. For it is re- 
markable that whilst we like to feel with regard to general or national 
history that our information rests upon respectable authority, we are 
often satisfied with the veriest old wives' stories in relation to matters 
of purely local interest. Now, this surely ought not to be the case. 
If the past have any lessons for us at all, its teachings are then most 
potential when conveyed through the medium of what lies nearest to us. 
The associations of our immediate environment, especially in early life, 
exercise a certain influence upon our thoughts and characters ; consciously 
or unconsciously they are our constant companions and monitors. How 

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important then that they should teach us that which is true, and only that 
which is true ! 

It was some such reflections as these which gave birth to a desire on 
my part to know something of the past life of the parish of Mid-Calder. 
And in offering the results of my studies to my fellow-parishioners, I 
would like, in the first place, to say something regarding the sources 
whence the information is derived. It may be well to do this in some 
detail, both as indicating the materials which exist for the elucida- 
tion of authentic local history, and also to record for the information 
of future investigators the precise ground which has been already 

The Heritors, without exception, have opened their charter chests to 
me, and from their title deeds and other papers much has been gleaned. 
Local evidence and reminiscence has been called into requisition, but it will 
be obvious that this can extend only for the past fifty or one hundred 
years at most, and even during that period it requires verification and 
correction from documentary sources. A general search has been made 
through printed literature which could be supposed anywise likely to bear 
upon the subject ; but by far the richest quarry of information has been 
original records — the resources of which, in relation to the matter in hand, 
have never before been opened up. Besides numerous other authorities, 
casually or partially examined, the following have been systematically 
searched for the periods indicated : — 

Register of Baptisms, &c., Midcalder . . 1604 — 1800 

Register of Kirk-Session of Midcalder . . 1604 — 1800 

Proceedings of the Baron Court of Calder . . 1583 — 1601 
Minutes of the Heritors' Proceedings . . 1782—1815 

Register of Testaments for Edinburgh . . 15 14 — 1750 

Particular Register of Seisins for the Lothians . 1603 — 1880 
Retours of Services of Heirs in Scotland . . i6co — 1800 
Register of the Great Seal (Scotland) . . 1306 — 1620 

Register of the Privy Council of Scotland . 1545 — 1616 

Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland . . 1 124 — 1707 

Acts of the Lords of Council in Civil Causes . 1478 — 1495 
Acts of the Lords Auditors .... 1466 — 1494 

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The RotuH Scotiae 1291—1516 

The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland 1264 — 1522 

Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer . 1473 — 1498 

Particular Register of Hornings and Inhibitions, etc. etc. 
The claim, therefore, put forward by the title-page, that the work is 
" founded upon record," is in no sense an illusory one. I have steadily 
resisted all material, however tempting, which cannot be vouched for by 
proper documentary evidence. The earliest original writing relating to 
our parish is a grant of the church of Calder Comitis to the Monks 
of Dunfermline about the year 1160; and notices of the district are 
sufficiently meagre for fully two hundred years thereafter. It is not until 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that the records become truly 
picturesque of life and manners in the parish. The reader will observe 
that I have not hesitated to descend to matters of comparatively trivial 
import; many of the extracts from the Session's and other Registers 
may appear to be very unimportant in themselves, but they present, 
nevertheless, when taken together, a picture of the parish life in olden 
days which could not otherwise be obtained. It is not without con- 
siderable thought and hesitation that I have decided to forego any system 
of direct reference to authorities by footnotes or otherwise. The work 
does not pretend to the character of scientific or critical history, and to 
load its pages with references would afford no assistance to the general 
reader, as a set-off to the embarrassment occasioned by the constant 
breaks in the continuity of the narrative. The allusions, also, in the 
text itself are for the most part so pointed as to render special reference 
unnecessary and superfluous. When we meet, for example, with the 
statement that Mr Peter Kinloch, of Alderston, "died on 17th September 
162 1, nominating Mr Patrick Kinloch, his eldest son, his only executor," 
no one who possesses the most superficial acquaintance with the records 
will have any difficulty in turning to the Register of Testaments to verify 
this fact Similarly with the Record of Seisins, which forms the ground- 
work of Chapter III., the references could scarcely be more manifest 
though they were directly alluded to; whilst the quotations from the 
local registers and that of the Privy Council also announce themselves. 
With a view to greater precision in this matter, somewhat copious extracts 

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have been given in the actual words of the record — dL system which I 
have adopted also, as a foil to the constant temptation to generalise upon 
narrow and insufficient grounds. 

For the rest, there seems little which calls for special explanation in 
the plan or scope of the work. It may very reasonably be objected that 
the first chapter is of somewhat too promiscuous a nature ; it consists 
indeed of such miscellaneous facts as did not fall naturally into the 
classification proposed for the later portions of the work. The title of 
" Esquire " due to the landed proprietors and others has been omitted 
merely as a matter of convenience and uniformity ; it will be understood 
that the prefix " Mr " in ancient documents relates always and exclusively 
to University graduates, and with few exceptions it may be said that 
the designation denotes a minister, advocate, or writer. 

My thanks are heartily offered to Thomas Dickson, Esq., LL.D., 
Curator of the Historical Department of H.M. General Register House, 
not only for the facilities afforded for the examination of the records, 
but also for the advantage of his own private store of learning, which I 
have largely availed myself of. Acknowledgment is also due to Stair 
Agnew, Esq., C.B., Registrar-General, and James Stevens, Esq., Heritors 
and Session Clerk, Mid-Calder, for placing at my disposal the public and 
other registers in their custody ; to John Scott, Esq., C.B., for permission 
to make use of the curious MS. entitled, "Proceedings of the Baron 
Court of Calder Comitis"; and to the Faculty of Advocates for the 
privilege of the use of their library. I am indebted to Thomas Ross, 
Esq., joint author of The Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotlandy 
for the plan of Calder House and the drawing of the Church Steeple, as 
also for advice and assistance with the architectural observations on the 
Church and Calder House; to the Rev. Walter Macleod for assistance 
in searching records and deciphering ancient documents; to the late 
Rev. Andrew Duncan for help with the history of the United Presby- 
terian Congregation ; and to Lord Torphichen for various favours — 
not the least of which is the permission to reproduce the beautiful 
drawing of the old church which forms the Frontispiece to the present 
volume. It is interesting to observe that it is to local talent that we 
owe this drawing, William Penny, the artist, being a native of and 

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resident in Mid-Calder village, where he died on i8th January 1867, 
in his 80th year. 

The other ilhistrations to the work have all been engraved from 
photogfraphs or sketches prepared under my own supervision ; and whilst 
in point of artistic treatment they can speak for themselves, I think I 
may venture to claim for them faithfulness of topographical detail. 

It would be superfluous for me to say that I have exercised the 
greatest care in dealing with a very large mass of material, to ensure 
accuracy, and if any errors have crept in I accept the full blame, and will 
be glad to have my attention called to them. On this subject, I might 
say with reference to place names, that where one has only the faded 
ink and crabbed handwriting of an ancient deed as a guide, mistakes 
are very easily made — mistakes, too, which appear quite inexcusable to 
those who are perfectly acquainted with the locality. It would therefore 
be hardly fair that any such slip should be taken as a test — since it 
might be an entirely fallacious one — of the general accuracy of the work. 

It will certainly be obvious to all who have any experience of this 
kind of work that, limitations being once determined of the exact ground 
to be covered by the investigation, it was impossible to wander pro- 
miscuously beyond them ; and hence it is that any allusions to families 
or properties in adjacent parishes — however interesting in themselves — 
are of incidental nature only. I thought at one time of taking as my 
subject the ** Barony of Calder," which would have embraced most of 
West Calder as well as portions of Livingston and Uphall parishes. But 
difficulties would have arisen in consequence of the ever fluctuating 
extent and dimensions of the barony at various epochs ; and I have 
adopted a modem division also in the hope that some abler pen than 
mine may be found to present us with historical accounts of the neigh- 
bouring and other parishes. 

Let me conclude these remarks as I began, by emphasising and 
insisting upon the great value of authentic local history. However 
imperfectly I myself may have realised the ideal in this matter, it is 
nevertheless true that a well-digested account of every parish in Scotland, 
carefully compiled from record, would add a richness and colouring to 
our national history such as it can never otherwise acquire. The great 

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public movements of the times are presented incidentally in such under- 
takings, and gain in vividness and reality when looked at from the local 
standpoint. The imagination can better grasp the phenomena of history 
when these are identified with particular localities : King Charles' oak 
— the castles which have sheltered Queen Mary — the scenes of the 
Covenanters' worship — these things have exercised a deeper influence 
over mankind than any abstract knowledge of revolving dynasties or 
national convulsions. 

H. B. M'Call. 

Charlesfield House, j 

Mid-Calder, February 1894. ' 


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The Parish 

Topographical and Physical Details — Prehistoric and Roman Remains— 
Civil History and Institutions. 

THE parish which engages our attention is situated in the western 
district of the county of Edinburgh, at a distance of twelve to fifteen 
miles from the metropolis. Its extent embraces an area of 12,294 acres, 
which the wisdom of our forefathers has seen fit to dispose in a very 
irregular manner as regards shape, the parish being nine miles long and 
about four miles broad near its northern and southern extremities, 
whilst at its centre, on the farm of Blackball, the breadth of the parish 
is not more than 500 yards. Equally capricious, Nature has endowed 
us with widely differing altitudes and consequent variety of climate and 
other characteristics, in differents parts of the parish. In the southern 
district, where it marches with the county of Peebles, the ground rises 
to the summit of the Cairn hills, 1840 feet above sea level, whence ij 
declines by a series of undulating waves to the Water of Almond, where 
the altitude is 300 feet only. On the northern bank of this river the 
ground again commences to ascend towards the upland ridge of Linlith- 
gowshire, and a height of 500 feet is attained on the lands of Howden. 
The principal rivers or waters intersecting the parish are the Almond, 
the Linhouse Water, and the Murieston Water, which are several miles 
apart on their entrance into the parish, but unite beside the village of 
Mid-Calder by the two last mingling their waters with the Almond ; 
in addition to these there are numerous smaller streams all having a 
general direction from S.W. to N.E. The Water of Leith takes its 
rise upon our hills, though its course in this parish was of inconsiderable 

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moment prior to 1845. In that year a compensation reservoir was 
constructed upon the lands of Cairns and Harperrig, for the purpose 
of equalising the flood waters for the use of the mills and factories on 
this important stream. Although there are extensive plantations of 
recent growth, the Calder Wood is the only natural copsewood in the 
parish, and it too has been greatly reduced in size, even within the 
men)ory of living persons. The tradition of its having extended some 
five or six miles in a southerly direction is preserved in the following 
popular rhyme : — 

" Calder Wood was fair to see, 
When it went to Camilty ; 
Calder Wood was fairer still 
When it went to Crosswood-hill." 

In the light of these physical facts and certain other significant cir- 
cumstances, we incline to adopt that etymology of the word " Calder " 
which refers the origin of the term to the two Celtic words Coil and dour^ 
signifying respectively wood and water. If this be true, the district under 
consideration has with much propriety been denominated Cal-der, many 
of the views which the combination of wood and water present being 
romantic, grand, and delightful. 

Within the parish are several of those barrows or tumuli which 
during all historic times have called forth the speculations of antiquaries 
and persons studiously inclined, but which, like the pyramids of Egypt, 
have outlived the knowledge of the names of their founders, or even of 
the purpose for which they were constructed. They are supposed to 
have been repositories of the dead, but at what period they were raised 
it is quite impossible even to conjecture. Four of these barrows may still 
be seen, although somewhat effaced by the operations of the plough, near 
to the bank of the Almond on the lands of Nether Alderston ; but the 
most remarkable tumulus is a large conical eminence which stands on the 
north side of Calder village, and has received the name of " Cunnigar." 
This designation appears to be derived from Celtic, and to denote a 
keeper or warren of the conies, t,e, rabbits. Many stone coffins have at 
various times been dug up near the banks of the Almond, not only as it 
runs through this parish, but in all its course till it unites with the Firth 

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of Forth at Cramond. Some of these were hewn out of a solid piece of 
stone, with closely fitting covers, and the presence within them of frag- 
ments of a skull and other human remains leaves no doubt as to their 
having been sepulchres ; others were more rudely constructed of flat 
stones placed on edge for the sides, and with covers formed also of several 
flat stones. In one of these cists a piece of iron somewhat resembling 
the head of a battle axe was discovered in 183 1. Fig. i represents 
a small leaf-shaped blade recently found on the lands of West Cairns, — 
it measures four inches in length, and |-in. across the widest part of the 
cusp, and it is still sharp on either edge and at the point. The shank end 
is perforated to admit of a rivet uniting it to a short wooden handle. The 
metal of which it is made is found to consist of seven parts of copper and 
two of tin ; and on its being exhibited to the authorities of the National 

Fig. I. — Bronze implement found at West Cairns. 

Museum of Antiquities, it was by them pronounced to belong to the later 
period of the " bronze age," which is understood to mean two or three 
centuries before the Christian era. 

On the summit of an eminence called Castle Greg, upon the farm of 
Camilty, and near to the passage of the ridge which separates Lothian 
from Clydesdale, are the remains of a rectangular camp or station sup- 
posed to have been constructed during one of the Roman invasions of 
Scotland. There are few subjects connected with antiquity which are 
more shrouded in mystery than all which relates to the hill forts and 
defensible camps which crown the summits of so many of our hills. We 
talk of them with great assurance as " Roman Camps," and as speculative 
inference has usually proved more attractive to the archaeologist than the 
laborious storing up of exact knowledge, these remains have come in for 
a large share of attention. Personally, we must own to being sceptical 
upon the subject to a degree which would doubt whether one-half of the 

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so-called Roman encampments and causeways were not constructed fully 
a thousand years subsequent to Agricola's departure from Britain ! This, 
we know, is rank heresy ; but we mean not to disparage the claims of the 
camp at Castle Greg, where many coins and other articles of Roman work- 
manship are said to have been dug up from time to time, but rather to 
emphasize its value, if it can be shown to be a Roman work, in its bearing 
upon the study of these hill forts in general. The camp differs from most 
rectilinear forts, which are usually defended by a single vallum, in having 
a double line of intrenchment with two distinct ramparts. In the centre 

Fig. 2. — Ancient Camp at Castle Greg. 

of the eastern side is the only gateway or opening for entrance into the 
inclosure. The writer in the Statistical Account has surely made a 
mistake in giving the measurements as between 500 and 600 feet in 
length and breadth. Measured from summit to summit of the inner and 
higher rampart the dimensions are 180 feet long and 140 feet broad; 
whilst the extent of the outer circumvallations does not exceed 260 feet 
and 220 feet in length and breadth respectively. The camp is situated 
with its longer walls running N.N.W. and S.S.E., the entrance being in 
the eastern side. A round hollow near the centre of the inclosure, called 
by the common people the Well, but supposed to have been the founda- 
tion of a flag-staff, was excavated about the year 1830, when under a 

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great stone was found a considerable number of Roman coins, bearing 
the effigies of the Emperors Vespasian, Domitian, Hadrian, Antoninus 
Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, — indicating a date about A.D. 170. 

A portion of these coins was disposed of by the finders to a gold- 
smith in Edinburgh, but the remainder came into the hands of the 
proprietor of the lands, Mr Young of Harburn, by whom a complete set 
of the coins was presented to King Charles X. of France, who with his 
son visited Mr Young at Harburn House in 1832. About the same 
period, another find of Roman coins was made by some labourers in 
casting a ditch near Cross wood-burn, a mile and a half to the west of 


Domitian. Hadrian. Antoninus. Aurelius. 

Fig. 3. — Roman denarii found at Castle Greg. 

this camp, in the border of the neighbouring parish of West Calder. 
These were presented by Mr Steel of Crosswood-hill to the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland. Further investigation at the camp was pro- 
secuted in 1846, by the late Mr Cochrane of Harburn, whose researches 
were rewarded by the discovery of some fragments of pottery, pronounced 
at the time to be of Roman manufacture. We here give an illustration 
of several of the coins before alluded to, but it must be borne in mind in 
estimating the value of their evidence, that Roman coins were carried all 
over the civilised world. They are found in great numbers both in 
Ireland and Scandinavia, where the Romans certainly never penetrated. 
The pottery affords better evidence of their presence at Castle Greg, and 
we think that further excavation should be made at the camp with a view 

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to ascertaining, if possible, whether other examples of Roman manufacture 
exist there. Several stone coffins or cists were at a somewhat later 
period discovered by Mr Cochrane in a field near Harburn-head, a 
little more than a mile north of the camp. "Castelgreg" is mentioned 
in a charter of lands in the barony of Calder by James IV., in the year 
1512. Some have considered the situation to have been a pastoral 
station, and have thus sought to account for the name, as derived from 
the Latin Castellum Gregis^ or " Watch tower of the flocks " ; but this is, 
of course, mere conjecture. In the year 1864, during the construction of 
the Cleland branch of the Caledonian Railway, a number of Roman coins, 
it is said, were found in Calder Wood, near to the Calder House Quarry, 
but they do not appear to have been preserved. 

In the Middle Ages the Calder district was debateable land, and, 
prior to the seventh century, appears to have been a Pictish possession on 
the border of the Saxon kingdom, of Northumbria. But, according to the 
*• venerable " Bede, Aeduin, King of Northumbria, about the year 610 A.D., 
pushed his power to the farther side of Lothian, as far as the river Avon ; 
so that if this be true, we are to conclude that the parish was at that 
time under the dominion of the Saxon Heptarchy, and perhaps also at a 
later period of a united England. 

When the light of certain record first sheds its intermittent rays upon 
the locality, the extensive region of Calder was divided into two manors, 
the one called Calder-Comitis or Earl's Calder, from the circumstance of 
its being the heritage of the Earls or Thanes of Fife, and the other 
denominated Easter-Calder or Calder-Clere, apparently so named from 
Rudolph de Clere, who had a grant of the manor from Malcolm IV., anno 
1153-1165. This manor of Calder Clere became forfeited during the 
Succession War, and was granted by Robert Bruce to James Douglas, 
ancestor of the Earl of Morton, in 1306. But it is the barony of Earls 
Calder, which embraced the whole of the modem parishes of Mid and 
West Calder at least, that engages our attention. 

About the middle of the twelfth century, which was the great transition 
century in Scotland, this extensive region was in the possession of the 
Earls of Fife ; there are grants of certain lands and ecclesiastical patronage 
in Calder Comitis to the monks of Dunfermline made by Duncan, Earl 

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of Fife, and Ela, his countess, which grants were confirmed by Malcolm 
IV. previous to 1 160. Another Earl Duncan was one of the Scottish 
nobles who agreed to the convention made by William the Lion with 
Henry II. of England at Falaise, anno 1 174 ; and from him is descended 
Duncan, Earl of Fife in 1286, who, after the death of Alexander III., was 
chosen one of the Regents of the kingdom. He was assassinated 25th 
September 1288 by Sir Richard Abemethy and Sir Walter Percy; and 
after his death, the charge of Calder Comitis, with the custody of the 
minor heir, was assigned to Sir William Bisset, Kt, the appointment being 
confirmed by Edward I. before 1292. Bisset had set the lands in ferme 
or tack to William, Bishop of St Andrews, for the yearly payment of £^0 ; 
but in 1294, there is a letter of King Edward, as overlord of Scotland, to 
Walter de Cambhou, Keeper of the county of Fife, saying : As his dear 
friend the Bishop of Glasgow has begged of him the land of Cawdor in 
the county [/.^., Earldom] of Fife, until the majority of the heir thereto, 
the said Walter is commanded to deliver the same at its true value, under 
burden of £/^o yearly to William Byset, Kt — by way of compensation for 
his resigning the appointment Dated at Westminster, ist October 1294. 
On 17th May 1295 there is another letter from the King to John de 
Langetoune, his chancellor, which says that having by letters under the 
Great Seal already committed to Robert, Bishop of Glasgow, the manor 
of Caledore Comitis, till the majority of the heir of Duncan, Earl of Fife, 
the said Bishop is Further to have advowson of churches, and all other 
escheats omitted in the grant Walter de Camehou, styled Keeper of 
Fife, is allowed 38s. 4d. for "expenses at Calder for twelve days after 
Epiphany, 1295, to let the land delivered to the Bishop of Glasgow by the 
King's precept" The youthful Earl of Fife, still under age, was slain at 
the battle of Falkirk in 1298, leaving an infant son, whom Robert Bruce 
afterwards restored to his rights in Calder Comitis. There is a charter by 
this monarch of the barony of Calder in the county of Edinburgh and 
•other baronies to Duncan, Erl of Fyf, undated, but between the years 1320 
and 1326. His name also appears in the list of barons assembled at the 
Parliament held at Aberbrothock 6th April 1320, and he was the first 
amongst the earls who on that occasion signed the letter to the Pope 
asserting the independence of Scotland. Then, in Lord Torphichen's 

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charter chest there is a charter by Duncan, Earl of Fyfe, confirming to 
Dame Beatrise, spouse of the deceased Archibald of Douglas, and to John 
Douglas, her son and heir, all his barony of Wester Caldor, to be held by 
them as freely as the Earl or his predecessors held the same of the King 
of Scotland, with forests, advocation of churches, wards, reliefs, marriages, 
meadows, etc., with privilege of homage and service of free tenants, bonds 
and bondages, fines and forfeitures, mills and multures, etc. ; rendering yearly 
therefor a pair of gilt spurs at the feast of pentecost, if asked only. Sealed 
with the said Earl's seal at Falcland at the period of the siege of Falkland 
Castle [February 1337]. John of Douglas, who thus became lord of Calder, 
according to Wyntoun died "beyond the sea" before 1342; and he was 
succeeded by his brother William, who became first Earl of Douglas. By this 
nobleman his whole barony of Westir Caldore was bestowed upon his 
well-beloved esquire James of Sandilands, together with the whole toun of 
Bengoure in the county of Edynburgh, with all liberties, etc., in free marriage 
with his sister Eleanor Brys, Countess of Carrick, and their heirs. The date 
of this transaction is between 1346 and 1350; and the barony has ever since 
regularly descended in the Sandilands family. Sir James was chosen to 
be one of the attendants on his sovereign David II. when that monarch was 
detained a prisoner in England ; and his son and successor, in the year 
1383, espoused a daughter of King Robert II. Schir James de Sandy- 
landis sat in Parliament as Baron of Calder Comitis in 1487, and John 
Sandilands of Calder appears in the list of Parliamentary barons in 1560. 

We meet with no incident of special importance connecting the parish 
with what may properly be called the public affairs of the nation until the 
period of the Reformation, in which great change the heads of the family of 
Calder played a somewhat prominent part. John Knox had his residence 
for some time at Calder House, as he himself informs us in his "Historic," 
in the spring of 1556, and, besides administering the Holy Sacrament 
to Sir James Sandilands' household and guests, he preached almost daily 
during his visit here, either in the church or market-place of the village, 
the site of his open-air pulpit being traditionally marked by the position 
of a huge plane-tree at the back of the churchyard. Amongst those who 
attended upon his sermons in Calder were three young noblemen who 
made a great figure in the public transactions which followed, namely, 

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Archibald, Lord Lome, afterwards Earl of Argyll ; John, Lord Erskine, 
who succeeded to the Earldom of Mar, and commanded the Castle of 
Edinburgh during the civil dissensions which ensued between the Queen 
Regent and the Protestant party ; and Lord James Stewart, better known 
as the Regent Murray, who subsequently had frequent recourse to the Baron 
of Calder for counsel and assistance in transactions of national moment. 
After the establishment of Protestantism, considerable apprehension seems 
to have been entertained by James's government of an attack to be made 
upon them by " papistis,*' and repeated orders were issued to the barons to 
see that every vassal was armed as required by law, and to encourage musters 
and wappinschaws. Wappinschawing, as the word implies, was a shewing 
of weapons, or an exhibition of arms, according to the rank of each in- 
dividual, made at certain times in every barony or district In the 
proceedings of the Baron Court of Calder-Comitis we find the following 

1586, April 19 — The quhilk day it is statut and ordanit be the tutor and bailie foir- 
said, with auiss of the haill tennents of the baronie heir present, that the ordinance eftir 
following be keeipit and observit in all tymes coming. That is to say That all men of the 
said barony, according to their qualiteis, estait and conditioun, be sufficientlie provydit of 
horse, armor and servandis to attend upoun the Laird and his tutor in our souerane 
Lordis seruice, when thay salbe charg^t in quhatsumeuir oistis or raids, or otherwyse vsit 
and wont ; as alswa to be readdie to follow the fray when as at ony tyme it sal happin, 
conform to the former act maid thairanent, in all gudlie diligence, and to mak thair mus- 
turis and wappinschawingis bodin in feir of weir, on horsebakand onfutt, ilkman efferand 
to his estait vpoun the hill of Calder, to the tutpr or commissionar to be appoyntit be 
him to resaue the samyn the fourt day of August nixt to cum at ten hours befoir none, 
ilkman under the panis of Ten punds to be takin of ilk ane that falzeis. And that nane 
of the baronie tak upoun hand to haue or vse ony borrowit geir at the saidis musturis 
and wappinschawing, under the paine foresaid, and escheiting of the said borrowit geir : 
That is to say ilk persoun to be boddin as followis to witt — * 

Mr. Petir Kinloch in Owir Awdinstoun 
Johnne Muirheid in Nayther Awdinstoun 
James tennent of Lynhous 
John Stevinsoun, zoungar of Hirdmanschiels 

* The list of names is lengthy, embracing the tenants of the whole barony ; we have therefore 
omitted many which do not relate to this parish. The act is printed as above and with the names 
in full in AnaUcta Scotica^ I. 395. 

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Joseph Dowglas of Pumpherstoun 
James tennent of Cairnis 
Martyne Ker in Eistir Colzame 
Thomas Cant of Harperrig 
James Coichran of Breidschall 

The above to have a horse ^ with Jak-speir^ steilbonat^plaitslevis^ sword andpistolei. 

James tennent portionar of Owir Williamstoun 

The relict & airis of vmqle Jon Williamsoun of the Bent 

Archibald Williamsoun portionar of Nayther Williamstoun 

John Williamsoun ane other portioner thereof 

William farar in Wodhcid and occupier of a part of Nayther Williamstoun 

perteining to the Lady Calder 
John Sandelands of Muirisdyks 
William Douglas of Baddis 
Johnne Leirmont of Ower Craig 
Alexander Gray of Brigend 

Takkismen on hors bak 

Gawin Hammiltoun in the Grange 

Andro Aikman in Zallowstrud 

Johnne Aikman in Eistir Dryshelrig 

Wm. Aikman in Sandiegait 

Johnne Ker in Camaltie 

James Dowglas in Nayther Howden 

Robert Dowglas in Owir Howden 

James RewU there 

Johnne Tennent in Cockrig 

James Aikman in Nayr Williamsoun 

Thomas Levingstoun 1 

Johnne Walker . ,, 

"1 , , r »n Howatstoun 

Johnne bego j 

William Loche J 

Jon Sandelandis in Nayther Craig 

George Glasgw in Mureistoun 

Johnne Aikman in Westir Dryschilrig 

Two years after the date of this Act, James Sandilands, tutor of Calder, 
was chosen capitaine of ane hundreth licht horsmen raised in consequence 
of the approcheing of strangearis towardis this Isle for invasioun of the 

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professouris of the trew and christeane religioun, 19th August 1588. 
In the year 1600 Sir Michael Balfour of Burley made a visitation in 
the district to see that all proprietors maintained warlike equipments 
" effeirand to thair rankis," on which occasion James Tennent of Cairns 
was ordered to buy a stand of footman's arms. 

Considering the state of the country at this period, it is not sur- 
prising to hear of deeds of violence. On 9th August 1600 a cattle-raid 
was made by the Armstrongs and Elliots upon the lands of Cairns, when 
the Tweeddale men succeeded in carrying off fourscore oxen and some 
horses, having slain and dismembered divers of His Majesty's good 
subjects in the encounter. William Borthwick, brother of the Lord 
Borthwick, on 7th May 1601, came with his accomplices to the lands 
of Howden, wounded the ploughmen and slew two of their horses, so 
that they dared not labour the lands; and about the same period 
Patrick Hamilton, of the Peel of Livingston, who for some time had been 
the terror of the countryside, accompanied by sixteen armed confederates, 
made a warlike demonstration on the lands of Charlesfield, broke up 
the doors and windows with great joists, wounded several servants, and 
spuilyied and destroyed all the corns. Three years later there are in- 
dications of a raid upon the village by the laird of Bradshaw, which was 
considered of sufficient importance to be mentioned before the Privy 
Council, and in June 1604 John Bailyie of Braidschaw was required 
to find caution in £iQOO^ that he should not harm Johne Broun in 
Calder, Mr Johne Broun there, Robert Tennent, James Mure, James 
Wallace there, James Aikman in Dreschilrig, Thomas Smith in the 
Mains of Calder, nor others. In 1616 complaint was made by Johnne 
Wricht at the Brigend of Calder, that on the Sth October in that year, 
William Douglas of Pumpherston, who had conceived a deadlie hatred 
for him, came to his house disguised and under cloud of night, struck 
him down with a baton, and " trampit his wyff and baimis under his 
feitt ! " 

The party of the Earl of Bothwell found refuge in the deserted 
region of Calder Moor, after that ambitious nobleman's second attempt 
to secure the person of the King at Falkland, 29th June 1592. " Im- 
mediatlie after the fray," writes an old diarist, " Bothwell and his men 


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came over the water, and there were eighteen of them taken in Calder 
Muir and in other parts near Calder, lying sleeping for want of rest and 
entertainment ; and immediately after their taking they were brought 
to Edinburgh, and [five of them] hangit." At the period of the Civil 
War between King Charles and the Parliament, the following were 
appointed at the several dates to act on the Committee of Warre, on the 
parliamentary side: William Sandilands, tutor of Calder in 1643 and 
1644; Sir Joseph Douglas of Pumpherstoun 1646 and 1647; Lord 
Torphichen 1647 ; the Lairds of Calderhall and of Selms, and Master 
Laurence Scot of Harperrig appointed 26th March 1647. The minister 
of Mid-Calder, Mr Hew Kennedy, also took a somewhat prominent part 
against the Royal interest. In the month of March 164S, £\QO, 8s. was 
collected in the parish " to buy cloathes to the souldiers of my Lord 
Callenderis regiment ; " and shortly thereafter certain gentlemen were 
enjoined to take an account of the "sensibill personis" within the 
parish, and also what arms could be furnished. 

1645, ////j/ 13 — The sessioun has and do ordain all men within the paroche abowe 
twell zeirs of age to be on Alderstoun Muire on Wednisday nixt, and ordains twa elders 
in ilk quarter to give them adverteisment for y* effect with certificatioun y* those 
y' comis not sail be those y* shall go out to this present expeditioun. 

Frequent intimation is made against the resett of " runawayis from 
ye collours;" and on 9th July 1646, the minister declared that if any 
women in the parish had their husbands killed in the public service, they 
should be helped. The Session knows of none. 

1646, March 19 — Anent complyance w' the enemy, receiving of protectiouns and 
giving of y moneys, My Lord Torphichen declaired he was frie yrof. 

Sept 6 — This day Jamis Sandilands, bailze, sworne, deponit he never procured 
a protectioun from Jamis Grahme nor from no oyr of that factioun. Mr Jamis Kynloch 
[of Alderston] deponed the lyk. The wholle Elderis deponed the lyk— Ordanis to 
summond Jone Muirheid of Lynhous. 

The Laird of Linhouse appears to have favoured the Royalist cause, 
and was under suspicion, at all events, of being a member of the Duke 
of Hamilton's Committee in 1648. 

Montrose passed through Calder on his way from Kilsyth to Phillip- 
hauch, as we are informed in the Acts of the Parliament in relation 
to the forfaulting of certain persons for treason in taking up arms against 

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the Estates. In these proceedings it is narrated that James Grahame 
and his rebellious airmie after the battle of Kilsyith on 15th day of 
August last [164s] did pass from Kilsyith to Bothuell and from thence 
to Calder and from thence to Limphoy, and so on by Cranstounriddell 
and Torwodlie to the fields between Selkirk and Philiphauche wher they 
wer defeat and confoundit by the mercie of God upon his distressed 
people, and by ye strenth of his right hand against his enemies. Turning 
to our own parish records we observe that on 27th September 1646, 
James Kynloche and fifteen others " all confessit to have bocht and 
gottin sum geir mair or les from the Enemie quhen Jamis Grahme's 
airmie cam alongis from Bothwell ; " and all were in consequence ordained 
to give public satisfaction before the pulpit on the Thursday following. 
Two years after this occurred the Duke of Hamilton's "engagement," 
as it is called, to march into England to the support of the Royalist 
cavaliers, which terminated in the decapitation of that gallant nobleman 
after the battle of Preston. Many prisoners were apprehended in Mid- 
Calder and brought before the minister and elders. 

1648, December 16— Those quho was in the lait unlawful! Ingadgment being callit 
one by one, all who went out for wther paroches war ordanit to remove within 24 
houris and satisfie in that paroch y' they went out of. And those y' went out of this 
paroche to satisfie and mak y' repentance heir, conform to the Order. 

1648, December 21— Ordanis to give Johne Aikman a testimonial! y' he has satisfeit 
the order of the churche for going out in the unlawful! ingadgment. 

1654, February 26— Accounts given in of the contributions in aid of the wounded 

Of an old tower, the remains of which stood until recently on the 
estate of Harburn, it is reported that it was fortified by Cromwell to 
repress the depredations of the mosstroopers. Cromwell's Wit and 
Cromwell's Stone are names given to particular localities on the same 
estate, but we are without any exact information of the Protector having 
visited the district in person. Amongst the parishioners fined in 1662 
for complicity with Cromwell during the Commonwealth are the Hon. 
William Sandilands, tutor of Torphichen, ;^I200, Mureheid of Linhous 
;^4000, Mr Laurence Scot of Bavelaw ;^2400, and Patrick Liston in Calder, 
portioner of Langton, £6qo. 

Passing from the incidents of this unhappy time to the still more 
regrettable conflicts of Charles II.'s reign, we remark that the Covenanting 

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army, on their march from the west, which culminated in the battle on 
Pentland Hills, had taken a line northward of this parish, through Bathgate 
and Broxburn to Colinton, whence they retreated to their encampment at 
RulHon Green. The Royal forces, however, under General Dalzell, having 
marched from Lanark on the 27th November 1666, sojourned that night 
in Calder, and on the following morning marched to Currie, whence they 
forced a passage through the hills and engaged the rebels the same 
afternoon. Patrick Liston, in Calder, before mentioned, and his son 
William Liston, of Easter Colzium, are specially mentioned as having 
been present with the Presbyterian army on this occasion. Evidence 
was given that they were seen at Ratho Kirk and elsewhere, passing to 
Colinton in company with the rebels, armed with swords, pistols and 
dirks, and both were sentenced to death when they should be appre- 
hended, their estates to be forfeit to His Majesty*s use. We believe that 
in neither case was the personal part of the penalty executed, and the 
names of both delinquents were included in the general rescinding of 
forfeitures in 1690. The following names appear in a list of fugitives, 
Sth May 1684, attached to a royal proclamation, charging loyal 
subjects not to harbour nor resett, but to deliver up to justice the 
following persons: Alexander Multerer in Mid-Calder; John Brown, 
.smith, there ; Thomas Ferrer, herd in Moorieston ; Thomas Williamson, 
son to James Williamson in Over Williamstoun ; Andrew Henyson, 
weaver in Moorieston ; Robert Brown, tailor in Calder-toun ; John 
Hamilton, sometime in Pumferstoun ; James Tennent in Letham ; and 
Archibald Cuthbertson, haunting about Calder Muir. 

Our church was the scene of a singular spectacle in the month of 
November in the same year. This was a military inquiry conducted 
within the building into the circumstances attending the death of 
Thomas Kennoway and Duncan Stewart, gentlemen of His Majesty's 
Life Guards, who had been murdered in the neighbouring parish of 
Livingston. Kennoway had made himself conspicuous in carrying out 
the severities which the Privy Council ordered at this time against the 
Presbyterians. According to Wodrow, he had "seized an old man in 
Mid-Calder whom he alleged to have been at Pentland, and beat and 
bound him in a most barbarous manner. Meanwhile some went into 
Edinburgh and complained to the General of his cruelty, whereupon a 

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letter coming out to him, he forced the poor old man, in fear of present 
death, to sign a paper that Thomas Kennoway had never wronged him 
in his person or goods." He was murdered along with his companion 
at a place called Swyne Abbey, in Livingston parish, on the 20th 
November 1684. Three days later a commission was granted to Lords 
Livingston, Ross, and Torphichen to assist His Majesty's commanding 
officer in an inquiry into the whole matter, and to put to death 
summarily any who should be found guilty. The Commission sat at 
Mid-Calder in the church, and the whole parishioners were called forward 
and interrogated, but the perpetrators of the deed were never discovered. 
The following notice of conventicles held on the southern border of the 
parish is from the transactions of the Privy Council : — 

\(>%\^ July 17— The Council having been informed that "a number of vagabond 
fugitives and declared traitors, being of a long time designed to meet at a field con- 
venticle, and having at lenth got some seditious preachers, rebells and traitors to speak 
a word to them (as they terme it) Did upon the ffirst day of June instant meet and 
keep a field conventicle at Cairn hill, and likewise another field conventicle upon the 8 
instant at Caldstaine-slope or some other places thereabout, at which seditious meetings 
there would be about two or three hundred men and women present, the men being 
armed with blunderbuslies, swords pistolls and other murdering wapons." Tho* this has 
happened, yet such has been the " supine negligence and remissness " of the magistrates, 
heritors and tenants under-written, through whose grounds the said rebels openly 
passed, that his Majesties Royal Authoritie and Government has thereby been brought 
into great reproach ; and the following persons are guilty of a high and manifest cryme 
and of undutyfullnes to his Majestic, and are accordingly cited to appear before the 
Council and g^ve information in this regard. The Earle of Tweddale, Tennent of 
Cairnes, Lord Torphichen, the laird or tenant of Caldstaineslope, of Easter Cairnhill of 
Wester Cairnhill, of Wester Colzian, and others in neighbouring parishes. 

A letter was at the same time directed from the Committee of the 
Council to General Dalzell, of which the tenor follows : — 

Sir — Haveing receaved informatione of a conventicle keept at Cairnehill upon the 
ffirst instant and another at Calstaineslope upon the eight thereof where severall men 
wer in armes and diverse women present, of which informatione a coppie is herewith 
sent, Wee desyre your Excellence to give such orders for discovery of these persones 
and apprehending them and of the heretors on whose ground the conventicles wer 
keept as yow shall think fitt. And wee expect frequent accounts in this affair firom your 
Excellence — We are. Your Excellences humble servants, [Signed by the Archbishop of 
St Andrews, Marquis of Douglas, Bishop of Edinburgh, and the Lords President of the 
Session and Justice Clerk.] 

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On the 26th August in the same year, 1684, a petition was presented 
to the Council by Robert Aitkin in Campbeli-tree (^Camilty), and about 
twenty other parishioners, stating that they had been fined in considerable 
sums by the Laird of Meldrum and Thomas Kennoway, his depute, for 
alleged not keeping the kirk and attending conventicles. They urge that 
the list has been wrongously compiled, that the fines are excessive, and 
above all that they have had no opportunity of being heard in defence, 
they being able and still willing to produce to their lordships testificats from 
their minister of their orderly carriage. The lords accede to the petition, 
and remit the penalties. James Tennent in this parish was sentenced to 
death with others, 13th November 1684, for declining to disown the de- 
claration of war against the King found affixed to church doors and else- 
where on the Sunday preceding; but this sentence also, like so many 
others, was not carried out, and Tennent and his companions were liberated 
after a few months' imprisonment In April 1685 a second raid was made 
upon the parish, this time by a company of Highlanders who spent two 
days here searching for non-conformists and suspected persons. 

So ends, as far as we are informed, the tale of "persecution" suffered by 
the parishioners of Mid-Calder during the period of Episcopal ascendancy. 
In the Parliament assembled i8th December 1706, for deliberating upon 
the terms of the union of the Scottish and English Parliaments, a petition 
was presented by certain heritors, liferenters, elders, parochiners and in- 
dwellers in the paroch of Calder, subscribers of the same, against an union 
with England. Other public affairs noticed in our local records are — 

1700, August 25 — This day there was intimated a national fast to be held on 
thursday next upon y* account of y* lait harvest, and the loss the nation has sustained 
from our Colonys deserting of Darien. 

1708, June 3 — A solemn thanksgiving was held in Mid Calder on account of the 
English fleet thus defeating a French fleet that came to the Scots seas with the pre- 
tended Prince of Wales to invade Britain. 

171 5 — Since June last there was no meeting of the Session for distribution upon the 
account of the confusion in our country by the unnatural rebellion carried on by the 
late Earl of Mar and his Jacobite associats against King George in favours of a popish 

The administration of civil justice was anciently in the hands of the 
baron, who had power of life and limb over all within his jurisdiction, but 
as more settled institutions made progress in the 15th and i6th centuries, 

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a bailie, appointed by the baron, and answerable to the judicial authorities 
in Edinburgh, was the civnl magistrate. Complaint was made to the Lords 
of Council and Session by Andrew Drury of that Ilk, in the year 1480, 
that John Sandilands of Caldore and James Tennand his bailzie had 
wrangwisly forfaited him of his tenandr>- of the lands of West Corswod 
by process in his barone court of Caldor dated 20th October 1478, in 
respect of his alledged usurping and purprising the said John, his overlord, 
in uptaking the mails of the said lands. The lords, after hearing parties, 
annul the forfeiture. The records of the Baron Court of Calder Comitis 
are preserved for the period 1583- 1601, and incidentally throw much light 
on feudal tenure and service ; the old MS. volume, which is in a good 
state of preservation, and for the most part very clearly written, is in the 
collection of John Scott, Esq , C.B., Greenock. Besides the judgment of 
the Laird and his bailie in disputes between the vassals or tenants, the 
record contains acts made and ordained for the welfare of the whole 
barony; and notices of early charters and writs relating to the lands 
exhibited before the Court, and recorded here for their preservation. The 
feu-charters so entered extend back to the year 1530, and the tenures 
usually include ane zeirlie payment, with seruice at Courts and at the 
Kingis weiris. 

At a Court held loth February, 1583, Harry Stewart younger of Cragyhall tutor, Jone 
Stevinson younger of Hirdmanscheillis bailie 


Jon Mrheid in Auderstoun 
Jon Aiknian in Dresthclrig 
James tenent of Lennois 
Henry Kinloche in Aderstoun 

Rot Douglas of Howden 
James Douglas in Nayr Howden 
Jas Tennent in Owir Wmstoun 
et cetera 

It being inquirit quhat guid statutis suld be made anent the keiping of guid ordor in 
the baronie 

It is agreit be the tutor foirsaid and Inquest that na grein wode be cutit and quha- 
ewir dois the sam to pay v lib ye first fait, x lib ye second fait, and to be bancist the 
third fait ye baronie, and quhenewir any salbe challenged yrwith that all salbc subject to 
the Jugement of ye Laird and his tutor and to be tryit be ane assys of ye baronie. 

Item it is considderit yt yair is greit domage done to ye Laird and the haill baronie 
of Calder be Ryving out and breking of the commontie qlk wes never vsit of bcfoir. 
Thairfur it is statut and ordaint that na man brek nor ryve out ony part of the commontie 
of Calder fra this day furth, and quhaevir failzeis yrin ilk man that bcis challengit lalbc 
tryit be ane inquest of the baronie and gif ony be convict thairof, the takkisman that bcis 

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convict sail pay x lib and lay doun ye grownd agane, and ye fewar or frehalder sail pay 
XX lib and lay doun ye grownd agane 

And this is doun be ye tutor with consent of ye Inquest of the haill personis aboune- 

We have already noticed a lengthy statute regarding the holding of 
Wappenshaws, and there are further enactments that quhen thair beis ony 
fray, ilk man salbe reddie to follow the fray to the end with the tutor, or 
in his absence with the Laird Lennos or any other appointed substitute. 
Jurisdiction in civil disputes was established in the barony after the manner 
of the clans, who all became bound to refer complaints to the judgment 
of their respective chiefs. So, in 1584, it is decreed that na civill actioun qlk 
ony in the barony of Calder hes or salhave aganis ane uther in the said 
barony salbe pursewit befoir ony uther Juge nor the Laird, his tutor and 
baillie fra this day furth and quha dois in the contrair shall pay xl lib. The 
conviction and condemnation of criminals by the Baron was by this time 
giving way before the better administration of the King's justice. Not 
only also would a judgment of the local court be subject to revision by 
the authorities in Edinburgh, but it appears that the baronial jurisdiction, 
was in danger of being further curtailed if it were not efficiently exercised. 
Thus it is said in February, 1584, becaus that for non pursewing of the 
bluidschedding in the barony in dew tyme, the privilege thairof may be 
taken fra the Laird, in default of persewt for lack of dew advertiz thairof: 
Thairfor it is statut and ordainit that quhat tyme it sail happin ony bluid 
to be drawn be ony of the baronie, or anie uther within the baronie, that 
within ten hours at the fardest eftir the committing thairof the ressaver of 
ye hurt sail, be himself or sum uther in his name, mak dew advertisement 
to the Laird and his tutor or thair officer of the baronie, that the samyn 
may be persewit in dew tyme, and quha failzeis sail pay ten pundis to the 
laird and his tutor. 

1584, February 10— Item that the act of parliament be observit in the barony anent 
ye difference in ye pryces betwix beir and malt ; and the malt being bought for iiij merkis 
ye boll that the aill be sauld for 6d ye peynt fra this day furth, and ilk ane that failzeis in 
ony of the premiss to pay for ilk fait xl lib. 

1585, May 4 — It is statut be ane act of this court and expresslie commandit that na 
maner of persoun tak upoun hand to win fewell or pastur gudis on the west muir of 
Calder within ye malesoun dyke fra the Blakmyre up to the merche of the Breidschall, 
pertaining to the Laird of Calder. 

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Item that na man be found in the wode under paine of xl. d. 

Item that all the tenentis obey the tutor in carriages usit and wont as they are chargit, 
ilk persoun under the pane of i merk, and ilk horsman ij mks. 

1585, December 28 — Item quhaevir beis found gatherand stikkis or fallen wode in the 
wode sail pay xld. 

Item that nane meddell with the breid medow bot the Laird and his tutor. 

1590, May ist — The qlk day David Aikman is constitut forester of ye wode of 
Calder during ye will of ye Laird and his curators, and Mr Peter Kinloch cautioun for 
him yt he sail do his dewitie, and ilk ane to pay xld. that beis fund gangand in Calderwod 
without leif, ioiies quoties. 

1590, August 25 — The baillie ordainis aill to be sauld for viijd ye pint gud and 

1590, November 24 — Item that ane libertie be grantit to all cottaris, tenents or 
utheris addebtit in service to yr masters, of shering and siclyke in ye harwest tyme, 
to work to thameselfis on setterday without permission of ye maisteris. 

And that all idiil men and women tak thaimeselfis to service at ye next witsonday 
under ye pane of banishing tham ye baronie, for quhilk the bailie sail answer to ye Laird 
and his curators upon his office. 

1596, July 19 — The qlk day in presence of the Laird, Jamis tennand of Linhous, 
Mr Jon Spottiswod persoun of Calder, Mr James Spottiswod of Falhous his broder and 
Jon Inglis of Harwod — William Somervell in Blakcastell off his awin consent and with 
consent of Johne Somervell his sone then present and being delatit as suspect of [a 
crime], became bundin and obleist to ye laird that the said Johne his son sail with all 
diligence procede out of all ye bounds of ye baronie of Calder and Regalitie of Torphechin, 
and remane outwith the same all ye dayis off his liffe. 

James Stevenson of Hirdmanschellis was bailie of Calder in 
1583 and 1585, and was succeeded in the office by his son Johne 
Stevenson of the same, who was still acting in 1600. James Tennent 
of Linhouse was also appointed bailie in conj'unction with the last 
named on 4tk May 1585. Mr Johne Broun, baron-bailie of Calder, was 
directed by the Privy Council to deliver James Bailyie and George Twedy 
in the place of Calder for the present to the Lieutenant of the King's 
Guard isth June 1604. John Sandilands, baron-bailie of Calder, is a 
witness in 1625 to a precept by Lord Torphichen in favour of Mr Patrick 
Kinloch of Alderston. James Sandilands, bailie of the barony of Calder, 
witnesses a similar deed by his patron in 1628, and was still mentioned in 
1644 and 1646. Hugh Sandilands, bailie of Calder, and Marion Miller 
his wife, had seisin of certain parcels of ground in and about Calder, 14th 


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February 1694, and Hugh was still bailie in 1703. He left a son Thomas, 
and a daughter Margaret, mention being also made of Walter and Thomas 
Sandilands, brothers german to Hugh Sandilands, Bailie of Calder in 1703. 
Walter Sandilands held the office in 1704, when he married on 7th March 
Barbara Inglis, daughter of Master Inglis in Bathgate. In 1715, Thomas 
Sandilands, writer in Mid-Calder, was the magistrate ; he married, in 
February 1716, Bethea, youngest daughter of the deceased Walter John- 
stone, writer and sometime session-clerk of Mid-Calder. Between 1727 
and 1742 the office was filled by John Tweddel, who, with his wife Fran- 
cisca Bardie, had several children, viz. Robert, Andrew bom 1727, James 
bom 1733, Mary bom 1729, Francisca born 1732, and Margaret born 
1734. Bailie Tweddel died in the month of August 1747, and his wife was 
buried loth November 1746. Robert Tweddel, brewer in Mid-Calder, son 
and heir of the deceast John Tweddel, merchant and late bailie, had 
seisin of a house and yard in the village 24th August 1763. 

The ecclesiastical authorities in ancient times also exercised an 
extensive jurisdiction over the conduct and morals of the population. Not 
to dwell upon breaches of the Sabbath, which were numerous, the punish- 
ment of minor offences against the peace, the education of the young, the 
r^ulation of the liquor traffic, and the relief of the poor are matters which 
were superintended by the Kirk-Session. The same authority was active 
for the protection of the parish in 1645, when the plague was raging in 
Edinburgh and elsewhere. 

1645,/^/^ 19-— It is ordanit from this day furthe y' the collectioun be gatherit at the 
Kirk duire, and in regaird the visitatioun is so frequent, y' no strangeouris be sufferit to 
cum within the Kirk duire without Testimonials, and y' no women be suffered to have 
y» plaids abowt y' heidis in the Kirk heireftir. 

We are left in no doubt as to what this " visitatioun " was by 
numerous other entries at the same time restraining all communication 
with Edinburgh, " in regaird the pestilence is so frequent yrin," and forbid- 
ding any of the parishioners to entertain strangers in their houses. For 
offending against the latter admonition, Andrew Oswald of Lethame, 
John Muirheid of Lynhous, James Tenent of Overwilliamstoun, and 
Alexander Lockhart of Braidschaw were rebuked by the Session. Robert 
Gairdner in Braidschaw was seen drunk at Alderstoun in July 1645, 
having been in company suspected of the pestilence, and Lockhart of 

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Braidshaw was in consequence enjoined to confine him in his own house 
during the Session's pleasure. Allane Schaw and James Gairdner for 
going out of the paroche to a suspect place were ordained to be laid in the 
stokis and iffe they refuise to be banisched ye Paroche. In the month 
following, all within the parish were discharged to resett William Davie at 
the West Port of Edinburgh, nor to sell him geir, nor tak any of his moneys, 
als the plague is verie frequent thair. The same prudential consideration 
seems to have prompted the intimation in April 1645 that no servants 
within the parish should remove from their present situations until 
Martinmas, but should work on their former wages ; and in the same month 
a contribution was collected in the church in aid of puir people quha hes 
had and is wnder suspitioun of the pestilence and not abiil to do for 

Although properly enforced with greater severity at this period, the 
system of allowing no strangers to reside in the parish without testimonials 
from their late ministers was always observed, as a matter of church dis- 
cipline, with greater or lesser precision. Frequent searches were made for 
such strangers, and two of the elders went through the village every 
Sunday, seeking for drinkeris and vther abussis, it being intimated that 
any who should shut their doors to ye elderis visiting housis in the tyme of 
divine service sail be looked on as guiltie. In May 1656 James Nicle 
confessed that he did writ a testimoniall to Jonat Mordock, but that one 
James Lamond, a hylandere, compelled him to doe it by holding a whinger 
to him, and suering he sould stobe him if he did it not. The highlanders, 
we may say in passing, are occasionally alluded to in our records at this 
period, but always as a wild and lawless set of men, if not a distinct order 
of beings! Thus in January 1645 Donald Mackilmurrie, ane heilland- 
man, was admonished to behave himself christianlie during his abode in 
the paroche, wherein if he transgress he shall be driven furth. 

In a subsequent chapter, we shall have occasion to illustrate in greater 
detail the exercise of ecclesiastical discipline in the parish. We shall here 
merely remark that the Church's censures were occasionally inflicted in 
olden times for very trivial offences, such as dancing at a wedding, or 
coming in late to church, " eftir the hindermost bell had choppin out" ; and 
that the publicity given to more serious faults was by no means calculated 
to elevate the moral atmosphere of the district, nor to restore the erring to 

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the paths of rectitude and self-respect — in short that the whole system of 
public admonition reflects great discredit upon the age which practised it 
Yet old customs die hard in Scotland, and it is still within the memory of 
living persons when the " stool of repentance " was used in Calder Church. 
What has become of this relic of a time which has happily gone by is not now 
known ; but the sack-cloth gown in which the " penitent " sinners of West 
Calder made their appearance in the church there, is preserved in the 
Antiquarian Society's Museum in Edinburgh. 

The punishments inflicted by the Church include fine and imprisonment, 
public repentance and rebuke, and laying the offender in the stocks ; after 
which expiation the culprit was, for graver offences, referred to the baron- 
bailie to be proceeded against according to law. It appears also that the 
civil magistrate occasionally evoked the aid of the Church to the punish- 
ment of evil-doers whose offences were in any sense of an ecclesiastical 

170$^ July 1st — This day Bailie Sandilands complained to the Session of Barbara 
Aikin yt she went down on her bare knees at ye place where the stocks lyes and cursed 
Torphichen, and wished his familie extinct, and wished all ye woes and curses she could 
minde might come on the familie, saying the curse of ye everlasting God come on him 
and his Bailiff, etc., etc. The accused was convicted and punished. 

The following notices may serve to show the nature of some of the 
offences and the punishments meted out therefor by the Kirk-Session. 

1604, /une 8 — It was statut and ordanit be ye haill Seassioun that all personis als 
Weill men as women quha presentis thame selffis to ye publict place of repentance sail 
in tym coming stand upon ye seitt upright, and that ye women discover thair facis that 
thay may be knawin, ilk fault under ye pane of xiijsh iiijd. 

161 1, September \st—\X. was statute be ye Seassioun of ye kirk with advyse of my 
lord and his baillie that Marion Mathie sould be banishit ye barony. 

i6i2f January 5 — James Cowy in Ovrston accusit for taking on off womens appearell 
in tym of yule against the law of ye country, quha acknowledged the samyn, humbly 
craving pardon off" God and his Kirk, and promitit not to offend in ye lyk any time, quha 
being ordered to pas to ye publik place off repentance, and to pay to ye Session ye 
price xsh., which he did. 

1628, August 3— It is statute be ye Seassioun of ye Kirk that herefter thir be no 
brydells upon ye Sabboth day. 

1630, May 9 — It is inactit that quhosoevir beis fundin drunk upon ye Sabboth day 
or making of tulzies, and especially upon that Sabboth day that ye holy Communioun is 
celebrat, sail mak publict repentance and pay five pund to ye poore. 

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1643, September 17 — Williame Gilbert and Beatrix Browne, accused of thair hynous 
and scandalous lyf and convirsatioun, were sentenced, the said William to stand thrie 
day is in sackcloth and to pay ten pundis, and the said Beatrix to stand in the joggis 
ye next Sabbath betuixt ye second bell and the third bell, and yrefter to stand in 
sackcloth till ye preaching be endit. 

1644, February 22 — The Session ordains James Cranstoun to stand in the quhyt 
scheitis the nixt Sabbath day at the Kirk dore, and eftir sermon to cum publicitlie befeir 
the pulpit for his approvin [proved] drunkenness and staying from his awin hous. 

17^^ January 15 — Charles Wallace and Robert Tweedale one night last week broke 
into ye church and rang the bell at one o'clock in the morning in their drunkenness — 

We learn also that the same court dealt with one at least of those 
interesting disputes known as " breach of promise cases ; " and it also 
acquitted a parishioner accused of homicide. 

i6^6y July 24 — The quhilk day Johne Massone and Agnes Archibald actit thame- 
selves in presence of ye Session to abyd be ye arbitrament of George Elphingstoune of 
Selmes and George Dowglas of Over-schiells anent all mateirs standing betwixt thame 
concerning promeis of mariag, and quhat contentment ye said Johne Massone sail 
gif ye s** Agnes thairfor. And thaireftir ye said Agnes to be halden to exonor and 
discharge ye said Johne of all bygane questionis betwixt thame. 

1641, August 5 — Anent ye scandell lying upone Jon Browne in Knichtisrig causeing 
the death of John Potter, ther was none comperit to insist in persut, and this day the 
said Johne Browne being earnest with the Seassioun to have ye mater cleirit concerning 
his pairt yroff, he vowit and cleirit to the Sessioun be thrie witnesses viz., Jon Ramsay 
at ye black-craig miln, David and John Ramsayis his sones, that ye said Johne Browne 
came that night that the said Jon Potter died to the black-craig myln befoir day licht 
past and stayit with his awin wyf grinding cornes till midnycht, and then went home 
with his wyfT. 

We see, therefore, that the Kirk-Session claimed, and indeed exercised, 
a very wide authority and jurisdiction, although an examination of those 
rare instances in which the culprit had the hardihood to defy the Church 
leads one to question whether it possessed any real power to enforce 
its decrees, other than what depended upon a superstitious dread of 
incurring the Church's censure, and being decerned " fugitive from church 

1608, June 12 — George Wryt was accused of misconduct, which he denied, and 
" most disobediently defying the acts of ye kirk and discipline yroff, wald not obey thair 
inactments till he was compellit yrto, and being imprisoned in ye revestry till he had 
fund caution for his satisfaction, break ward and passed his way." Being apprehended 
in Edinburgh the next day, he was " incarcerat in ye tolbuith of Edr. till he fand caution 

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for his underlying of ye censures off ye Kirk." Appearing on the 19th June before the 
Session, he was enjoynit to tak ye sackcloth upon him and stand at ye West Kirk dure 
outwith ye samin, fra ye first bell ringing bareheidit till ye minister went into ye pulpett 
and than to be conveyed betwix twa elders to ye publict place of repentance, and thair 
to stand till sermon and prayers war endit, and to continue this weekly until the sessioun 
saw evident signes of his repentance. 

The record does not show that he ever fulfilled the ordinance, but he 
appears to have compounded the matter by paying 40 merks for the use 
of the poon 

Mention has been made of the public stocks — an implement which 
formerly stood between Calder House and the church, where in the 17th 
century fairs or markets were held, and merchandise exposed for sale. 
The position of this rendezvous was marked by the remains of a plane 
tree of abnormal size, and clearly also of great age. The tree is men- 
tioned as already remarkable in the records of the Baron-Court in 1587 
and 1590. 

'5^7, Jufy 3- — The tutor and baillie ordanis all the swyne in Caldertoun to be 
removit furth of ye toun betuix and sonday nixt, and failzeing yrof ordanis James 
Mar to tak thame to ye trie of Calder and sell thame ; ye ane half to ye puiris box and 
ye uther half to himself. 

1 590, November 24. — It is statut and ordanit be ye baillie aboue writ tin with consent 
of ye Laird, his curators and tenents of his baronie yt for guid order to be keepit on 
Sonday in tyme of sermon, that na chapman in ye meintyme present his pack at ye 
plaine trie for selling of ony merchandise. And sic lyk the baillie with awise foirsaid or- 
danis that na cordonaris, creillmen or cadgeris present thair geir quhidder closit or 
coverit befoir ye sermon. 

The Rev. Dr Wilson, in his statistical account of the parish in 1793, 
gives its measurements as 18 feet around the trunk, the branches extend- 
ing at least 30 feet on either side. It was broken oflf by a severe storm 
in the year 1829, the stump, about 12 feet high, remaining until about 
i860, when it was finally demolished, but a sapling from it marks as 
nearly as possible its original position. Attached to this tree was the 
pillory or "joggs" — a device serving the same end as the stocks, only 
that in this case the culprit stood erect with two pieces of bent iron 
padlocked around the neck, by way of punishment for certain small 
offences. For example : — 

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161 5, October 8 — Ordanis with consent off my lord and his bailly Cristian Sims for 
scolding and uther blasphemies to be putt in ye brankis and banished the barony. 

1 62 1, October 28 — This day William Byschop in Calder for ane great injury done be 
him to ye Persone [parson] was put in ye Joggis, and remanit thar till ye preiching was 

16^ June 2 — Ordanis the bailie to lay James Ipglis, creilman, in the stox for his 
malicious speiches and disobedience to the Sessioun. 

We may remark that these institutions are very ancient, dating from 
the time of David II. ; and it is interesting at the present time to recall 
the fact that they were first used for " unruly artificers " (the unemployed), 
for whose accommodation stocks were ordered to be erected all over the 
country before Pentecost, 1350. The last time, we believe, that this form 
of punishment was inflicted was about fifteen years ago at Newbury in 
Berkshire ; but the magistrates who ordered it did not receive that meed 
of popular applause to which their antiquarian tastes justly entitled them ! 

In reading through this category of delinquencies, one is struck by 
the ethical changes which time has brought about in moral principles, 
many of the acts which were punished as highly criminal two hundred and 
fifty years ago being now regarded as no crimes at all. Of such the most 
fascinating to the general mind, as they were the most remarkable in them- 
selves, is all that series of offences which presupposes a tampering with the 
unseen world, and is variously denominated charming, sorcery, and witch- 
craft. It has been said that the *' Calder Witches *' were at one time as 
proverbial in this country as the Lancashire witches in England ; and the 
Cunnigar, or Witches' Knowe, as it has been called — a small eminence on 
the north side of the village — is pointed out as the spot where some of 
these unhappy creatures were burned or otherwise put to death. Human 
bones have at various times been discovered there, but bearing upon them 
no evidences of having ever been touched by fire. That human beings 
were actually executed in our parish upon these absurd charges is amply 
shown by authentic record. In February 1644, Agnes Bischope in Calder, 
after due trial, was " sufficientlie cleirit to be ane commone charmer and 
ane hynous and notorious witch,'* and was in consequence condemned to 
be executed according to law. She appears to have long had the reputa- 
tion of being uncanny, for as early as 161 8 a "variance" is reported 
between the wife of David Jack in Dedrig and Agnes Bishop, who had 

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called each other theiffis, and witchis, and sick uther vyle names, to ye 
great dishonour of God, and sklander of His Kirk. In the same year 
(1644) David Aikman, in Nether Williamstoun, defrayed the charges 
which the Kirk-Session had been put to regarding his wife, Jonet Bruce, 
who was lately executed for witchcraft. In the latter case we get in- 
cidentally a glimpse of the feudal power of the baron, a debt of fourscore 
merks due to the deceased having been assigned to the Session by her 
husband, " and be Mr Wm. Sandilandis tutor of Torphichen, as having 
ryt yrto be virtue of the death of wmquhill Jonet Bruce, quha deit ane 
confessing and suffering witch, which at the directioun of the sd Mr Wm. 
Sandilandis was ordainit to be gewin for the sd Jonet hir intertainment 
during hir imprissonment, and what was remaining to be bestowit for the 
hellp of the intertainment of the remanent of the witchis, quha had not to 
bestow on thairselvis." It is a little disappointing to our curiosity that 
the evidence upon which these convictions were obtained is seldom given ; 
where it is preserved it usually relates to occurrences many years ante- 
cedent to the trial, and .is of a kind which obviously would obtain no 
credit unless from minds predisposed by superstition to receive it. 
Thus, in 1590, Eupham M'Calyean of Cliftounhall, a lady of rank, was 
burned alive at the Castle hill of Edinburgh, a part of the evidence against 
her being that eighteen years previously or thereby she had consulted with 
Jonet Cunningham, an auld indytit witch of the fynest stamp, for to haif 
poysonit Joseph Douglas of Punfrastoune. 

1644, Nov, 17 — The qlk day James Sandilandis bailze declairit that one of the 
witchis alreddie in the tyme of her imprisonment declairit to him that Margret Thomsone 
had bein w* them att severall of y' meittingis. James Wallace, elder, declairitt that Agnis 
Vassie, Agnes Bischop and Marion Gibsoune all thrie confessing and suffering witches 
declairit to him thatt the s** Margret Thomsone had bein with them at severall of y' 

Margret Williamsoun in Va declairit thatt about auchtein zeiris since or yrby she 
having ane kow seik the s** Margret Thomsone cam to hir and s** the kow was forspokkin 
and if she wald bid hir for Godis seik chairme the kow she wald do it. Qlk the s** Margret 
Williamsoun did, and the s Margret Thomsone having chairmit the kow immediatlie 
yrefter Margret Williamsoun fell seik. 

John Forrest declairit about ane zeir syne or yrby he being diseasit the s** Margret 
Thomsone coming in to him to his dwelling house said to him she hard tell q' allied him 
for she had a sonne y* had the same disease and y' ane woman in the toun of Edr had 
gewin hir ane drink to giwe him, qlk she did thrie severall morningis and then cuttit his 

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belt in nyne peices and eardit it in thrie severall places betwixt twa nobile menis landis, 
and at the inlaying of everie ane of them said God let the boy never tak that disease 
untill I tak thee wp again. And bad me go to the woman and gett the lyk drink and do 
the lyk and it wald heal me. 

No further notice of this case appears in our parish records, but in the 
Register of the Privy Council, in December 1644, we observe 

Complaint by Margaret Thomson, wife of Alexander Gray in Calder, against the Tutor 
and minister of that parish for "waking her the space of twentie dayis naked and having 
nothing on her but a sack cloth " under a charge of witchcraft. Also that she had been 
" laid in the stocks and kept separate from all company and worldly confort, nor could 
she see any end of her misery by lawfull trial." The lords having the tutor and minister 
before them and no regular charge being forthcoming, ordained her to be liberated. 

In the same year the eiders are enjoyned to mak tryell and search 
for ane woman callit Marioun Ramsay quha is fled out of Prissoun in 
Leith, and is suspect of witchcraft, and if scho be in this paroche to bring 
her to Calder ; and in the month of April following twenty pounds Scots 
are paid to Samuel Johnstoune for meitt and drink furnished be him to 
certain witchis the tyme of thair imprisonment, conforme to his compt. 

But the most remarkable case of this nature occurred in Mid-Calder 
so recently as the year 1720. At this period public attention was attracted 
in no small degree by a report of devilish doings jn the parish. The Hon. 
Patrick Sandilands, third son of Lord Torphichen, then a boy of twelve 
years, was said to be bewitched. He was the subject of trances, hallu- 
cinations, and other phenomena which are narrated, and doubtless improved 
upon, in a contemporary tract entitled Satan's Invisible World discovered ; 
and great was the stir which these events occasioned. People walked out 
from Edinburgh to investigate the affair ; the family appealed through 
the parish minister to the Presbytery of Linlithgow, and several old 
women in Calder village were promptly pounced upon as witches and put 
in prison. But the time had fortunately passed when people could be put 
to death in Scotland for witchcraft, and it appears that nothing worse than 
a parish fast was launched at the devil on this occasion ; as the youth also 
recovered in time, the alleged sorcerers were allowed to depart after being 
publicly rebuked and lectured in the church. It brings this uncanny- 
looking business strangely near to ourselves when we consider that the 
late Lord Torphichen who died in 1862, was only nephew of the witched 
boy of Calder ! E 

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The Parish Church, founded prior to 1160, and rebuilt in the i6th 
century, occupies a position peculiarly picturesque and beautiful on the 
south side of the village and adjacent to the grounds of Calder House. 
As its history forms the subject of a subsequent chapter, we do not further 
advert to it in this place. There is one dissenting establishment in the 
parish, belonging to the United Presbyterian persuasion, which was 
erected in 1854, and occupies the site of a previous structure dating from 
1765. The curfew was until recently always rung at the parish church at 
eight every week-night, and also at six in the morning. 

Next to the church the oldest institution in the parish is the Grammar 
School, which has existed in the village for probably three centuries at 
least. The old schoolhouse, situated at the foot of the Calder House 
policies, and in close proximity to the church, being out of repair, and its 
situation being considered unhealthy, it was demolished in 1782, and the 
new Grammar School and schoolmaster's house erected at that time in 
their present position, upon ground excambed by Lord Torphichen, who 
also gave sufficient stone for the buildings out of his quarries, mail-free. 
The school was at this time provided to accommodate forty scholars, but it 
has since been enlarged. The exact position of the old school is not 
indicated, but it appears. that its site is now occupied by the transepts of 
the church itself. Mr John Wardrop, schoolmaster in 1782, refers to it as 
being beside one of Lord Torphichen's gates, and says its position is 
" very ineligible by the low situation, and being almost covered with very 
old and extensively spread trees, part of his Lordship's policy." And a 
few months later it is mentioned that the " removal of the old schoolroom 
has damaged the west gable of the church and the roof near it," which had 
to be repaired in consequence. It is much to be regretted that no record 
of this institution has until recent years been preserved, but we meet with 
incidental references to the school in the ecclesiastical and other registers 
at an early period. 

i6iiyjune 7^William Hamilton^ enterit schoolmaster to ye bamis and promittit 
to teich them to sing, reid and wryt, and the fundalion off ther gramar, and he to have 
XX lib of ye parochin with xiij sh. more of ilk baime. And for ye xx lib ye parochin to 
be taxit. 

161 2, November 2, Olyver Patersone — The Seassion ordanis J hone Douglas, 
collector off ye penalties to giff to Olyver Patersone, schoolmaster, ij merks to buy cloth- 
ing to himselff, as also to giff him ten merks farder. 

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161^ January 16 — Williame Allane^ present schoolmaster was ordanit to adverteis 
ye Seassioun fourty dayis befor Witsondy nixt quhidder he wald continue any longer to 
teich ye bairns or not, that they might provyd sum uther in case off his departur. 

1 6 16, September u/— Master Robert Gilmor, minister, having bene citit befor ye 
shieriff of Edr. be William Allane, last schoolmaster in Calder, for not paying to him 
sextene punds allegit to be awin to him in payment of his last zeris fyftie punds off fiall 
[fees] promittit to him be ye seassioun, debursit to him the said xvi lib. 

1644, November i/^— James Liddill. The sessioun this day appointed James Liddill 
to be schoolmaster and desyrit the minister to aggree with him in conditiouns. 

1644, December ist — Anent ye schoUe ordain is the quarter payment to be gewin to ye 
maister to be ix sh 4d, and quhat moire att yr awin optioun. 

1645, Jt*ne 30 — This day debursit to Jamis Liddill, schoolmaster, L8. 4. 8 quhilk 
compleitis him all bygainis quhilk was promittit him for teitching of the schoole. 

1647, December y}—John Hutchisone, Ordainis Jamis Flint to geive John Hutchisone 
of byganis for teaching the schoole 22 merks. 

1648, May 24 — Ordainis the Bailze and Jas Flint to compt with Jone Hutchisoun, 

1654-1663 — Mr Patrick Weir^ schoolmaister at Calder Kirk. 

1665, April 23— The said day ordains to give the poor scholars books and to 
pay their quarter payments to ye schoolmaster. 

1665, June 25 — Mr George Hutchisone being this day fund qualified to teach the 
school and to precent in the congregation was receaved to be schoolmaster during his 
lyfe time. 

i665,y«/K 9 — The quhilk day Georg Hutchesone was appointed to have the con- 
signation money. 

1690 — Mr Robert Henry schoolmaster prior to this date. 

1698, February 13 — Mr Moses Cherry^ schoolmaster is this day chosen session-clerk, 
and his oath de fideli taken. His wife was Elizabeth Hutcheson. 

1703 — Process by Mr Cherry, schoolmaster, against William Halliday in East 
Miln of Calder for slander. 

iji^^ December 26— ^r William Graham schoolmaster to the Grammar School of 
Midcalder, nominated and appointed by the Session to be their Clerk who gave his oath 
de fideli. 

In the year 1651 a legacy of 4000 merks was left to the school of 
Calder by Thomas Moodie of Dairy, the revenue of which was directed to 
be applied to the somewhat singular object of teaching church music. 
The benefactor has been traditionally represented as a person of obscure 
origin and humble occupation — a cadger or carrier of ^gs and poultry 
between Calder and Edinburgh, but by whatever means he may have 
acquired his wealth, he is designed in the records "Thomas Moodie of 

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Dairy," and his daughter Jonet married Sir Alexander Maxwell of 
Sauchtonhall. There is a Bond of Corroboration by the said Sir Alex- 
ander and by Jonet Moodie, his spouse, of date 26th November 1655, 
conceding an annualrent of ;£"i6o Scots out of the lands of Sauchtonhall 
in the Barony of Broughton, corresponding to the principal sum of 4000 
merks, mortified by the deceased Thomas Moodie of Dairy, father of the 
said Jonet, for the purpose of providing a schoolmaster " qualified to teach 
the four parts of the grammer and airt of musick, at leist he haveing ane 
Doctor able to teach the said musick airt " to the parishioners of Calder. 
Mr Patrick Weir, schoolmaister at Calder Kirk, was heritably infeft in 
this annualrent, which afterwards passed to his successor, Mr George 
Hutchisone who, on 23rd June 1666, renounced his claim on Sauchton- 
hall, and the money at the same time was mortified on the lands of 
Dedridge, in the parish and barony of Calder Comitis, for the yearly pay- 
ment of a like sum of ;£"i6o Scots. The hereditary patrons and managers 
of this foundation were the Lord Torphichen, Maxwell of Sauchtonhall, 
and one or two of the ministers of Edinburgh for the time being ; and 
the sum chargeable in perpetuity upon the lands of Dedridge amounts in 
sterling money to £\\y 2s. 2jd. annually. For many years this office was 
always held by the village schoolmaster, who, in addition to his regular 
appointment, required to be duly presented to this situation by the patrons 
of the Moodie Mortification ; but it seems that a doctor or teacher of 
music was at one time specially attached to the school. 

169s, July 21 — Paid to Mr Patrick Middleton, doctor of ye schoU for his extra- 
ordinary pains in precenting at the tym of ye comunion, 2 lib. 18 sh. 

Upon the assumption by government, in our own time, of the control 
of educational establishments, this annual payment was devoted to defray- 
ing the school fees of certain deserving poor ; and when free elementary 
education was granted, it was converted into two bursaries for general 
proficiency, to be awarded annually in Calder School. The first holders 
of these scholarships in the year 1893 were Thomas Jack and Frances 
Laura Stevens. 

Calder Fair, still held in the village in the months of March and 
October, dates from the days of Charles II., but it appears that markets 
were occasionally held at Calder at an earlier period. Previous to 1620 
these were sometimes held after church hours on Sundays — a relic of the 

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usage of Catholic times, — for we observe several acts of the Session that 
merchandise was not to be exposed for sale, and particularly that no 
cordiner should sell schoone, nor no parochynner sould buy the same until 
ye preiching be endit And in the year 1647 James Achisoune, an old 
man, being called to account for grinding corn on the Lord's day, said — 
** It was als guid a warld quhen the mercat held on the Sabbath day as it 
is now." 

The following Acts of Parliament were passed in the years 1669 ^^^ 
1685 relating to Calder Fairs : — 

Carolus 11. Rex. — The king's maiestie and Estates of Parliament takeing into their 
consideratioun that the toun and lands of Calder, perteining heretablie to Walter Lord 
Torphichen is a publict place of resort and lyes upon the Hie way betuixt Edenburgh 
and the west cuntrie, and that for the encouragement and advantage of the indwellers 
and others and for keeping of conunerce and trade amongst his Maiesties leidges in 
these bonds, it is convenient and necesser that ther should be ane weekly mercat and 
ane yeerlie fair at the said toun of Calder — ^Thairfor the King's Maiestie with advice &c. 
doe heirby give and grant to the said Walter, Lord Torphichen, bis airs and successors 
ane weekly mercat to be keept at the said Toun of Calder, vpon thursday weeklie with 
ane frie fair also to be keept therat vpon the first Tuisday of October yeerlie in all tyme 
comeing for buying and selling of horse, nolt, sheip, fish, flesh, meill, malt and all sort 
of grain, cloath, lining, and woollen, and all sort of merchant commodities ; with power 
to the said Lord, to collect, intromet and uptake the tolls, customes and dewties belong- 
ing thereto. And to enjoy all other liberties and freedomes als freely in all respects as 
any other in the lyk caces, in all tym comeing. 17 Dec. 1669. 

Jacobus VIL Rex. — Our Soveraigne lord, considering that the toun of Calder belong 
ing to Walter Lord Sandilands of Torphichen lies conveniently for faires to the ease 
of His Majesties lieges and the benefit of the place Gives and Grants three free faires 
in the year, the first to be holden upon the first Tuesday of March, the second upon the 
third Weddensday of July at West Calder, and the third upon the last Tuesday of October 
also at West Calder, each faire to continue for the space of three days, with all liberties, 
tolls and customs to the foresaid Lord Torphichen, used and wont. 16 June 1685. 

We have met with no one who can tell us anything about the village 
cross of Mid-Calder, or where it formerly stood. So late as 17th December 
1782, however, we see the following note : — 

The Heritors having met, at the desire of Mr Sheriff Cockburn, to take into their 
consideration the present situation of the country and state of markets, did inter alia 
recommend to the tenants in this parish to meet by themselves and make up notes of 
the quantities of the different kinds of grain they need for seed, and to consult with the 

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proprietors upon the most proper mode of supply, before the end of January next 
Intimation of which to be fixed upon the church door and the Cross. 

The personnel of some of the professors of the medical art in the 
parish in early times may be not without interest. Francis Easton, 
chyrurgeon in Calder, and Kathrine Flynt his spouse had seisin of a 
house and barnyard in Calder loth April 1694. He is still mentioned 
in 1 701, when he declared that slanderous expressions concerning the 
elders of Mid-Calder had been used by Mr John Anderson, minister of 
West Calder, at a banquet given by the laird of Grange (Charlesfield) 
after the baptism of his child ; and Francis Easton, chyrurgeon, again 
appeared before the Session later in the same year in reference to a 
sermon which the minister had preached against promiscuous dancing, 
and which had been called " the dancing sermon." Mr Easton married, 
secondly, Elizabeth Burnet, widow of Wm. Stevenson, chamberlain of 
Kirkhill, whose will is recorded i6th March 173 1. John Sandilands, 
chirurgeon in Mid-Calder, brother of Thomas Sandilands, writer there, 
was deceased in 1732, leaving a daughter, Rachel. In 1737, mention 
is made of Agnes Litham, spouse to William Young, chirurgeon in 
Calder; and, in the following year, Mr William Mitchell, surgeon, who 
is stated to be a heritor in the parish, was admitted to the eldership. 
This was the son of Mr John Mitchell of Alderston. John Gray was 
retoured heir of Andrew Gray, surgeon in Mid-Calder, his father, 2nd 
November 1763. James Kirkland, surgeon in Mid-Calder, is mentioned 
in 177s ; and on 9th November 1777 John Lamont, surgeon, and Agnes 
Blackwood, his wife, had seisin of their dwelling house and garden at 
Combfoot of Calder. It was this Dr Lamont who enclosed and built a 
small erection over a mineral well which exists on the farm of Letham ; the 
water is strongly impregnated with sulphur, and was considered by him to 
be beneficial in the treatment of certain ailments. William Hamilton, 
surgeon in Mid-Calder, and Mary Brown, his wife, are mentioned in 1784- 

The curlers of Calder may certainly claim to be a very ancient body, 
and we must hope that they observed the fitness of things better than 
did some of their brethren of two hundred and fifty years ago. 

16^6^ January 8 — Ordainis summond Archibald Reull for curling on the Sabbath day. 

January 21 — This day Archibald Reull confessit that he tuik wp a staine and shott 

bot 2 shotts for a wager — George Loch, sworne, deponit he heard Archibald say to him 

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he shott bot a few shottis at the curling with Jamis Muire for A pynt of ailL The case 
is continued, Le, postponed. 

We observe that in the foregoing somewhat too miscellaneous collec- 
tion of facts no reference has been made to the division of the parish into 
Mid and West Calder. This took place by Act of Parliament 12th March 
1647 entitled, " An act for establishing a new Kirk at Calder to be called in 
tyme coming the West Kirk of Calder." John Hamilton of Grange, Sir 
William Ross of Murieston, the laird of Harwood, and some others objected 
to the division, and the laird of Grange appeared and gave evidence before a 
Committee of the House. His objections, however, were overruled, and 
the new parish was erected at this time, it being ordained that the heritors, 
tenants, and parishioners, shall contribute for building the church and 
manse and the churchyard dyke, and for keeping them in repair. 

The following figures have been published by authority at the various 
dates as representing the population of the parish of Mid-Calder ; it is of 
course impossible that they can be more than approximately correct, but 
they may be accurate enough for purposes of comparison. 

Anno 1755 — pop. 760. 
» 1793— pop. 125 1. 
„ 1827— pop. 1507. 

Anno 1 85 1— pop. 1474. 
„ 1 88 1 — pop. 1695. 
„ 1891— pop. 3126. 

The great increase within the last ten years is in a large measure due 
to the opening up of oil industries in this and neighbouring parishes. It 
is probable that more than half the population is at the present time 
engaged in mining operations, the village of Pumpherston alone, which ten 
years ago was little more than a green field, being now estimated to contain 
upwards of I4,ocxd souls, or nearly half the population of the whole parish. 
The climate appears to be conducive to longevity. James Greig, long 
tenant at Bankton Mains, and for the last fifty years grieve at Charlesfield, 
is the patriarch of the parish. He informs the author that he was 
ploughing his father's acres while the battle of Waterloo was being fought, 
and has completed his 94th year. 

The only industries exercised in the parish which may properly be 
termed manufactures are of very recent introduction. The treatment of 
oleiferous shale, which abounds in this district, was commenced at 
Pumpherston in 1883 by Mr William Fraser. Having proved the shales 
to be good in quality, and abundant in quantity, this gentleman formed a 

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company to deal with the mineral, and works were erected upon the most 
modern lines, which have been rapidly extended. The shale is worked by 
inclined mines, driven so as to follow the inclination of the bed of shale, 
which represents a fall of about i in 1.5. The number of men employed 
is 700, and the daily output about 600 tons ; there are 424 retorts of the 
Young and Beilby patent, each capable of dealing with about 30 cwt. of 
of shale per day. The yield of oil is low, but a high percentage of sulphate 
ammonia is obtained, and this material, which formerly was run away into 
the rivers, has become the most valuable item in the produce of the works, 
about 20 tons of sulphate being manufactured daily The works extend to 
over 23 acres and are compactly built. One hundred and sixty- four houses 
have also been erected by the Pumpherston Oil Company in the vicinity of 
the works for the accommodation of their work people. 

The West Mill (grain), situated at the north of Calder village, and 
worked by the Waters of Almond, has been long celebrated for the quality 
of its produce. It is so denominated in contradistinction from the East 
Mill, the ruins, or rather the site, of which may be seen a little lower down 
the Almond, near to East Calder. Both these mills are evidently of very 
ancient foundation, as James Mure and Isobell Anderson, his spouse, at 
the West Mylne of Calder, are included in a list of tenants in the barony 
in 1590. Robert Clyde at the West Mill of Calder had ane baime 
baptized 27th June 1605 ; and John Mureheid at ye Eist Miln of Calder, 
died before i8th April 1577. On 20th March 1555, John Sandelandis 
fear of Calder gives a feu charter to James Leirmonth, his servitor of his 
lands of Over Craig " with astriction to the myln of Calder usit and wont " ; 
and it is only comparatively recent that free multure has been allowed in 
the barony. By an act of the Baron Court of 7th October 1 598, it is statut 
and ordainit that all quernis for grinding of stufe within the baronie be de- 
molischit and brokin now and in all tyme cuming, and gif ony beis fund 
heireftir haveand tharof, he sail pay fourtie schillingis, toties quoties. 
The Black-craig Miln and Langhaugh Miln are names which occur 
in the records as Baron Mills of the barony of Calder. A com mill 
was erected at Camilty in the early part of the present century by 
the late Alexander Young of Harburn ; and this manufacture having 
been suspended, the premises have more recently been occupied by 
the Midlothian Gunpowder Company, which now carries on its perilous 

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art in this deserted district Adambrae Mill is the ancient " Miln of 
Alderstoun '* which in 1730 was said to have been lately erected by 
Mr John Mitchell of Alderstoun, and to which the tenants of the barony 
were " thirled " or bound to send their grain. It has since been engaged in 
the manufacture of paper, and has been used latterly as a dairy. New- 
calder paper mill, about a mile further down the Almond, employs ten 
hands in the production of brown and coarse wrapping-paper. 

There are several quarries in the parish yielding freestone for building, 
and whinstone for road metal, and it is understood that the lands of 
Murieston have produced a large revenue to the proprietors from the 
limestone quarries. Bell's quarry, which has been long disused, but has 
given its name to the neighbouring village, may be seen by the roadside 
on the lands of Brucefield. The discovery of an almost inexhaustible bed 
of freestone at the foot of the Cairn hills was made about the year 1830 
by Mr Michael Linning, who offered therefrom to the Royal Association 
of Edinburgh aS much stone as would complete the National Monument 
on Calton Hill. The quarry has never been at any time extensively worked. 
Mr Linning was a man of inventive mind. Among his many projects, 
which were to have united the welfare of mankind at large with the de- 
velopment of his own estate, was a scheme for the conversion of peat into 
portable fuel, adapted for manufacturing purposes by means of com- 
pression. The scene of these experiments is marked by a stone chimney, 
which still remains on the lands of Colzium, though partially shattered by 
the memorable thunderstorm of 12th August 1884, But however correct 
the system may have been in theory, it proved to be unsuccessful in 
practice, the situation of Mr Linning's experiments being too remote from 
coal to afford any prospect of remunerative working. 

The parish contains upwards of thirty miles of public roads. One of 
the old coach roads from Glasgow to Edinburgh passes through Mid- 
Calder village, where it is joined by the highway from Ayr to the metro- 
polis ; the turnpike road from Edinburgh to Lanark traverses the upland 
district of the parish at Cause wayend. It is supposed that the last-named 
road, passing as it does within about a mile of the camp at Castle Greg, 
was in some part of its length originally of Roman construction ; but for 
our own part we should consider this extremely improbable. Three toU- 


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Google — 


bars formerly existed in the parish. The houses of two are still standing, 
namely, Howden Turnpike, on the main road near Howden Bridge, and 
Raw Turnpike, at the angle of two roads near the manse. A third, called 
Howatston Turnpike, formerly stood beside Charlesfield Lodge on the 
road to Livingston. The two bridges on the Edinburgh road — one near 
the village, erected in 1794, and Howden Bridge, built in 1764 — are sub- 
stantial structures, and of proper width ; the other two bridges which span 
the Almond— one near Livingston, and the other at Bridgend— are narrow 
and inadequate to the traffic. "Calder Bridgend" is mentioned in the 
records as early as 1 563, and frequently during the seventeenth century, 
from which it is apparent that a bridge over the Almond has existed at 
this point previous to the construction of the present erection. A tall 
bridge crossing the Linhouse water at Camilty, the object of which is not 
evident, was built about 1830, chiefly through the influence of Mr Young 
of Harburn, to whom, with the late Lord Hermand, the district is much 
indebted for improvement in the roads. The design was to carry forward 
the cross road, which intersects the parish in a southerly direction, across 
the Caldstane Slap, and so into Peebleshire; but the project was defeated 
by the Earl of Morton, who objected to such a highway traversing his 
territory. The road therefore terminates at this bridge, which leads out 
only on to the moss. There are in the parish several other bridges of 
minor importance. Concerning that near Nether Williamston, we see in 
our parochial registers : — 

1646, March 7 — CoUectit this day no merks for building ye bridge at Williamstoun. 

1647, December 19 — The Session gives full power to the Tutor and Bailze toagrie 
with Samuel Aikman to build Williamston Bridge. 

A still earlier entry in the same record relates to Blackburn Bridge : — 
1633— Upon the nynt and sixteen dayis of Junij 1633, thair was collectit in the Kirk 
of Calder xxxv. lib ten sh. quhilk was delyvrit to Mr James Ross, minister at Leivingstoun 
as ane help to the bigging of thair brig at Blackburn over the Almond. 

The main line of the Caledonian Company*s railway from Edinburgh 
to Carstairs and the south traverses the parish on the Linhouse property ; 
the Cleland branch, or main line from Edinburgh to Glasgow, on the same 
company's system, was constructed in 1865, and passes a little to the 
northward. The only railway station in the parish is at Newpark. 

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Fig. 4.— View of Calder House from SW. 


Calder House & the Lords Torphichen. 

CALDER HOUSE, which during all the mutations and vicissitudes of 
five and a half centuries, has been the seat of the family of Sandi- 
lands, is situated upon an elevated lawn on the south bank of the Almond, 
in close proximity to the church and village. But in saying this, we have 
to keep in recollection the fact that the baronial residence is older than the 
village itself, which has grown up, as it were, beneath the shadow of its 
feudal castle ; hence it is that much of what goes to make up the history 
of the parish in early times was transacted in Calder House. Like so 
many mansions of its kind, the building we are describing has been added 
to and altered by many different hands to meet the conveniences of various 
ages, until all the special characteristics of ancient Scottish architecture 
which doubtless once belonged to the structure have passed away. It has 
also become a matter of much difficulty, owing to the treatment of the walls 
with rough casting, to* estimate from their style or appearance the approxi- 


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mate age of the various portions of the building. In this endeavour we 
derive some assistance from the annexed ground plan, which has been 
prepared for the present work by Thomas Ross, Esq., Architect, Edinburgh. 

jwifh-Hl^ F 


Fig. 5. — Ground Plan of Calder House. 

The oldest part of the house is clearly the east wing, in which the modem 
drawing-room, anciently the great hall, stands on three massive cylindri- 
cal vaults, and we incline to think that a small portion of the north limb 
pf the figure L may also be original work. The w^ll on the south is nearly 

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7 ft in thickness, and on the west over 8 feet thick ; and it is probable that 
these maybe as old as the 13th century, or even eariier. The modern 
dining-room at the eastern end of this main block (over the apartment 
marked Bedroom on the plan) appears to be a later extension. To the end 
of the north wing, as it originally stood, a considerable addition, bearing 
evident traces of what is known as 17th century work, has been made, and 
this structure is both wider and slightly higher in the roof than the main 
portion of the castle. The ground here falls away somewhat abruptly, 
and a basement flat devoted to kitchen offices has been constructed 
beneath. This wing, as we have said, exhibits features of 17th century 
character, but we have reason to believe that it was added by James, the 
seventh Lord Torphichen, whose •* reign " commenced only in 1696. The 
stables were also erected by him and bear his initials with those of Lady 
Jean Hume, his wife, and the date 1722. The rotunda in the angle, con- 
taining the entrance-hall, was built about 1780, and the low range of offices 
on the western side may be of about the same age. The present lord has 
rendered the mansion more ornate by introducing the two dormer windows 
on the west elevation, one of which is corbelled out from the main walls 
in a most picturesque manner (see Fig. 4), and the upper portion of the 
square wing in the angle (Fig. 8) was also his lordship's addition. In our 
ground plan, the hatching indicates erections which are clearly more 
recent than the year 1720, those portions of the structure which are 
certainly older than that being shown in black. 

The kitchen contains an old roof-tree ceiling, and in the floor of this 
apartment is a flat stone covering the castle well. This was outside the 
walls of the original tower, and may probably have been situated in a 
courtyard ; it has been long covered up, but the late Dr Sommers, who 
examined it about the year 1830, has recorded that it is 93 feet deep and 
constructed of finely polished stone. At that period it contained very 
little water. According to tradition, there existed an undei^round 
passage between the bottom of this well and the church or village ; the 
same has been said of many other castles, but it seems in this case highly 

Such historical references to Calder House as have come to our 
notice are necessarily to a large extent embodied in the genealogical 

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account of Lord Torphichen's family which follows. In 133S, it is 
said that a yearly cess or tax of XX shillings, due from the Castel of 
Caldore to the ward of the Castle of Edinburgh, at the term of the 
purification of the B. Virgin, was unpaid in the said year of 1335. 
About this period the castle and barony passed from the Thanes of 
Fife to the Douglases, and they were bestowed by William, Earl of 
Douglas, upon Sir James Sandilands in liberum maritagium with his 
sister Alienora, "to be held by him and his heirs in like manner as 
Earl William held the said barony of Duncan, Earl of Fife." This 
transaction was confirmed by David II. at Dundee, 15th May 135 1, and 
the feudal "service " then prescribed, and by which the castle and barony 
are still held under the crown, is the presentation to the Sovereign of a 
pair of gilt spurs at the feast of Pentecost in each year, if asked only. 
King Robert II. was at Calder House attended by his court in 1385, 
when by an original document still in the possession of the family, he remits 
to his well-beloved son James of Sandylandis, Knicht, the forty shillings 
sterling due to the King for the castle ward of the barony of Caldore, 
to be held to him and Jean his spouse, the king's dearest daughter, and 
their heirs, in perpetuity, for payment of a silver penny at the Castle of 
Caldore, if demanded, dated at Caldore 24th May, anno regni XV. — being 
the year 1385. A seal is attached to this document, which is, however, 

In 1396 a sum of thirty-three pounds and twenty pence sterling 
was allowed to the Earl of Fife, the same having been expended upon the 
Castle of Caldor by the King's command, and in his service ; and two 
years later a second entry occurs in the Exchequer Rolls — For divers 
costs incurred at the Castle of Caldor by the King's orders £\^ los. 

These expenses may have reference to the preparation of the mansion 
for George, Earl of Angus, who at that time married one of the royal 
princesses, and made his temporary residence at Calder House under 
agreement with Sir James Sandilands. By indenture made at Hirdman- 
stoun 27 Appiril the yheir of our Lorde 1397, between Margaret Stewart, 
Countess of Angus, with George Earl of Angus her son, and Jamys of the 
Sandilandis, lorde of Caldore, the last named undertakes to deliver his 
castle of Caldore freely to the said lady and her son, " his cosyn," at the 

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next feast of Whitsonday for the term of five years next following, they 
agreeing to re-deliver the same at the end of that time in as good order 
as they received it It is provided that the said earl and his mother shall 
have right of casting peats, and of pasturing horses in the wood in the 
summer time ; and if they shall like to have any lands to farm in the 
said lordship, they shall have them at a just rent — equal only to what 
any other persons would pay. And if it shall happen in the meantime 
the said George shall decease (als Gode forbeide), the said nobil ladi 
shall deliver up the castle to Sir James Sandilands or his heirs. This 
under the seals of the parties. 

King James VI. visited the parish in 1557, when he confirmed at 
Calder a charter of the lands of Auld Lindores, co. Fife, on the 30th June 
in that year. After the death of James Sandilands of Calder, and during 
the minority of his son, the second Lord Torphichen, Calder House was 
for some years the residence of Harry Stewart, younger of Craigiehall, 
who had married the widow of the late baron. On the 3rd April 1581 
there is an act of caution which narrates that the said Harry Stewart 
and Dame Jean Ross his spouse are entrusted with the keeping of the 
place of Calder, and engaging that they shall restore the same, when 
required, in as good condition as they received it, " under the pane of 
refounding to James Sandelandis of Calder and his airis of all dampnage 
and skaith that thay sail happin to sustene throw thair negligence." On 
1 6th November 1585 caution is again given for Harry Stewart, younger 
of Craigiehall, that he shall render the fortalice of Calder to Williame 
Killing, messenger, upon the 23rd of November instant. A precept of 
the lands of Over Alderston and others is dated at the Castle of Calder 
Comitis 1 2th August 1606. 

Historians of the Church all pause upon the visit of John Knox to 
Calder House in the early part of the year 1556, and the celebration of 
the Holy Sacrament by him in the Great Hall, already referred to. His 
portrait, distinctive amongst the many treasures of art and of antiquity 
which the mansion contains, has inscribed upon the back — " The Rev. Mr 
John Knox — the first Sacrament of the Supper given in Scotland after the 
Reformation was dispensed by him in this Hall." The features in the 
portrait are those with which we are all familiar— the long flowing beard 

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and the Geneva cap and gown — the greater number of the published 
portraits of this remarkable man being indeed engraved from this identical 
picture Some criticism has been bestowed upon the subject in recent 
years, chiefly by Carlyle, who upheld a portrait at Glasgow to be the only 
true and veritable delineation of the great Scottish reformer. His objec- 
tions, however, were conclusively answered by Mr James Drummond, late 
curator of the National Gallery, and the result of the controversy seems to 
be to establish the authenticity of the portrait at Calder House. Whilst 
upon this subject we might say that Knox is usually represented by his 
biographers to be descended from the Renfrewshire family of that name. 
Of this there is no proof, and all that is known is that his father, William 
Knox, was a native of, and a resident at Haddington ; and the reformer 
told the Earl of Bothwell that he had "borne a good mynde" to his family, 
" for, my lord, my grandfather, goodsher and father have served under 
your lordshipis predecessors, and some of thame have died under their 
standardis.'* It may also be not quite correct to say that the Sacrament 
given by him in Calder House was the first celebration in Scotland 
according to the ritual of the Reformed Church. Wishart dispensed the 
Holy Eucharist in the Castle of St Andrews to the friends and servants 
of the governor immediately before he was fixed to the stake at which he 
was burned, in 1546; and Knox himself also administered the same 
ordinance at St Andrews in 1547. The account given by him in his 
History of tfte Reformation seems to imply that he performed the same 
service in the west country before he did so at Calder. We may in any 
case say it was one of the earliest administrations of the Sacrament in 
Scotland, according to the order of the Reformed Church, and the subject 
has been invested with an especial and pathetic interest in modern times, 
from its having formed the theme of Sir David Wilkie's last great historical 
painting, which, indeed, the illustrious artist did not live to complete. The 
venerable face of the great reformer, and the reverent attitude of the armed 
warriors who are depicted as waiting upon his ministrations, give sufficient 
indication of the exalted conception which the painter had formed of this 
great event in the history of his native country. 

The picture of John Knox is appropriately placed in the apartment 
before mentioned as the modern drawing-room, and on the opposite side 

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of the fireplace hangs a portrait of the unfortunate, if not the innocent object 
of his animadversions — Queen Mary. This appears to be an early copy 
of the Earl of Morton s picture of Queen Mary ; it has inscribed upon it 
' lo. Medina pinxit, 1753.' In addition to these works of art the gallery of 
family portraits includes many which are of interest either historically 
from the personages represented, or from the reputation of the artists who 
have executed them. The older pictures embrace examples of George 
Jamesone of Aberdeen, Allan Ramsay, and other distinguished artists of 
bygone times, whilst of the more modem portraits several are from the 
easels of Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir John Watson Gordon, and Ary Scheffer. 
As the pictures have not been catalogued, the following chronological list 
of the more important works may be interesting. 

I.* James, Lord St. John, first Lord Torphichen, Preceptor of 
Torphichen Priory; died 1579. 

2.* John Sandilands of Calder, elder brother of the last- 
mentioned ; died about 1565. 

3.* Sir James Sandilands of Slamannan, Tutor of Calder, Gentle- 
man of the Household of James VI., etc. ; died about 1615. The knight 
is portrayed in armour. Painted by Jamesone, " the Scottish Vandyke." 

4. Walter, 6th Lord Torphichen, a supporter of the Revolution of 
1,688 ; died 1696. 

5. Anne, daughter of Alexander, 6th Lord Elphinstone, third wife of 
the 6th Lord as above ; married 1671. 

6. Alexander, Master of Elphinstone, brother of the last-men- 
tioned ; d. s. p 1669. 

7. Christian Primrose, fourth wife of the sixth Lord Torphichen. 

8. James, /th Lord Torphichen, Lieut-Col., 7th Dragoon Guards. 
Present at Sheriffmuir, etc. Died at Calder House, 1753. 

9. Lady Jean Hume, wife of the last-mentioned, and daughter of 
Patrick, ist Earl Marchmont; died 1751, (ut. 69. 

10. Afwtlier Portrait of the same lady. 

* These three portraits are less satisfactorily identified than the items which follow. Nos. I 
and 2 are labelled as representing the first Lord Torphichen and his brother, but which is which is 
not stated. No. 3 has simply the name '* Sir James Sandilands," but looking at the date of the 
artist's work (Jamesone was bom about 1587 and died in 1644) we think we are probably correct in 
thus attaching this portrait. 

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11. Sir Patrick Hume, ist Earl Marchmont, Lord Chancellor, father 
of Lady Torphichen. A distinguished figure at the Revolution. 

12. Another Portrait of the same nobleman when more advanced 
in years. 

13. Grizel, daughter of Sir Thomas Ker of Cavers, Countess 
Marchmont, the portrait forming a pair with No 1 1. 

14. Alexander, 2nd Earl Marchmont, brother of the Lady 
Torphichen, attired in cuirass; died 1740. 

15. Sir Andrew Hume, Lord Kimmergham, one of the Senators of 
the College of Justice, another brother of Lady Torphichen. 

16. Hon. James Sandilands, Master of Torphichen ; died unmarried 
1749. The officer is depicted in uniform with the loss of his left hand and 
other wounds received at the battle of Preston, 1745. 

17. Walter, 8th Lord Torphichen, advocate. Sheriff-depute for 
CO. Edinburgh ; died at Calder House, 1765. 

18. Elizabeth Sandilands, Lady Torphichen ; died at Calder 
House, 1779. 

19. Dr Alexander Sandilands, M.D., physician to the British 
hospital in Flanders, father of the above-mentioned Lady Torphichen; 
died at Calder House, 1759. 

20. Mrs Sandilands, wife of the last-mentioned. 

21. Major the Hon. Andrew Sandilands. Fought at Dettingen 
and Fontenoy in the 21st regiment; died at Contentibus, 1776. He is 
portrayed in uniform. Painted by Allan Ramsay. 

22. Capt. the Hon. Robert Sandilands, brother of the 8th Lord ; 
died at Contentibus, 1791. 

23. Grizel, daughter of Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closebum, wife 
of Capt. Sandilands last-mentioned; died 1776. 

24. James, 9TH Lord Torphichen, Lieut Colonel Coldstream 
Guards; died 181 5. Painted by Sir Henry Raebum. 

25. Anne, Lady Torphichen, daughter of Sir John Inglis of 
Cramond, Bart., wife of the last-mentioned. Painted by Sir Henry 

26. Hon. Alexander Sandilands, brother of the 9th Lord ; died 
unmarried, 1806. 

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27. Hon. Walter Sandilands, brother of the last 

28. Hon. Hugh Sandilands, brother of the last; died at Madras of 
wounds received in battle, 1782. 

29. James, ioth Lord Torphichen ; died 1862. Painted by Ary 

30. Margaret Douglas, Lady Torphichen, daughter of John 
Stirling of Kippendavie ; died 1836. Painted by Drummond. 

31. Robert, iith Lord Torphichen, Capt 3rd regt. Scots 
Guards; died 1869. Painted by Sir John Watson Gordon. 

32. Sandilands of Crabstone, Co. Aberdeen, being the first of the 
family who settled in the north. Dated 1633. 

33. A second Sandilands of Crabstone, with armorial shield in 
the corner. 

Besides these family portraits there are the pictures of Knox and Queen 
Mary already alluded to, and a beautiful portrait by Ramsay of Willielma 
Maxwell, Lady Glenorchy, the pious foundress of the church in Edinburgh 
which bears her name. This picture appears to have been painted about 

Fig. 6, — The Ancient Gateway. 

the time of her ladyship's marriage, which was the year 1761. Also 
several large canvasses depicting Calder House and Calder Church in 


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various aspects, of date about the commencement of the present century; 
a large view of Linlithgow Palace executed before the fire ; and portraits 
of David second Earl of Buchan, of James, Duke of Ormonde, depicted in 
armour, and of Mrs Mulys. 

In addition to the old and extensive library belonging to the 
mansion, a valuable collection of books and MSS., including a diary 
or commonplace-book in the holograph of John Knox, was bequeathed 
to his present lordship by his aunt, Mrs Ramsay, and now forms an 
attractive feature amongst the treasures of Calder House. 

The approach to the mansion in ancient times was by way of the iron 
gate which still stands at the head of the village on the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow road. Upon the frieze of the pillars of this gateway are carved 
the crown and thistle from the arms of the Knights of St John, and the 
stars and heart of Douglas ; the same emblems in beaten ironwork 
formerly surmounted the scroll above the gate. The date 1660 is carved 
on the inside of one of the pillars. In the garden 
is an ancient sundial of elaborate and ingenious 
design, possessing as many as forty-one gnomons 
on its many facettes. There is no date upon it, 
but it belongs to the same type as the dial at 
Dundas Castle, which is dated 1623, and to one 
at Pitreavie, 1644. In the opinion of Mr Ross, 
who has devoted much study to the subject, it 
was constructed about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. This dial being broken and cast 
aside at some unknown period, it was repaired and 
placed upon a new pillar and octagonal base by 
its present noble proprietor. 

Fig. 7.— Sundial at Calder 

To pass now to a review of the noble House 
of Sandilands in its various generations, there 
seems to be little doubt that the surname is 
taken from their earliest possession, the lands of Sandilands, in the upper 
ward of Clydesdale, which were held by them of the Douglases in the 
early half of the 14th century. We know them first, to use a favourite 
metaphor of the peerage-writers, not in the source but in the stream, not 

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in the welling spring but in the rushing torrent — that is to say their 
pedigree ascends not to the first of the race who by his prowess or mag- 

Fig. 8. — View of Calder House from NE. 

nanimity raised himself above the vulgar, but at the period when we 
first become acquainted with it, the House of Sandilands was already of 
great consideration and importance. 

I. — Sir James Sandilands, the first of whom we have notice, was 
a distinguished vassal of William, Earl of Douglas, in the early half 
of the 14th century. He obtained a grant of lands in the county of 
Peebles from David 11. in the year 1336; was possessed also of the 
barony of Wiston in Lanarkshire, and on i8th December 1348 had con- 
firmation of his lands of Sandilands and Reidmyre, lying within the 
lordship of Douglasdale, from William, Lord Douglas. He was one of 
the attendants chosen by Sir William Douglas to accompany him' to 
London in 1347 in the train of King David H. ; and was employed by 
that monarch on several important missions during his retirement in 
England. Thus on 2nd October 1347, Edward III. gives a safe conduct 
to James of Sandyland with two others to come to England, bringing 
necessaries to Sir William Douglas, then a prisoner in the Tower of 
London ; and in the month of April following there is a permit for James 
of Sandylandes and Andrew of Ormestoun being then in London to 
return to Scotland, and come back if need be with four companions on 

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horseback, to endure until ist September following. The object of their 
journey appears to have been to bring supplies for King David, who in 
the month of August petitions the English Chancellor for an extension 
of time, saying, as King Edward and his councillors gave orders that the 
petitioner should live at his own charges [qe ieo vive du meen], the late 
Chancellor, whom God assoil, granted a safe conduct to some of his 
people to bring him sustenance, which is nearly expired, and begging 
him accordingly to prolong the same for James of Sandilandes, John of 
Kyncardyn and Andrew of Ormestoun, his people, to come to him 
wherever he is in England until Pentecost next to come. Sandilands 
must have arrived in London very shortly after this, as he was, on 22nd 
October 1348, again dispatched to Scotland in company with Maurice 
Cowal, as bearer of the King's letters of truce and cessation from 
hostilities. On 28th June 1349, he had another safe conduct to travel 
from Scotland to London, to wait upon William of Douglas, still confined 
in the Tower. He married Eleanor, sister of William, first Earl of Douglas, 
and widow of Archibald Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and, as we have already 
seen, received the barony of Calder in free marriage with her. The 
original charter, which is preserved in Lord Torphichen's charter-chest, 
is undated, but must be between the years 1346 and 1349. Douglas 
appends his seal thereto, and the witnesses Include the venerable father 
in Christ, Thomas, by the mercy of God Abbot of the Holy Cross of 
Edynburgh, Lord David de Lyndesay, Lord of Crawford, Sir Richard 
Small, rector of the church of Ratho, and many others. The' subjects 
conveyed were the whole barony of Westir-caldor and the whole toun 
of Bengowre in vice comitatu de Edynburgh with all liberties and easments, 
patronage of churches, multures and mills, with service and homage of 
free tenants, etc., to be freely and quietly enjoyed by James of Sandylandis 
and Dame Elionor de Brys, but with provision that if they die without 
issue, the foresaid barony and lands are to revert to the lord of Douglas. 
This grant was confirmed by Duncan, Earl of Fife, by a charter to which 
his seal is appended, some time in the year 1350; and there are several 
ratifications of the transaction by King David II., the first of which is 
at Dundee isth May 1351. A second confirmation by the same monarch 
is dated at Breychyne 28th February 1353, seal wanting; and a third, 

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which has the seal appended, though imperfect, is dated at Edinburgh 
20th January 1357. Sir James Sandilands died in 1358, and his widow 
had a safe conduct for herself and four maids, with ten horses, to pass 
to the parts of England, on pilgrimage to the shrines of the Saints,* dated 
at Westminster 14th May 1358. 

II. — Sir James Sandilands, of Calder, the son and successor of the 
last-mentioned, had permission from Edward III., 5th June 1358, granted at 
the request of Joana, the King's sister, to come from Scotland into England 
for the purpose of pursuing his studies at Durham ; and in this grant he is 
designed James, son of James of Sandylands, clerk. His name is mentioned 
in various charters of Robert II. between 1373 and 1383, which are quoted 
in Douglas* Peerage, and more particularly detailed in the Register of 
the Great Seal. In the last-mentioned year, he obtained in marriage the 
hand of the Princess Jean, lawful daughter of Robert II. and widow of Sir 
John Lyon of Glamis, the King's secretary and afterwards chamberlain, 
who was assassinated in 1382. There is a charter from this monarch 4th 
November (no date given, but apparently 1383) to James Sandilands of 
Caldor, knight et Johanne, filii nostre karrissime whom he is to marry ; 
and again on the 30th November 1384 the baronies of Dalziel, Modirvale 
and Wiston, with the lands of Erthbisset, Slamannan and Ochtirbank were 
confirmed dilecto et fideli nostra Jacobo de Sandyland militi^ on his own 
resignation, to be held by the said James and Johana, our dearest 
daughter and their heirs. We find further that in the reign of Robert III. 
George Dalzell had a charter of the barony of Dalzell, on the resignation 
of Sir James Sandylandis, the King's good-brother. 

On 19th June 1389, there is a special protection granted by Richard II. of 
England for Sir James Sandilands, Knight, to come to his court with a 
retinue of forty men, armed or unarmed, and also special protection and 
warrandice for his lands of Caldor, les Sandylans and others, including the 
Kirk of Neweton and the parson's manor there. As Sir Malcolm 
Drummond had at the same time a special protection for his lands 
(Douglas lands, brought to him by his wife Isobel, Countess of Mar) with 
leave to come to the King of England, it is probable that the matter 

* Literally to the thresholds of the Saints. The pilgrimage was probably to Canterbury. 
In the case of a pious journey to Rome, ad Hmina aftostoUorum—io the thresholds of the Apostles 
— is the expression used. 

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concerned the Douglas succession. This was the year following the 
battle of Otterburn, where James, the second Earl of Douglas, was 
slain, which caused the extinction of the legitimate male line of the 
Douglases, the earldom going by virtue of special entail to Archi- 
bald, Lord of Galloway, natural son of the " good Sir James/* Between 
Eleanor Douglas and her first husband Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick, 
who was slain at Halidon Hill, 1333, there was no surviving issue ; so that 
upon the death of Isobel, Countess of Mar, only sister of James, the second 
Earl, who left no issue to either of her husbands, Sir James Sandilands of 
Calder became heir-at-law, and sole representative of the legitimate line of 
the House of Douglas. This may be, with convenience, illustrated in 
tabular form, thus : — 

Sir William Douglas. 

Sir Jambs Douglas, 

"the good Sir James," 

died 1303, s. p. leg. 

d. s. p. 

Archibald Douglas ^ 

illegitimate son, became yd 

Earl of Douglas. 

William, ist Earl of Douglas, 
m. Margaret, Countess of Mar. 

Archibald Douglas, 

K^ent of Scotland, fell at 

Halidon Hill, 1333. 



m. Sir James Sandilands. 

James, and Earl of 
Douglas, slain at 
Otterburn, 1388. 

Isobel, Countess of Mar, SANDILANDS OF CALDER, 
m. 1st Sir Malcolm Drummond, Heir-general of the 

2ndly Sir Alexander Stewart. House of Douglas. 

We here perceive the steps by which this august inheritance came to 
vest in the House of Calder, in virtue of which to the present Baron 
Torphichen belongs the high genealogical pretension of being heir of line 
of the heroic race of Douglas. At the period to which we are alluding, 
after the death of the second earl, dissensions arose regarding the 
succession to the unentailed estates and that portion of the Douglas 
inheritance destined to heirs-general, and the succeeding Sir James 
Sandilands, as having presumptive right thereto, obtained a deed from 
Robert III., in which he is designed the King's nephew, forbidding the 
alienation of any portion of the lands. It appears, however, that the 
superior power and influence of the Douglases rendered ineflfectual the 

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protection which the Sovereign desired to afford, and the same Sir James 
was prevailed upon a few years later, for some consideration which does 
not appear, to make a renunciation of his rights, as regarded the property, 
in favour of George, Earl of Angus, natural son of William, first Earl of 
Douglas, and Margaret Stewart, Countess of Angus ; and this was con- 
firmed by a Royal Charter 9th November 1397. He did even more than 
this. He granted to the earl and his mother a lease for five years of his 
castle of Calder, and appointed him also tutor to his son, and guardian of 
his castle and barony of Calder and his lands in general. So bears a 
charter yet preserved by which Jamys of Sandylandys lord of Caldor 
greeting in God ay lestand, by the counsel of his kyn and friendis commitis 
his son and heir together with his barounry and castel of Caldor in the 
kinryk of Scotland to the keeping of a nobil man to quylk I am of kyn, 
George of Douglas erle of Angous — to be tutor and executor to the said 
heir after the granter's decease. Dated isth May 1397, and confirmed by 
the King 9th November following. 

George Earl of Angus married the Princess Mary, daughter of Robert 
III., so that apart from his Douglas descent he stood in this relationship 
to Sir James Sandilands that his wife was the niece of the Lady of 
Calder. Besides the foregoing notices of this Sir James, we observe a safe 
conduct for him to pass through England, with sixty persons of Scotland in 
his train, dated at Westminster 22nd October 1392 ; and Sir James Sandi- 
landys of Caldor witnesses two charters of Robert Duke of Albany in the 
years 1407 and 1409. 

IIL— Sir James Sandilands of Calder, the son of the preceding 
Sir James, is designed the King's nephew in various charters of Robert III. 
Jacobus Sandiland, Dominus de Caldor, was one of the hostages for James 
I. when he was allowed to visit Scotland 31st May 142 1, and, three years 
later, we find permission granted to him and to other nobles and barons to 
meet the King of Scots in the city of Durham, dated the 3rd of February 
in the second of Henry VI., being the year 1424, the safe conduct to 
endure until 30th April next ensuing. On the 28th March in the same 
year, James, lord of Caldor, one of the hostages for the Scottish Sovereign, 
delivered 403 merks to the English ambassadors at Durham ; and on 21st 
May, King Henry VI. orders Sir Richard Hastynges, Knight, constable 

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of Knaresburgh, to deliver James of Caldor and other hostages under the 
treaty with the King of Scots to Robert Scot, lieutenant of the Constable 
of the Tower of London. Sandilands asks for safe conduct for Walter 
Daniel, James of Parkley, John of Werk and three servants to accompany 
him. He is mentioned as deceased at 7th December 1426, when confirma- 
tion under the Great Seal was given of a charter in his favour of the 
barony of Erthbisset, in the county of Stirling, granted by the Regent 
Albany in the year 1422, Jonet, his wife, is mentioned in the same 
charter, but to which family she belonged does not appear. They had 
two sons, namely. Sir John of Calder, and James, who witnesses a charter 
7th July, 1434, and was assassinated along with his nephew near to 
Dumbarton 21st August 145 1. 

IV.— Sir John Sandilands of Calder succeeded about the year 
1426, and was formally infeft in the lands and barony of Calder on a 
precept from the Earl of Douglas, as superior, in the year 1437. In the 
Exchequer Rolls we see a grant of customs to John de Sandilandis de 
Caldore in 1447 ; and Nisbet mentions a charter of the year 1466, granted 
apparently by this baron, to his eldest son and heir Sir James Sandilands 
and Margaret his wife, to which an armorial seal was appended " having a 
shield couche with two coats, quarterly ist and 4th a bend for Sandilands, 
2nd and 3rd a man's heart, and on a chief three stars for Douglas, which 
shield is timbred with an helmet and thereupon for crest a head and neck 
of a horse, and having only one supporter on the left, namely a lady 
holding the helmet and crest, which I did see in the custody of Mr 
Crawford, author of the peerage." Sir John de Sandilandis, lord of 
Caldour, is mentioned together with his son and grandson in the years 
1478 and 1 48 1, and he appears as defender in a civil cause in the month 
of December 1482. He is stated to have married Christian Dundas, 
second daughter of James Dundas of Dundas, and he had two sons, 
John and James, and a daughter Alison, married to Sir Alexander 
Boswell of Balmuto, who fell at Flodden, 15 13. John, the elder son, 
was assassinated when only twenty years of age, with his uncle James 
Sandilands, by Patrick Thornton, a secret favourer of the Douglas faction, 
who was apprehended and executed after trial. The crime, which was of 
political rather than personal import, on account of the adherence of the 

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family to King James II., was committed near Dumbarton, on the 2ist 
August 145 1. 

V. — Sir James Sandilands of Calder, the second but eldest sur- 
viving son of the last-mentioned, appears as fiar of Calder in the years 
1466 and 1478, and was still "son and appearand heir of Schir John 
Sandilandis, lord of Caldour" in October 1481. The exact date of his 
father's demise has not been ascertained, but in 1487 Sir James Sandi- 
lands of Calder sat in parliament, from which we may conclude that the 
venerable Sir John Sandilands who had held the barony for about sixty 
years was by this time gathered to his fathers. On 7th May 1489 the 
Kingis lettres are directed to the Lard of Calder and others to warn thaim 
to cum to ryde with the King. Sir James Sandilands had a charter of 
certain lands in Fife from John de Kinloch, lord of Crove, to him and to 
Dame Mergarete de Kinloch. his wife, in liferent, and to John de Sandi- 
lands their son and apparent heir in fee, dated at Inverkeithing, 3rd July 
1478. Sir James subsequently married Margaret Ker, daughter of Andrew 
Ker of Auldtounbum, who is mentioned as his spouse in a Crown charter 
of the lands of Erthbisset 14th July 1489. She survived her husband, and 
was living in 1509, being then the wife of William, Earl of Errol. This 
baron had three sons, namely John and James, who clearly were the 
children of his first wife Margaret Kinloch, and the Rev. Peter, rector of 
Calder in 1526 and until 1546, who appears to have been born of the 
second wife, Margaret Ker. The eldest son, John, predeceased his father, 
leaving an infant son, who according to the provision would succeed to the 
Kinloch inheritance; and it seems that Sir James Sandilands had settled 
the Calder estates upon his second son. An arrangement was however 
effected in after years by which James, the second son, gave up to his 
nephew the barony of Calder and other baronies and lands, receiving from 
him the lands of Cruvie with mansion-house, etc., in the county of Fife. 
This transaction was confirmed by James IV. 7th July 1509. 

VI. — John Sandilands, the eldest son, is mentioned in 1478 in 
the charter by his grandfather, John Kinloch of Cruvie, to which allusion 
has already been made. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James 
Skrymgeour, lord of Dudhope, in the county of Forfar, who held the office 
of Constable of Dundee. There is a charter, dated 15th October 148 1, of 


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a portion of the lands of Dudup and the lands of Southbello in Perthshire 
to him and to the said Elizabeth his wife, in which he is designed son and 
appearand heir of Schir James de Sandilandis, Kt., the son and appearand 
heir of Schir John de Sandilandis, lord of Caldour. He died during the 
lifetime of his father, leaving an only son. 

VI I. — Sir James Sandi lands of Calder. — This eminent personage, 
who made a distinguished figure in the history of his country, was born about 
the year 1482. After the death of his grandfather. Sir James Sandilands, 
he resigned the Cruvie estates in Fife to his father's younger brother in 
exchange for the barony of Calder and other patrimonial lands which thus 
came to descend in the main stem of the family. This was in the year 
1509 ; and on 23rd August 1510, he and Marion Forrester, his wife, had a 
charter of the lands of Slamannan and other subjects on the resignation of 
his said uncle. Again, in 1 513, the King confirms to him half the lands of 
Dudhope assigned by the late James Skrimgeour, Constable of Dundee, to 
the late John Sandilands, his father. The notices of his early career are 
not numerous, but we observe a remission granted to Sir James Sandelandis, 
of Caldor, Knight, and thirteen others for the cruel slaughter of James 
Somervile, committit on forethought felony, dated 2nd July 1526. Whether 
in relation or not to this or other misdeeds into which the baron may have 
been led by the turbulent spirit of the times, it is noticeable that, some 
few months later, he made a pilgrimage to Rome. So bears an entry in 
the Register of the Privy Seal. 

Ane lettre to James Sandelandis of Caldor, Knycht, ratifiand the licence gevin him 
afore to pas for the completing of his pilgrimage at Rome, and ratifiand siclike the dis- 
positioun maid be him of his sonis mariage. At Edinburgh the last day of Aprile the zeir 
before written [1527]. 

His visit at this time to the Papal See is rendered worthy of remark 
in connection with the prominent part which he subsequently took in the 
reformation of religion in this country. We observe the names of the 
Lairds of Calder and of Ormestoun included in a scroll of heretics pre- 
sented by Cardinal Beaton to James V. in 1542, and Dr M*Crie, in his 
Life of KnoXy points to Sir James Sandilands as one of the few in the 
higher ranks of society who as early as the year 1540 were numbered 
amongst the converts to the reformed doctrines. The early period at 

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which he embraced the principles of the Reformation certainly renders his 
name worthy of higher consideration in this regard. It has often been 
allied that the desire of sharing the rich spoils of the Catholic Church, 
together with the political intrigues of the Court of England, engaged a 
great number on the side of Protestantism, nor can we doubt that at a 
later period these influences did operate largely with the Scottish nobles ; 
but at the time of which we now speak the prospect of overturning the 
established religion was far too remote to induce any who had no other 
than avaricious motives to take a step which exposed their lives and 
fortunes to the greatest hazard. 

On 13th March 1541, there is a remission to Sir James Sandilandis of 
Calder, for his treasonably resetting umqle Archibald Douglas of Kilspindy 
and his servants, traitors and rebels at the horn, and for taking two horses 
from the said Archibald. Two years later we find him brought into some 
difficulty by Master James Drummond, his son-in-law, a favourite of Henry 
VIII., and recommended by him for the Secretaryship for Scotland. 
Drummond, it appears, had sought Sir Ralph Sadleyr, the English Am- 
bassador at Edinburgh, and had represented to him that the person of 
the young Queen of Scots was in danger at the hands of the Governor 
Arran, which circumstance he stated to have been communicated to 
him by Sir James Sandilands. In his diplomatic correspondence, which 
is preserved at the British Museum, Sadleyr declares that he discredits the 
story, •'yet has resolved to speak with Calder, who lives about twelve 
miles from Edinburgh, even if he should have to ride there for the purpose." 
Sir James denied having made any such statement and the truth of it, 
giving the ambassador no complimentary account of his son-in-law, whom 
he calls a " perillous and dangerous person." Sir Ralph Sadleyr reports 
further in the matter to the English Privy Council on the 8th July 1543, 
as follows : — 

It may like your good Lordships to understand that sythens the writing of my last 
letters I have spoken with Syr James Sandelyns Laird of Calder, Drummond's father-in- 
law, and have communed with him of such matter as the said Drummond declared unto 
the King's Majesty, touching the unsurety and danger that the young Queen here should 
be in by means of the Governor, which I do find to be utterly untrue. 

He goes on to describe Sir James Sandilands as of good reputation — " a 

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grave and wyse personage and of such honestie and trouthe " as would not 
have concealed such a matter under any fear of the Governor, nor for any 
other reason. He further says that the laird of Calder came to him again 
on the day following their interview, wishing the subject further inquired 
into, and was with difficulty persuaded to suppress the matter * until he 
shuld here agayne from the Kynges majestie in that parte, the said 
Sandelyns offeryng himselfe to dye in the querele that the saide 
Drummonde had falselie belyd bothe the Govemour and hym/* 

During this year, as is well known, the English Ambassador was 
intriguing on behalf of his royal master with a view to attaching to his 
interest as many of the Scottish nobles and barons who, from aversion to 
the Catholic cause or for other reasons, might be supposed likely to unite 
in Henry's contemplated expedition to France ; and Crichton of Brunston 
was employed by Sadleyr to negotiate the matter in this locality. This 
gentleman reported that he had convened his neighbour Sandelands of 
Calder with some sixteen others who had refused offers of money and 
pensions to be friends of France, and concludes " that it is nedeful that the 
Kinge wryte to the Larde of Calder (for as he doth so wyl al the rest doo\ 
how that his majestie hath understand that he and certayne frendes of his 
is wylling to be of the nombre of the Kingis majesteis frendes, thankyng 
him therfore, and further as pleasith his majestie to wryte." This com- 
munication is dated 26 November 1543. It appears however that the 
family of Calder, however zealous in the cause of religion, was not to be 
drawn into political intrigue ; and when the conflict between the Scots and 
English occurred at Ancrum Moor, on nth March 1544, Sir James 
Sandilands' elder son bore arms for his own country. The Earl of 
Shrewsbury in reporting the affair to Henry VHI. declares himself to be 
credibly informed that the young laird of Calder (who was a man of good 
reputation in Scotland) and two other gentlemen named Logan were 
slain, with divers others of the Scottish partie. This was a mistake 
as regards Sandilands ; and we see that the English Privy Council had 
not then relinquished the hope of attracting the family to their side, for a 
dispatch to the Earl of Hertford, dated 24th April, 1544, bears that the 
Laird of Calder, father and son, and the Laird of Ormestoun are to have 
their lands and goods spared, if they will join the English army. 

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A striking illustration of the chivalrous feelings and sentiments of the 
age occurs in the year 1557. Queen Mary, having ordained a yearly 
taxation for waging men of war, and ordered an inventory of every man's 
estate to that effect, the Lords for the most part assented thereto, but the 
barons, about 200 in number, commissioned Sir James Sandilands of 
Calder and John Weems of Easter Weems to remonstrate with the Queen 
and the Lords, representing that it was ignominious to wage soldiers, as if 
they were not able to defend the country themselves, as their ancestors ; 
that it would be dangerous to commit the defence of the country to hire- 
lings ; and that it was against King Robert the Bruce his advice who 
warned the nobility never to keep long truce with England "lest the 
subjectis throw lazinesse sould become unfitt for the warres." 

We have said that Sir James was engaged in several important negotia- 
tions connected with the establishment of Protestantism in Scotland. 
Some ambiguity has obtained, however, amongst historians of the Reforma- 
tion who have adverted to the family of Calder, by their having confused 
the persons of the venerable baron Sir James Sandilands; his eldest son 
John Sandilands, upon whom he conferred the fee of his estate in 1526; 
and his second son Sir James Sandilands of Torphichen, Lord St. John. 
We shall therefore indicate briefly the principal missions upon which each 
of these personages was employed at this time. The old baron was the 
early and intimate friend of John Knox, who in his ** Historie" refers to 
him as one who had long been a sincere friend to the reformed cause, and 
had contributed much to its preservation in this part of the country. 
Knox had his residence at Calder House, as we have already seen, in the 
year 1556; and when in the spring of 1558 the reformers sent to solicit 
the aid of the Queen Regent to a "godlie reformatloun " Sir James Sandi- 
lands was chosen to present their petition to Her Majesty. " We appointed 
from among us," says John Knox, " a man whose age and years deserved 
reverence, whose honesty and worship might have craved an audience of any 
magistrate on earth, and whose faithful service to the authority at all times 
had been such that upon him could fall no suspicion of unlawful disobedi- 
ence. This Oratour was that auncient and honourable father Schir James 
Sandelandes of Calder, Knycht, to whom we geve commissioun and power 
in all our names then present befoir the Quein Regent thus to speak," etc. 

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The baron of Calder died in the month of December 1 559, and could not 
have been far short of eighty years of age. He married Marion Forrester, 
only daughter of Archibald Forrester of Corstorphine, who is mentioned as 
his wife in various charters of the year 1 509, etc., and died in March 1 562. 
Besides their two sons John and James, to both of whom we shall presently 
revert, they had several daughters, all mentioned in their father's will, 
namely Alison, who married Sir John Cockburn of Ormistoun, a staunch 
promoter of the Reformation. She is mentioned in a charter of the lands of 
Ormistoun, 5th February 1 545, and was still living in 1584 when the treatise 
called The Confession of Faith was dedicated to her — " to the Honourable 
and vertuous Ladie, Alison Sandilands, Lady of Hormistoun." There is a 
process also in the Acts and Decreits of the year 1566-7, affecting dame 
Elisone Sandilands, lady Ormistoun and Jhone Cockburn of Ormistoun, 
her spouse. A second daughter, Margaret, was twice married, firstly to 
Sir James Dundas of Dundas, with whom she had a charter from the 
Queen of the lands of Blairmukis and Pakstane in Lanarkshire dated 28th 
June 1 55 1. The laird of Dundas died in the latter part of the year 1553, 
after which Margaret became the second wife of William Wauchope of 
Niddry MarischaL The third daughter Agnes, married Mr James 
Drummond, concerning whom King Henry VHL wrote as follows to the 
Earl of Arran, Governor of Scotland : — 

1542-3, March 13 — Right trusty and right welbilovit cousin we grete youe wel. 
Lating youe wit that having perfite knowleage howe that uppon certain good causes 
and matiers touching Syr Thomas Erskin late secretary there, it hath ben thought 
mete to youe and the rest of your counsail to discharge him of his office of the secretari- 
ship, we have thought good at thumble sute of our trusty and welbilovet servant Master 
James Dromonde, by thise our special lettres to recommende him unto youe to be pre- 
ferred to the same office, whom we certainly judge to be a man so qualified in all thingis 
as is mete for the same ; instantly therfor requiring youe as youe entende to shew your- 
self desirous to ministre unto us gratuitie and pleasure to satisfie our request in this behaulf, 
which we assure youe we shall take in most kinde and thankful parte accordinglie. 

Vni. — John Sandilands of Calder, the elder son of the foregoing, 
was, like his father, an ardent promoter of the Refi)rmation. When George 
Wishaw was taken prisoner by the Earl of Bothwell in January 1546 
Sandilands, together with the Lairds of Ormestoun and Brunestoun, 
were present with him at the time of his arrest Cardinal Beaton, on 

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learning this, sent to have them all apprehended, but, we are told, the 
young men on the approach of the soldiers " maid fayr countenance and 
entreated the gentilmen to tack a drynk,'* and so obtained a delay during 
which Brunestoun escaped. Calder and Ormestoun, however, were warded 
in Edinburgh Castle, from which the latter escaped by leaping over a wall, 
between ten and eleven o'clock in the forenoon ; but according to Knox's 
" Historie " the young laird of Calder remained in ward until his band to the 
Cardinal was the means of his deliverance. An entry quoted by Pitcairn, 
on the other hand, seems to imply that Ormestoun and Calder escaped 

1546, March 29 — James Lawsone of Hieriggis found caution to underly the law for 
art and part of the assistance afforded to William {sic) Cokburne of Ormestoune and the 
young laird of Calder in breaking their ward furth of the Castle of Edinburgh. 

At the same time caution was exacted from Sandilands that he should 
enter within the Castle of Edinburgh, on twenty-four hours' warning being 
given him to do so. But this was, a few months later, suspended in order 
to allow of his taking a journey to France, as the following letter under 
the hand of the Governor bears — 

1546, September 2C) — "Forsamekill as our louit Johnne Sandelandis zoung lard of 
Caldour, fand souirtie to entir in warde ^ whenever charged, and now we have given and 
granted our Lettres of Licence to the said John to pass to the parts of France, and there 
remain a certain space, as the said Licence more fully purports, now the former act is to 
haue na strength during the said Johnnis remaining bezond sey, but alanerlie eftir his 
returning agane within ye realme of Scotland. 

We meet with him in June 1559, again in company with Cockburn of 
Ormestoun and others from Lothian, rising with their followers to support 
the Earl of Argyll and Lord James Stewart in the defence of the city of St 
Andrews against the party of the Queen. This was within a few months of 
his succession to the chiefship of the house of Calder, which, however, he did 
not live long to enjoy. He died between March 1565 and 19th March 1566, 
aged about sixty years. He married firstly, Margaret Bartoun, daughter of 
Sir Robert Bartoun of Over Barntoun, High Treasurer of Scotland, in 1529 
and 1530, and Master of the Cuinzie House (Mint), by whom he had an only 
son, James Sandilands, afterwards of Calder, to whom we shall presently 
revert The marriage contractus dated nth June 1524, and is preserved 

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amongst the archives of the Lords Torphichen ; the family arrangements 
on the occasion were somewhat singular, according to our ideas — the lands 
of Blackhall and others being conceded to the said Margaret by old Sir 
James Sandilands, in contemplation of the marriage to be contracted by her 
with John Sandilands his son and apparent heir, whom failing by decease, 
then with James Sandilands, his second son. The laird of Calder's second 
wife was Jean Fleming, daughter of John, Lord Fleming, who survived 
him, and subsequently married again to David Crawford of Kerse. 
She was the mother of Sir James Sandilands of Slamannan, who became 
tutor to his nephew the minor laird of Calder. Besides these two sons, 
John Sandilands had three daughters, who are all named in the testaments 
of their grandparents, recorded in 1567, viz.: Margaret, married to James 
Tennent of Linhouse ; Euphame; and Mary, who in 1574 became the 
wife of Joseph Douglas of Pumpherston. 

We here leave for a moment the direct line of succession of the house 
of Calder, to notice the career of Sir James Sandilands,. Lord St John, the 
younger brother of the foregoing, and in whose person the family became 
ennobled, as the expression goes. This Sir James Sandilands seems at an 
early period in life to have embraced the profession of arms, for, according 
to Buchanan the historian, he was despatched in the year 1 532 to Hermitage 
Castle to check the incursions of freebooters. For several years after this 
he had his residence at Malta, then the seat of the Fraternity of Military 
Ecclesiastics, known as the Knights Hospitallers, or Knights of St John 
of Jerusalem, and whilst here he gave such proofs of his ability and quali- 
fications that he was elected by the Chapter a Knight of the Order, and 
subsequently, on the recommendation of Walter, Lord St John, the 
Principal of the Hospitallers in Scotland, was nominated his future 
successor in that office by the Grand Master of the Order. Thus, on the 
death of Sir Walter Lindsay, Sir James Sandilands was vested in the title 
and jurisdiction of Lord St John of Jerusalem in Scotland, and Preceptor 
of Torphichen Priory, by a bull dated at Malta 2nd April 1547. In 
common with the rest of his house, he espoused the principles of 
Protestantism, and abjured the tenets of his Order; and when, as a 
necessary consequence of the Reformation, the religious fraternity over 
which he presided was suppressed together with all similar ecclesiastical 

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establishments, he resigned the Lordship into the hands of the Queen, who 
was pleased " in consideration of services rendered to her and her royal 
parents by her domestic servant James, lord of St John," to allow him to 
retain as personal honours "all the privileges, dignities, offices and 
regalities in old time possessed by the said James and his predecessors in 
the Preceptorate of Torphechin ; " and to confer upon him the possessions 
which had formerly belonged to the Knights Hospitallers, upon payment 
of 10,000 crowns of the sun, and 500 merks of yearly feu-duty. In another 
portion of this work, we have given some few particulars of the ancient 
order of religious Knighthood in Scotland which thus passed away, but we 
may here briefly notice the origin and nature of the peerage which now came 
into and has ever since descended in the family of Calder, The dignity 
of Lord St John of Jerusalem (afterwards abbreviated to Lord St John of 
Torphichen or Lord Torphichen), was originally conferred by James IV. 
upon Sir William KnoUys, who was Preceptor of Torphichen and Lord 
High Treasurer of Scotland in 1492, holding also other important offices 
of state, the title to devolve upon his successors in office. This dis- 
tinguished personage died about 15 17, and was succeeded in the Pre- 
ceptorate by Sir George Dundas, who thus became Lord St John ; and he 
in turn was succeeded by Sir Walter Lindsay of the noble family of 
Crawford and Lindsay, at whose death the dignity descended, as we have 
seen, to Sir James Sandilands. The Lords St John in ancient times pos- 
sessed a singular, half-cleric, half-lay character. They derived their 
appointment from the Grand Master of the Order at Rhodes or Malta, but 
were confirmed in the temporal Lordship of Torphichen by the King ; and 
in the records of parliament they are sometimes assigned a place amongst 
the abbots and dignified clergy, and sometimes amongst the territorial 
barons. Thus, in 1489, Lord St John held the position of premier baron, 
immediately after the earls, and in 1526 we see him classed amongst the 
spiritual lords as a dignitary of the Church. In the decreet of ranking of 
the nobility in 1606, he is placed next to Lord Boyd. The charter of 
Queen Mary, which is dated 24th January 1563-4, makes no new creation, 
but confirms merely the estates and dignity to Sir James Sandilands. As 
the original title therefore was never personal, but had been attached by 
immemorial usage to the fief (like the Earldom of Arundel in England, 


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which is held to be vested in the inheritance of the Castle and Lordship of 
Arundel) so the title of Lord St John of Torphichen became a territorial 
honour inherent in the possession of certain acres of land adjacent to 
the ancient Preceptory of Torphichen. Of the many fair baronies which 
at this time were bestowed upon the house of Calder, all have been 
gradually alienated, and much of the barony of Torphichen itself has 
been at different times conveyed to various persons, nothing being now 
retained by the family in that district beyond the small parcel of land 
lying around the church, which probably constituted the original patrimony 
of the founders of the Order of St John in Scotland, and in which the title 
is vested. In the year 1633, upon the resumption by Charles L of the 
superiority of all church lands, John, Lord Torphichen, felt apprehensive 
that his rights as the successor of a religious order might be prejudiced 
thereby, and after petitioning parliament, he obtained an award of His 
Majesty, following a resolution of the Privy Council which was to have the 
force of an Act of Parliament, that the resumption should be held in no 
degree to encroach upon the superiorities of the barony of Torphichen in 
Linlithgowshire, within " that mean portione thereof quharin does subsist 
the title and dignity of Lords of Parliament, and to quhilk the title of Lord 
of parliament is annexit." We see therefore that the peerage of Tor- 
phichen is in many respects distinctive and indeed unique in this country ; 
and as by the charter of 1 563 the barony is destined to " heirs and assigns," 
so it follows, according to no less eminent an authority on peerage law 
than the late Mr John Riddell, that in the event of the succession opening 
to a. female, that female would be Baroness Torphichen. 

Lord St. John was a member of the Privy Council both of Queen 
Mary and James VI., his attendance in council being most frequent during 
the period 1545-1553. He was also amongst those present on the occasion 
of the coronation of the latter-named Monarch at Stirling 19th July 1567, 
when the " swerd, sceptour and royall croun of this realme were presentit " 
by his colleagues Lord Lindsay of the Byres and Lord Ruthven. He was 
a man of exceptional talent, and was frequently employed in negotiations 
of the highest consequence both to the Church and the State. During the 
troubled years preceding 1560 he was dispatched on an embassy to Mary 
of Guise, and in the year 1559 was chosen by the parliament of Scotland 

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ambassador to the court of France, where however, he met with no very 
gracious reception, but was accused by the Cardinal of Lorraine of 
violating his obligations as a Knight of a Holy Order, by consenting to be 
the bearer of the propositions of heretics, and of stirring up an execrable 
rebellion, and he was accordingly dismissed without an answer. 

After the dissolution of the religious house of which he was Principal, 
Lord Torphichen resided principally at Hallyards, the manor-place of his 
barony of Liston, where he died of apoplexy, at an advanced age, on the 
26th September 1579. According to a complaint made by his widow to 
the Privy Council, his death may have been in part caused or accelerated 
by a warlike attack made upon the place of his domicile during his last 
illness : — 

Complaint by Dame Jeane Murray, relict of James Lord Torphichin as follows : The 
barony of Listoun and especially the manor place and manse thereof called the Halyairdis 
belonged to her and her late husband conjointly until his decease, '* quha deceisit in the 
said maner place the day of September last bipast ; quhais possessioun wes hir 

possessioun, and hir possessioun his possessioun, be ressoun of the marriage lauchfuUie 
contractit betuix thame." Tho* such is the fact, " nevertheles James Erll of Mortoun and 
utheris of his name hes in the moneth of September last bipast violentlie and perforce 
enterit in the said hous and intruisit thameselffis in possessioun thairof, input certane 
men of weare, bodin with gunnis, pistolettis and utheris armes invasive." This they had 
done ^' the said Dame Jehannis husband being then on life and unabill to resist be ressoun 
of a deadlie seiknes of apoplexie quhilk tuk the haill strength of his body and use of his 
speiche frome him." Moreover " a littil befoir his deceis quhen scho come to gif him sic 
confort and consolatioun as ane spous aucht to hir husband, scho durst not do the same 
for feir of hir life, bot was compellit to reteir hir fra the said hous for the cause foirsaid, 
quhilk hous is yit occupiit and detenit be the said Erll.*' — The lords remit the matter to 
be pursued before the judges. 

We revert now to the main stem of the house of Calder, and notice — 
IX. — Sir James Sandilands of Calder, the only son of John Sandi- 
lands by his first wife Margaret Bartoun. The first allusion we observe to 
him as Baron of Calder is in the month of March 1 565-6, a few months after 
his father s death, when he is charged along with others to compeir befoir 
the King and Quenis Majesteis within six days to answer to sic thingis 
as salbe laid to thair charge touching the murder of David Riccio. On 
23rd August 1569 he unites with his uncle Johnne Cockbarne of Ormistoun 
as joint sureties for William Lauder of Haltoun that he shall restore 

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certain guidis taken from James Winrame of Gogar-milne according to 
the Lord Regent's decree; and again in July 1573 James Sandelandis of 
Calder is cautioner for Capitane Diones Pentland who had raised three 
hundred " wageit men of were " for service in the low countries of Flanders, 
that he should observe certain conditions, and commit no oppression — nor 
muster nor convene his men before their departure within sixteen miles of 
Stirling Castle, nor on the south side of the Forth. Item that thay sail 
na wayis serve with papistis againis the protestantis professouris of the 
Evangell of Jesus Chryst under the pain of Ifive hundred merkis. Calder 
married Jean, daughter of James, 4th Lord Ross, and died in 1576, 
leaving an only son James, and a daughter Elizabeth, who became the 
wife of John Mowbray son of John Mowbray of Barnbougle. The testa- 
ment dative of umqll ane ryt honorabill man Sir James Sandelandis off 
Calder Knyt, quha deceist intestat in Edinburgh upoun ye xvij day of 
februar the zeir of God 1576 zeris is gewin up be dame Jeane Ross lady 
Calder his relict and James lord Ross of halket her father, as tutors 
dative decerned to Elizabeth Sandelands lawful daughter to the defunct. 
The widow subsequently married to Harry Stewart of Craigiehall, whose 
wife she was in 1 590. 

X. — James Sandilands of Calder, the son of the preceding James, 
was born about the year 1574, and was therefore of tender age when he 
succeeded to the possessions of his father, and to the estates and dignity 
of his great-uncle. Lord Torphichen, who died childless in 1579. According 
to the law of the period, by which minor heirs were under tutory of one of 
their nearest kinsmen of full age, we find his step-father, Harry Stewart, 
apparent of Craigiehall, mentioned as " tutor of Calder " in an undertaking 
by him that Dame Jehane Sempill, lady Ros shall not intromit with the 
teinds of the lands of Melvile, " nor mak convocatioun of the Kingis leigis 
to that effect," dated 29th March 1585. He appears to have held the 
office of tutor no longer than November of the same year, when caution 
was given that he should render up the fortalice of Calder then in his 
custody; and thereafter Sir James Sandilands of Slamannan-muir, uncle 
of the young baron, is mentioned for many years as his tutor. 

This redoubtable personage, who necessarily had the direction of the 
affairs of his young relative for a considerable number of years, made 

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a distinguished figure in the history of his time ; we cannot do more than 
notice some of the leading incidents of his career. It is a little remarkable 
that he and his half-brother — his father's eldest son — should both have 
been named James ; he is nevertheless very distinctly designed eldest son 
begotten of John Sandilands of Calder with Jean Flemyng his wife, in a 
charter of the lands of Slamannan-muir in his favour 27th May 1563. He 
figures somewhat frequently in the records during his early manhood, and 
appears to have been of a bold and warlike spirit, much attached to King 
James and the Protestant succession. In May 1589 we see Archibald 
Wauchop, younger of Niddry, at his trial for the slaughter of the laird of 
Shirefhall, escaped out of a window of the Tolbooth — " Sir James 
Sandielandis, tutor of Calder being the cheefe man that assisted him to 
break waird." Sandilands was present with James VI. at Holyrood House 
in December 1 591, when Bothwell made his first attempt to capture the 
person of the King, and, according to Spottiswood's history, he took an 
active part for the protection of His Majesty on that occasion. 

Bothwell made towards the Queen's rooms, says this historian, where he expected to 
find entry, and perceiving all shut upon him, called to bring fire. But ere they could find 
any. Sir James Sandilands, one of his Majest/s chamber entering by the church of Hali- 
rudhouse did beat him and his company from the doors, and was in possibility to have 
taken them all if there had been any lights, but these being all extinguished, Bothwell 
made shift in the dark and escaped. 

Thereafter, adds Calderwood, Sandilands was dispatched by the king 
to advertise the Provost and citizens of Edinburgh. In the following June 
occurred Bothwell's second attempt, known as the raid of Falkland, and 
on the 27th of that month Sir James brought in to the King a number of 
border men implicated in the affair, especially Armstrongs, whom he had 
overtaken, of whom five were hanged, and the rest spared at the request 
of the Laird of Carmichael, " becaus they were not ordinarie or usuall 
ryders." In 1592 Sir James Sandilands, tutor of Calder, was capitane of 
Blackness Castle, and in the following year is designed " Master Knight, 
gentleman of the chamber " in an order to Robert Jamesoun, burgess of 
Ayr, to deliver to him 236 crowns of gold. 

Our attention now lights upon a serious catastrophe which occurred 
in February 1 592-3, and is unhappily illustrative of the manners of the 

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age. Dame Jean Murray, the widow of the first Lord Torphichen, whose 
pathetic appeal we have noticed regarding the circumstances attending 
the death of her husband, was a daughter of Murray of Polmaise. In 
1584 she was the wife of Mr John Grahame of Hallyards, a judge of the 
Court of Session ; so bears an entry of the 9th June in that year : — 

Dame Jean Murray, relict of umquhile James, Lord Torphichen,'and Maister Johnne 
Grahame of Halyairdis now hir spouse, having been pursued against by the Minister of 
Torphichen for stipend allege that they are not liable. 

Sir James Sandilands of Slamannan, as tutor of Calder, entered into 
litigation with Mr John concerning the lands of Hallyards, which were 
brought to him by his wife; a foiled deed was produced at the trial, 
for which a notary was hanged, and a dispute between the General 
Assembly and the Court of Session as to jurisdiction had been imported 
into the case. These circumstances appear to have embittered the feeling 
between the parties, and the King charged Grahame for peace* sake to 
depart from Edinburgh for a while. According to Calderwood's History, 
he was passing down Leith Wynd in obedience to this order, attended by 
some three or four score persons for his protection, when Sir James 
Sandilands, accompanied by his friend the Duke of Lennox, and an 
armed party, followed hard at his heels. Grahame thinking he was about 
to be attacked, turned to make resistance, " but the Duke sent and willed 
him to goe fordward, promising no man sould invade him, yitt Mr John 
Grahame's companie shott ; quhairupoun the Duke suffered Sir James and 
his companie to doe for themselves." The party of Sandilands im- 
mediately made an attack, and Grahame fell wounded on the street, and 
was carried into a neighbouring house. A French boy, page to Sir 
Alexander Stewart, one of Sandilands* friends, seeing his master slain in 
the combat, followed the hapless judge into the house, "dowped a whinger 
into him,** and so despatched him. Such was the characteristic termina- 
tion of a lawsuit in 1593 1 Nor was the matter suffered to rest there. It 
appears that two years later, John, Earl of Montrose, as head of the house 
of Grahame, although a nobleman of such estimable character as to be 
appointed a few years afterwards Chancellor of the Kingdom, and Viceroy 
of Scotland during the King's absence in England, was nevertheless so 

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entirely under the sway of the feelings of the age, as to deem it necessary 
and proper that he should avenge the slaughter of his kinsman under 
circumstances similar to those in which he was slain. Upon its becoming 
known that the earl was approaching Edinburgh, accompanied by his 
son, the Master of Montrose, and a numerous retinue, Sandilands was 
strongly advised by his friends to withdraw himself from the city " becaus 
the erle was then ower great a party againis him." The tutor of Calder, 
however, nothing daunted, refused to listen to this advice, and finding 
himself not sae weel accompanied as he wald, sent for friends and convokit 
thame to Edinburgh. The result was a second desperate encounter, which 
took place on the 19th January 1594-5, beside the Salt Tron in the High 
Street, and which resulted in the death of Crawford of Kerse, a connection 
of Sir James Sandilands, who himself was severely wounded, and had 
been slain if George Lockhart of Air had not stood over him and defended 
until the toun of Edinburgh sindered them. These frequent street riots in 
Edinburgh afford a lamentable illustration of the weakness of James' 
government, which is rendered all the more striking in this case by the 
fact that the King himself was in the Tolbooth at the time, and the Lord 
Chancellor was also passing through the High Street. So little respect, 
however, was paid to his presence, and " sae great was the fury on either 
side that the Chancellor retirit himself with gladness to the Collie of 
Justice." Moreover so slightly did Sir James Sandilands suffer in Court 
influence by his share in this affair that he was actually in the same year 
admitted a member of the Privy Council. The tulyie did not indeed pass 
wholly unnoticed by that august assembly, but in their transactions it is 
toned down to " the lait unhappy accident quhilk fell out amangis thame," 
concerning which the principals on either side were charged to answer to 
the King and Council on the 28th of February 1595. From the same 
record we find that the following persons were assisters in the fray on the 
side of Sir James Sandilands, namely, the youthful Lord Torphichen (now 
apparently of age), Mr James Spottiswode, Mr Johnne Broun, Thomas 
Inglis, younger of Auldlistoun, Gawin Sandielandis in Craig, and Johnne 
Sandielandis in Muirhousedykis. 

In the course of this year (1595) King James professed to be greatly 
scandalised at the alarming extent of the private feuds standing between 

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his subjects of all degrees, ** quhairby the commounwele is altc^ether dis- 
orderit and shaken louss," and he resolved upon a vigorous efJfort to bring 
about reconciliations between the parties at variance, '' by his awn pains 
and travel" to that effect. Accordingly a lengthy list of barons was 
drawn up, which included Sir James Sandilands of Calder and Sir James 
Sandilands of Slamannan at feud with Hew Campbell of Loudoun, Sheriff 
of Ayr, to appear before His Highness on specified days, with certificatioun 
that if they fail they shall be pursued with fire and sword " as inimies of 
God, His Majestie and to the commounwele and quietnes of this thair native 
cuntrey/' It may be hoped that some good results followed in the 
direction of His Majesty's laudable desire ; but on the other hand it is 
certain that many of the parties charged remained at feud with each other 
after this time. Sir James Sandilands of Slamannan was one of the 
" Gentleman adventurers " who in 1 599 contracted with the Government 
for civilising the hitherto most barbarous Isle of Lewis, and developing 
the ** extraordinarily rich resources " of the same, for the public good ; and 
in the following year we see it mentioned that he rode to Dirleton for the 
purpose of apprehending William and Patrick Ruthven, the Erie of 
Cowrie's twa brethrein, but they had removed half an hour before his 
arrival. We find many other notices of this Sir James too numerous to be 
particularly referred to. 

1608, October 14 — There being a "moist unkyndlie heit" betwixt Lord Torphechin 
and Sir James Sandielandis of Slamannane, his uncle, both parties are charged to 
appear before the Privy Council, and to assure each other to keep the peace until ist 
January 1610, under pain of rebellion. 

In 161 1 and 1612 he is further mentioned in company with James 
Sandilands, younger of Slamannan, his son, who was frequently pro- 
claimed a rebel in consequence of violent proceedings. 

We hear comparatively little of the young Lord Torphichen, the 
nephew and pupil of Slamannan during his minority. In the year 1587 
he is designated James Sandilandis of Calder, Lord Torphichen, in a 
civil process relating to him and his tutor; and in June 1592 there is a 
charge of the Privy Council to him and to James, Lord Lindsay of the 
Byres, to find surety that they, and all for whom they are answerable, 
shall keep the king's peace to each other. He was served heir on 12th 

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May 1597 of James, Lord Torpheching, brother-german of his grandfather, 
John Sandilands of Calder, in all lands, dignities, etc., tanquam prcecep- 
tores de Torpluching. The much vexed lands of Hallyards appear to 
have occasioned an equal amount of trouble to this Sir James as to his 
uncle and tutor. On 26th September 1 597, complaint was made to the 
Privy Council sitting at Linlithgow by James Sandielandis of Calder, 
Lord Torphichin, as follows : — 

He is retoured and seized in the heritable right of property of the 
Mains of Listoun called Halbarnis and the Manor Place thereof called the 
Halyairdis, and has been in peaceable possession of the same ever since the 
decease of Dame Jean Murray, liferenter thereof. Especially ever since 
that time he has had the "keeping and haning of the medois of the saidis 
landis and Mains of Listoun, and hes in maist peaceable maner without 
ony convocatioun of friendis or of his Heynis lieges mawne and win the 
hay thairof, and shorne ane grite part of the cornis growand thairupoun." 
Nevertheless, James Murray, father-brother of Johnne Murray of Polmais, 
had pretended a right to the same landis and by means of "sinister 
informatioun " made to his Hienes had obtained letters charging him, the 
said Lord Torphichen, not to mow the meadows on pain of death, which 
letters were afterwards set aside as inordourlie. Yet the said Murray, 
" perseveirand and continewing in his formair extraordinair proceeding " 
has s^ain commenced to trouble him, and complaint is now made to the 
Lords, who decide in favour of the Lord Torphichen. This property 
eventually passed out of the possession of the family 26th August 1619, 
when there is a crown Charter in favour of John, Earl of Mar, and Dame 
Marie Stewart his wife, of the lands of Halyairdis and Halbarnis alias the 
dominical lands of Listoun, on the resignation of James, Lord Torphichen. 
We might here add that the greater part of the ecclesiastical estates, or 
temple lands as they were called, were alienated by this Lord Torphichen. 
On 9th November 1599 he entered into a contract with Mr Robert 
Williamson of Murieston and James Tennent of Linhouse whereby he 
disponed to them conjointly the half of all the temple lands in Scotland, 
excepting the barony of Torphichen and other parts retained by his lord- 
ship ; and in the year 1604 the other half was sold to the same parties. 

Some light is thrown upon the state and administration of justice at 


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this period by the following extract from the Register of the Privy 
Council : — 

1601, July 23 — Complaint by James Sandilands of Calder, Lord Torphechio, that 
James Polwart of Cauldlaw was convicted before him in a court of the Regality of Tor- 
phechin for "certane injureis" done to Mr Robert Hodge, his own minister, and his 
lordship having caused him to be warded in the Castle of Torphechin imtil he should 
satisfy the minister, he had broken his ward and escaped within an hour of his com- 
mittal The lords order him to be warded in Edinbui^h Castle. 

In 1604, Lord Torphichen was charged to enter some of the inhabit- 
ants of Calder in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh to answer certain charges ; 
and his name is included in the Commission of the Peace for the counties 
of Edinburgh and Linlithgow in the years 1610 and 161 5. He died in 
August 161 7. His lordship married Ifirstly, Elizabeth, daughter of James 
Heriot of Trabroun, who was the mother of his descendants ; and secondly, 
Mary, daughter of Gilbert, 8th Lord Somerville, who bore him no issue, 
and subsequently married again to William Douglas of Pumpherston. 
The marriage contract with Elizabeth Heriot is recorded in the books of 
Council and Session, ist August 1595, and is entered into by the Lord 
Torphichen, with consent of James Sandelandis of Slamanane, Kt, Joseph 
Douglas of Fomphraystoun, and Mr Andrew Sandilands, son of the late 
James Sandilands of Sanct Monans, his curators, for their interests. The 
issue of this marriage was : — 

James, 3RD Lord Torphichen, who was served heir of his father 

15th December 1618, and died unmarried in January 1622. 
John, 4th Lord Torphichen, to whom we shall revert 
Mr William Sandilands of Hilderston, tutor of Calder, during the 
minority of his nephew, a gentleman distinguished for his attach- 
ment to Presbyterian principles, and who both struggled in 
defence of, and suffered with, the persecuted Church of Scotland 
in the days of Charles II. In our parish records, under date ist 
January 1641, we see "This day Mr Wm. Sandilands and dame 
Elizabeth Murray war maried \ " and his son Walter, on his 
marriage with the heiress of Westport, near Linlithgow, assumed 
the surname and arms of Hamilton of Westport, 

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Mr Henry Sandilands, baptized 27th June 1605, is mentioned in the 
years 1624 and 1636. 

Thomas, baptized 21st June 1612. 

Isobel, baptized 28th October 1607, married Hugh Wallace of Elderslie. 

XL — John, 4TH Lord Torphichen, was, on 30th May 1622, served 
heir of his elder brother, the third lord, who died unmarried, and was seized 
of the lands and barony of Calder in the month of September following. 
He espoused Isabel Dundas, daughter of Sir Walter Dundas of Dundas, 
with whom he had three sons and three daughters, namely, John and 
Walter, who each in turn succeeded to the peerage ; the Hon. William 
Sandilands of Couston, Linlithgowshire, baptized at Calder Church, 13th 
May 1630 ; Isobel, baptized 14th June 163 1, who was married on 24th April 
J 666, to Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburn ; Kathren, baptized 14th 
August 1632; and Margaret, baptized 31st December 1633, married 
Thomas Marjoribanks of Marjoribanks. His lordship died in the month 
of July 1637, and was succeeded by his eldest son. 

XII.— John, 5th Lord Torphichen, who was in minority at the time 
of his father's death, and under tutory of his uncle, William Sandilands of 
Hilderston. He was served heir to his father in the lands and barony of 
Calder with patronage of the parish church, etc., 7th November 1637. We 
are told in Guthrie's Memoirs that he protested against the engagement to 
march into England in 1648, and he was one of the few peers who sat in 
parliament in January 1649. He died unmarried in the month of July in 
the same year. 

XIII.— Walter, 6th Lord Torphichen, was baptized at Calder 
church on 12th May 1629, and was retoured heir of his brother as above 
6th November 1649. He enjoyed the title for about forty-seven years, 
during which long period his name occurs very frequently in relation to the 
transfer of lands and other technicalities affecting the parish and district. 
He was a supporter of the Revolution of 1688 ; was one of those who signed 
the Act declaring the legality of the meeting of the Estates summoned by 
the Prince of Orange, and he also signed a letter congratulating King 
William on his accession. It was by this lord that the greater part of the 
family possessions in West Calder was alienated to Thomas Marjoribanks 
of Balbardie, in 1692, namely the lands of Breichmilne, Clovenfoordsyke 

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Cleughhead, Haughhead, Scaitheuch, Torphin, North and South Cobin- 
schaw,Crosswoodhill, Blackhill, Wester Blackmyre,Killindeane, Brothertoun, 
Gavieside, and Hillhead. He was four times married. Firstly to Dame 
Jean Lindsay, who was his wife in 1653, when she was heir of Alexander 
Lindsay younger of Edzell, her father, and of Dame Anna Weemes, her 
mother; she died childless, and his lordship married secondly, the Hon. 
Catherine Alexander, daughter of William, Viscount Canada, with whom 
he had three daughters but no male issue. Thirdly, Lord Torphichen 
espoused, on nth April 1671, the Hon. Anne El phinstone, daughter of 
Alexander, 6th Lord Elphinstone, who also bore him a daughter, but no son. 
His fourth wife was Christian, daughter of James Primrose, brother of Sir 
Archibald Primrose of Dalmeny, ancestor of the Earls of Rosebery, by 
whom he had three sons, namely Walter, who predeceased him ; James, 
who became the seventh baron ; and John, mentioned as second son in a 
reversion to him of the barony of Calder 27th February 1690. His lordship 
died at an advanced age in May 1696, his testament being confirmed at 
Edinburgh 25th November 1700. 

XIV.— James, 7x11 Lord Torphichen, was served heir of his father 
Walter 13th May 1698. On 6th July 1704 he took the oaths and his seat in 
the Scottish parliament, and afforded a cordial support to the treaty of union 
with England. He was Lieut-Colonel of the 7th regiment of Dragoons, 
and served in the wars of Queen Anne ; and on the breaking out of the 
rebellion, in 1715, he hastened down to Scotland from London, com- 
manded a party of 500 men, which marched into Edinburgh on the 17th of 
October, and subsequently took part in the battle of Sheriffmuir in the 
following month. He was a trusted member of the Privy Council, and it 
is a curious trait in the character of a nobleman of such enlarged ex- 
perience and scholarship superior to his time, that he appears to have 
been a firm believer in witchcraft. He presided, in 1706, over a Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council appointed to inquire into the case of George 
and Lachlan Rattray in Inverness, " alleged guilty of the horrid crime of 
mischievous charms, by witchcraft and necromancy." The local authorities 
demurred to give effect to the verdict at the trial, but their lordships, 
finding the decision " agreeable to the probation," the men were ordained 
to be executed on the last Wednesday of September. This was the 

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same Lord Torphichen ^ho, in 1720, complained to the Presbytery of 
Linlithgow of diabolical arts practised upon his son by witches in Calder 
village, which we have elsewhere had occasion to refer to. He was 
appointed by Geprge L Lord of Police, an office which he continued to 
hold until his death, which occurred at Calder House on the loth August 
1753. His lordship married Lady Jean Hume, daughter of Patrick, ist 
Earl Marchmont, High Chancellor of Scotland, so celebrated for the dis- 
tinguished figure he made at the Revplution of 1688 ; and with her, who died 
at Edinburgh loth December 1751, in her 69th year, he had a numerous 
family, as detailed in our tabular pedigree. His eldest son, James, who 
was very severely wounded at the battle of Preston, 1745, having pre- 
deceased him, his lordship was succeeded by his second son. 

XV. — Walter, 8th Lord Torphichen. This nobleman was ad- 
mitted a member of the faculty of Advocates in 1727, and acted for many 
years previous to his succession as depute to the Earl of Lauderdale, High 
Sheriflf of Edinburgh. He is designed Mr Walter Sandilands, advocate, 
second son of James, Lord Torphichen, at 30th August 1744, when he had 
seisin of the lands of Coustoun, Braidshaw, Adiewell and Muirhousdykes. 
He was appointed Sheriff-depute of the county in 1748 ; was seized of the 
lordship and barony of Calder 8th November 1753 ; and he died at Calder 
House 9th November 1765. He married in London, 9th June 1757, 
Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Alexander Sandilands, M.D., physician to 
the British Hospital in Flanders, and by her, who survived him and died 
also at Mid-Calder 27th September 1779, had four sons, who all died 
without descendants. 

XVL — James, 9TH Lord Torphichen, the eldest son of the fore- 
going, was born 15th November 1759, and succeeded to the title at the age 
of six years. He adopted early in life the profession of arms, and served in 
the 21st regiment with General Burgoyne in the American expedition, and 
was one of those who piled their arms at Saratoga in consequence of the 
convention concluded by Burgoyne with General Gates. In 1787 he held 
a lieutenancy in the Coldstream Guards, and had a company in that 
regiment with the rank of Lieut-Colonel, with which he served in Flanders 
under the Duke of York 1793-4. He was chosen one of the sixteen 

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representatives of the Scottish peers in pariiament in 1790, and again in 
1796, and he died in the year 1815, having been fifty years Lord Torphichen. 
His lordship married at Edinburgh, 6th April 1795, Anne, only surviving 
child of Sir John Inglis of Cramond, Bart., who died childless. The 
succession next devolved upon 

. XVII.— James, ioth Lord Torphichen, cousin-german of the last- 
mentioned, only son of the Hon. Robert Sandilands, younger brother of 
the 8th baron. He was born 21st July 1770, and was in early life captain 
of an East Indiaman. He married 3rd November 1806 Margaret Douglas 
Stirling, 2nd daughter of John Stirling, Esq. of Kippendavie, a cadet of 
the House of Keir, and had three sons — Robert, who succeeded him; 
the Rev. John Sandilands, M.A., in Holy Orders, rector of Coston, 
Leicestershire ; and James, captain, 8th Hussars. His lordship died 22nd 
March 1862 at the venerable age of 92 years. 

XVI 1 1.— Robert, iith Lord Torphichen, captain in the 3rd 
Regiment of Guards, afterwards called the Scots Fusilier Guards, was 
bom 3rd August 1807, and succeeded his father in 1862. He married 
25th July 1865 Helen, youngest daughter of Thomas Maitland, Lord 
Dundrennan, Lord of Session, and died without issue 24th December 
1869, when he was succeeded by his nephew, 

XIX.— James Walter, i2TH Lord Torphichen, and 19th Baron 
of Calder, eldest son of the Hon. and Rev. John Sandilands, as above. 

The ancient armorial ensign of the surname of Sandilands is argent 
a bend azure, and such a shield is emblazoned in an illuminated MS. of the 
14th. century known as the A mortal de Gelre, which is considered the 
earliest extant collection of Scottish Arms. In a manuscript compiled by 
Berry, King of Arms to Charles VII. of France about 1450-55, a shield is 
illuminated for Le Cieulx de Qualor, Le, the Lord of Caldor, bearing 
quarterly first and fourth argent a heart gules on a chief azure three stars of 
the first, second and third argent a bend azure, afJfording the earliest known 
illustration of the arms of Sandilands quartering the cognisance of Douglas, 
which warlike race the family had come to represent; and it is to be 
observed that the Douglas coat is here depicted in the first or more 

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honourable quarter. Allusion has already been made to the seal of Sir 
John Sandilands of Calder, anno 1466, as mentioned by Nisbet, and a pre- 
cisely similar armorial seal of the same baron is appended to an original 
retour of Agnes Melville, as daughter and heir of her father, Thomas 
Melville of Melville, dated 23rd April 1471, and yet preserved. . The shield 
on these seals bears first and fourth a bend for Sandilands, seeond and third 
the Douglas ensign, the heart in all the above being represented uncrowned, 
and the stars placed on chiefs. Next in order, chronologically, appear the 
several carvings upon the church of Calder, which may be of about the 
year 1545. In these the Douglas stars are placed on fesses instead of 
chiefs. The first Lord Torphichen occasionally used his family coat as 
above with a chief charged with a label of three points, but he more 
generally bore the coat of the Lords St John, namely, argent a thistle 
leaved proper, on a chief azure a crown or ; the crest was an eagle dis- 
played with a lion as supporter on the dexter side. A copy of this seal, 

from a document of the year 1571, has been 
adopted to ornament the boards of the present 
volume. In the Alderston charter chest are 
several old titles of the lands and barony of 
Auldliston. Fig. 9 is from a charter of those 
lands by James Lord St John, dated 6th May 
1554; and appended to a precept of the same 
lands to Thomas Inglis in the year 16 16 is a 
seal bearing Per pale, dexter, quarterly, first and 
fourth a bend for Sandilands, second and third 
Douglas ; impaling a thistle stalked and leaved 
and on a chief a crown. A lion supports the 
Fig. 9.-Seal of James, Lord shield on the dexter side only, and the legend 
St John, 1554. jg g, lACOBI DNI TORPHECHIN. In 

1672-78, Walter, Lord Torphichen, registered his arms, placing the 
coat of St John in the ist and 4th grand quarters, Sandilands and 
Douglas in the 2nd and 3rd, as in use at the present time. 

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The farms in this parish at the present time attached to Calder House 
are those of Craigs, Letham, Harry's Muir, Newfarm, the ancient name 
for which is Dedridge, Contentibus, and Nether Williamston. A few 
observations may suffice regarding the historical associations of some of 
these lands. 

Craigs. — ^James Leirmonth of Overcraig had a charter from John 
Sandilandis fear of Calder, 20th March 1555, setting the lands in feu ferme 
to him and his heirs, with astriction to the my In of Calder, used and wont,- 
and service at Courts and at the Kingis weiris, according to the rent and 
quality of his lands. James Leirmonth of the Craig is also amongst 
those delaitit anent the slaughter of David Riccio, 19th March 1566. 
With Elizabeth Douglas, his wife, he had a charter from James VI. 
of the lands of Hanyng in the barony of Levingstoun in the King's 
hands, by reason of the forfeiture of James Hamiltoun of Levingstoun, 
.dated 22nd July 1569. James Leirmonth of Ovir Craig was cited with 
others in the barony to attend the Wappenschaw display in 1586; 
and four years later, John Learmonth of Over Craig appears in a 
list of occupiers of the tierce lands of the barony of Calder, 12th 
March 1 590. The lands were in the possession of Mr Robert Lyntoun 
of Newzeirfield, advocate, in 1603, when he gave seisin of an annual 
rent of £\QO out of his lands of Over Craig, lying in the barony 
of Calder Comitis, to Francis Lyntoun, his eldest lawful son. Mr Robert 
died 1 2th October 1607, leaving by Helen Douglas, his spouse, Alexander 
John, Thomas, and Mary Lyntoun, his younger and minor children, 
executors dative decerned to him. In the month of February 1631 Mr 
James Lintoun had principal seisin of the lands of Over Craig. 

Nether Craig had formerly its own steading, the gable of which still 
remains a picturesque ruin on the lower part of the lands. James 
Sandilands, son to George Sandilands in Nather Craig, had a feu- 
charter of all and haill the ten pund land of Nather Craig as it is 
presentlie occupiit and manurit be the said George, dated i8th Novem- 
ber 1552. The charter is granted by John Sandilands fear of Calder 
to James Sandilands as above and his airis maill quhilk failzeing to 
ye narrest and lauchfuU airis' of ye said Johne Sandelandis fear of 

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Blr j 





By H. B. M'CALL. 

ToHi Alison, 
ftard^*'' '^'*** Boswell of 
ae<l Balmuto. 


•'- fvid Hepburn 


wife in 1506 and 1508 of Robert 

Bruce of Auchinbowie. 






m."Sir John Cockbum 

of Ormiston. 

m. 1st Sir Ja& Dundas, 
2nd Wm. Wauchope. 

m. Mr James 

Margaret, m. Jas. 
Tennent of Linhouse. 

d. ante 1641. 


d . anU 1642. 

Mary, m. Joseph 
Douglas of Pumpherston. 



jQjdiAM of Couston, 
o. Linlithgow. 

j^^ Lady Jean Hume, dan. of 
Patrick, Earl Marchmont. 

^ d. 1791, 



bom 1605. 

in Woodheid, 1656. 

m. Hugh Wallace of Elderslie. 

ro. Sir Thos. Kirkpatrick. 

m. Thos. Marjoribanks. 

I I I 

John, Christian, Magdalen, 

d. s, p, m. Robert Pringle. m. Andrew Anderson. 


= Grizel, dau. of Sir 
Thos. Kirkpatrick 
of Closeburn. 

d. unmar. 


d. unmar. 



d. unmar. 

j^ INDILANDB, = Margt. Douglas, dau. 

[liaman, succeeded 
)thLord,d. 1862. 

of John Stirling of 
Kippendavie, d. 1836. 



d. unmar. 

d. unmar. 

Capl. James, 
8th Hussars. 

Mary, m. 1828 
Wm. Ramsay Ramsay of Bamton. 

jK] as Sandilands, 
3rd Regt., d. 1882. 

Helen Jane Sandilands, 

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Calder. John Sandilands in Nether Craig is mentioned in 1586, and 
he was deceased at 30 January 1589, when James Sandelandis, sone 
of umquhile Johnne Sandelandis in Nather Craig compeirit before the 
baillie of Calder. Gawin Sandilands was tenant in 1590; and James 
Sandilands, portioner of Nether Craig, is a witness to various charters 
in 1 601. Near to the farm steading of Nether Craig was the house 
of Nether Howden, the major portion of which lands, together with 
Over and Nether Craigs, were, during the present century, incor- 
porated in the one farm of Craigs — more properly called Craigs and 

Letham. — These lands belonged, in 1602, to Joseph Douglas of 
Pumpherston, by whom they were conveyed to James and Henry Mekill, 
lawful sons of the late Thomas Mekill in Watterstoun, redeemable for the 
sum of ;^ 400. James Gumming was proprietor at i8th August 1631, when 
he gave seisin of an equal half of his lands of Lethame, in the barony of 
Calder, to Elizabeth Stenhope, his wife. Andrew Oswald of Letham is 
mentioned in 1645, when the Kirk-Session refused to allow him to go to 
Edinburgh, " in regaird the pestilence is so frequent thair." He was con- 
cerned in transactions regarding the Church in 1646, but appears to have 
been deceased in 1653, when the Ledie Lethame conducted in person 
her claim to a seat therein. On 20th October 1658 the lands were 
apprised from James and Andrew Oswald, sons and heirs of the first and 
second marriages respectively of the late Andrew Oswald, merchant burgess 
of Edinburgh, at the instance of James Dundas of Mortoune, for payment 
to him of 3,672 merks, 6s. 8d. ; and in February of the following year the 
lands of Letham were disponed by James Dundas to Walter, Lord 
Torphichen, to whom, and to James, Master of Torphichen, they were 
confirmed in 1695. James, Lord Torphichen, was seized of the "lands 
of Letham, comprising the mains thereof, and a pendicle called Easter 
and Wester Muirhouse of Letham, or Harrys in the Muir," on 9th June 


Nether Williamston. — The name appears to have been derived 
from the family of Williamson of that Ilk, which at one time possessed 
these lands as well as those of Murieston, and a part at least of Over 


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Williamston. Archibald Williamsoun, portioner of Nayther William- 
ston, and John Williamsoun ane other portioner thereof were bound 
to serve the baron of Calder in all oistis and raids with horse, jak 
speir, steil bonat and other accoutrements when charged thereto 19th 
April 1586. The memory of their connection with the property is 
preserved by an old carved stone (Fig. 10) with the monogram I W, 
and the date 1636, which has been built into the wall of the modem 
farm-steading. These are the initials of James Williamsoun of William- 
stoun, who was retoured heir of his father, James Williamsoun, of the 
same in these and other lands, 4th November 1635. Other particulars 
regarding the family are given in our notices of the Murieston Elstate 
in the following chapter. 

Margaret Sandelandis sumtyme spouse to James Aikman in 
Williamestoune died in the month of december 1573, the inventory of 
her effects being given up by her said spouse as father and administrator 
to James, Johne, Peter and Elspeth Aikmans, her children. Jonet Bruce, 
spouse of David Aikman in Nether Williamston, was executed for 
witchcraft in 1644. 

Fig. la — Carved stone at Nether Williamston. 

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County Seats and Historic Lands. 

Fig. II. — View of Alderston House from N. 

ALDERSTON House is situated at a distance of about 2j miles west 
of the village of Mid-Calder. The original portion, which appears 
to have been erected by Mr Patrick Kinloch, an advocate in Edinburgh, 
who owned the lands in the year 1626, consists of a rectangular tower, 
32 feet long by 21 ft. 6 in. wide, to the southern end of which ex- 
tensive additions have been made, converting it into a mansion of the 
familiar L plan. The modern portions of the structure are indicated by 
the hatching in the annexed ground plan, the original tower being shewn 
in black. The basement flat is vaulted, a massive cylindrical arch, which 
extends the entire length of the ancient building, comprising what is now 
the kitchen, but may in olden times have been the entrance hall. The 


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doorway giving access to this kitchen from the modem part of the mansion 
is clearly the original means of ingress, and the date 1626 is carved upon 

the wall there, near to 
the spring of the arch. 
The S W. wall contain- 
ing the kitchen chimney 
is 7 feet thick on the 
ground floor, and, al- 
though now walled up, 
the appearances both 
above and below lead 
to the suggestion that 
a spiral stair ascends 
to the upper flats in the 
southern corner of this 
wall. Upon the N E. 
gable, immediately be- 
neath the crow steps, 
there is set a moulded 
stone panel evidently 
designed to contain an 
escutcheon ; and the 
protruding stone a little 
lower down (Fig. 11) 
covers a small cupboard, or garde-robe, contrived in the thickness of the 
wall. The dormer windows on the NE. elevation are clearly modem 
additions. Alderstoun House is marked upon Blaeu's map of the locality, 
published in 1662. 

On 13th July 1645 all men within the parish above the age of 
twelve years were warned to present themselves on Alderstoun-muire 
on the following Wednesday, that the republican minister of Calder 
might do a little recruiting for the side he had espoused in the civil 
war ; and there is wisdom certainly in the expedient which he adopted 
to obtain a full muster — "with certificatioun that those that comis not 
sail be those that shall go out to this present expeditioun." 

Fig. 12. — Ground Plan of Alderston House, with section of the 
original structure. 

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Like most other lands in the parish, this property formed part in 
olden times of the barony of Calder; but on 14th February 1696, the 
following lands were erected by William III. into a free barony by charter 
under the Great Seal in favour of Mr John Mitchell of Alderstoun, 
writer in Edinburgh, namely the lands of Over Alderstoun compre- 
hending Alderstoun Mains, Crofthead, Alderstoun Gleib, Muirhouse and 
Binnerflat, as also the lands of Hazlecleugh, Small Mailling, Yellow 
Struther and Thorn. To these various properties the lands of Howat- 
stone, Dyke alias Wester Dressilrig and Nether Alderstone, together with 
those of Cairns and Colzium, were added, and incorporated in the 
foresaid barony of Alderston in 1709. Mr John Mitchell also erected 
" the miln of AlderstQun," to which the vassals and their tenants were 
thirled or bound to send their grain. But the baronial jurisdiction thus 
erected has been gradually alienated and abandoned ; it is long since 
the sound of the grinding was hushed in Alderstoun ; and of any special 
powers or dignities which the lands once possessed the sole remaining 
privilege consists in that undeniable charter of respectability — the right 
to keep a dove-cot. 

At the earliest period to which our researches extend, Alderston was 
held of the Crown by the family of Creichton, who also held the lands of 
Cairns and others in the district. Sir George de Crychtoun of Cairns, 
who was created by James 11. Earl of Caithness, had a charter from that 
monarch on 8th July 1452, of the lands of Cairns, Barnton, Carniehill, 
Alderstoun and Brothertoun, which are by this charter incorporated in 
the Earldom of Caithness. Some additional particulars are given in our 
notices of Cairns at page loi, of the family of Creichton, which continued 
to hold the above named lands until the year 1531, when a third part of 
the town and lands of Ovir Awdenstoun, in the barony of Calder Comitis, 
are alienated and disponed to Mr John Chepman, burgess of Edinburgh, 
and Isobell Hendirsoun, his wife, who render therefor to John Creichtoun 
of Strathurde. Kt., one white rose in name of blench ferme. The charter 
is dated at Edinburgh, 27th February 1531. 

Henry Kinloch in Aldinstoun is the next proprietor mentioned. 
He had a charter of the lands of Nether and Ower Aldinstoun from 
Patrick Houstoun of Houstoun, dated i6th January 1556, to himself in 

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liferent and to Peter Kinloch, his son, in fee, David Kinloch, bui^ess of 
Edinburgh, being amongst the witnesses. He was present at an inquest 
of the barony of Calder held on loth February 1583, for inquiring quhat 
guid statutis suld be made anent the keiping of guid ordor in the 
baronie; and is mentioned also in 1585, but he was deceased prior to 
1 593. His son, 

Mr Peter Kinloch of Alderston, who became a writer in Edin- 
burgh, was articled to Mr Robert Scot of Knichtispottie, Clerk to the Lords 
of Council, and Writer to the College of Justice, in which situation he was 
the colleague for several years of Mr Robert Williamson, afterwards of 
Murieston. In company with Williamson, he witnesses several charters in 
favour of Mr Robert Scot in 1586, when he was " apparent of Alderstoun ; " 
and he is still designed servitor to the said Mr Robert in 1590. Mr 
Peter Kinloch in Owir Awdinstoun was charged to serve the Baron of 
Calder at a Wappinschaw held on the 4th August 1586, and to have a 
horse worth 100 merks, with Jak speir and steil bonat, plait slewis, sword 
and pistoleL There is a precept directed to Mr Petir Kinloch of Alders- 
toun, 31st May 1593, requiring him to give seisin of the lands of Nether 
Howdoun to James Douglas of Nether Howden and Jonet Kinloch his 
wife. He complains to the Privy Council in 1608, of Alexander Kincaid 
and Johnne Cowtis, who, for injury done to Mr Petir Kinloch of Alders- 
toun, are to be apprehended by the Captain of the Guard, and their goods 
inventoried for His Majesty's use; and again at 8th July 1613, Mr Peter 
Kinloche, writer, makes complaint to the Privy Council that Sir Robert 
Creichtoun of Cluny, Knight, remains unrelaxed from a horning of 25th 
June last for not paying to the pursuer £6qo of principal and 100 merks 
of expenses. He died 17th September 1621, nominating Mr Patrick 
Kinloch, his eldest son, his only executor, to whom he leaves the sole 
disposjil of his effects. His testament is dated at Edinburgh i6th May 
1621, wherein he is designed Mr Peter Kinloch of Alderstoun, writer 
and indweller in Edinburgh. He had two sons, Mr Patrick, above- 
named, and John, mentioned in 1623 and 1624, but deceased at 28th 
November 1625, when Mr Patrick was seized of an annual rent of 400 
merks out of the lands of Howatston and Gaviesyde, as lawful and nearest 
heir of the late John Kinloch, his brother. 

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Mr Patrick Kinloch of Alderston, advocate, the next laird, is a 
witness to a seisin of the lands of Grange of Breich, 25th July 162 1, when 
he was "son of Mr Peter Kinloch of Alderstoun " ; he was served heir of 
his said father in certain lands and tenements in Edinburgh on the 
6th December 1621, and of John Kinloch, his brother-german, 29th 
July 1625. 

In the years 162 1 and 1622 there are two precepts of dare constat in 
his favour, the one by James, Lord Torphichen, and the other by Sir 
Ludovic Houstoun of that Ilk, as nearest lawful heir of the late Mr Peter 
Kinloch, writer, bui^ess of Edinburgh, his father, of all and whole the lands 
of Over and Nether Alderstoun, with tenants, tenandries, and service of free 
tenants in the barony of Calder Comitis. He was an elder of the parish 
church, and on various occasions took an active and influential part in 
promoting the efficiency and usefulness of that institution ; in 1626 he 
undertook the collection of a taxation of ;f 240 imposed upon the parish for 
procuring a church bell. He was admitted a member of the Faculty of 
Advocates, 21st March 1627; and he died on the 4th November 1639, 
leaving a legacy to the Kirk of Calder. 

1654, August 17th — Appoyntes James Flint to give a merk to the baillie to geive for 
the decreit of the Legasie that was left to the Kirk by Maister Patrick Kinioche of 

He married Agnes Scot, third daughter of Mr Laurence Scot of 
Harperrig, to whom he gave a charter of ane Lyfrent off ane chalder Beir 
and ane chalder Aitmeill and tua doosen kayne foules out of the lands of 
Over and Nether Alderstoun 4th October 1622. Mr James Scot, one of 
the Clerks of Session, and Mr William Scot, advocate, are amongst the 
witnesses. With this lady, who was still living in 1664, he had James, who 
succeeded him ; William, his second son, mentioned in his will ; Lawrence, 
baptized nth March 1625 ; Elizabeth, eldest daughter ; Barbara, baptized 
4th September 1638, married Charles Oliphant, writer in Edinburgh ; 
Abigail married Mr Andro Kinneir, minister at Stirling, and had issue ; 
and Marion. 

James Kinloch of Alderston was seized of a third part of the toun 
and lands of Over Aldinstoun in the barony of Calder, as also of the lands 

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of Howatston and Gaviesyde upon a precept of Clare Constat by John, 
Lord Torphichen, as heir of the deceast Mr Patrick Kinloch of Over 
Aldinstoun, his father, I2th August 1640. There is also a precept for 
his infeftment in the lands of Over and Nether Alderston by Sir Ludovick 
Houstoun of that Ilk, dated 7th June 1640. In company with the lairds 
of Linhouse and tharlesfield, he was ordained in the year 1645 to keep 
the doors of the parish church on Sundays and preaching days during 
the continuance of the plague in the district, to see that no strangers nor 
persons suspected of the pestilence came within the church. Interrogated 
by the parish minister in the following year regarding compliance with 
Montrose, Mr James Kynloche of Alderstoun declaired that he never 
procured a protectioun from Jamis Grahame, nor from any other of 
that factioun. 

In the year 1648 there are several dispositions affecting the pro- 
perty, which was conveyed by charter ana seisin to various persons, 
but always, it would appear, under equity of redemption by the lawful 
heir. On 12th February a charter of Over and Nether Alderston was 
granted by Mr James Kinloch of Auldinstoun in favour of Mr Francis 
Kinloch, Merchant and Factor in Paris, Henry Kinloch, Merchant, Burgess 
of Edinburgh, being amongst the witnesses. Then, on the 8th April, the 
same lands, including those of Howatston and Gavieside, were assigned by 
Mr Francis, for the sum of ;£^8,8i6, to Mr Laurence Scot of Bavilaw, who 
had seisin loth May 1648. By this proprietor the estate was again trans- 
ferred to Abraham Pargillies in the Lynhous, who paid ;£"7,6o8, 6s. Scots, 
for Over and Nether Alderstons and Howatston, without Gavieside, under 
reversion always to Mr James Kinloch of Alderston, who might redeem 
the lands upon payment to Pargillies of ;£^7,6o8, 6s. 2d. This was in 1653 ; 
and three years later, namely on 15th March 1656, the above-mentioned 
reversion was assigned by Mr James to Walter, Lord Torphichen, who 
in terms thereof redeemed the lands and had a renunciation of the same 
in his favour by Abraham Pargillies 2Sth November 1658. Letters of 
Inhibition against Mr James Kinloch are frequent at this period, one in 
1652 being " by authority of the Keepers of the Liberty of England," and 
another in 1657 "under the signet of Oliver Cromwell." The lands 
belonging to the estate in 1664 are set forth in a disposition by Mr James 

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Kinloch of Aldinstoune to Charles Oliphant, Writer in Edinburgh, his 
brother-in-law, namely those of Over and Nether Alderstouns, with manor 
place, Crofthead, Zett aikeris, Bennerflatt, and Murehouses, with the com- 
monty of the common muire of Aldinstoun, the lands of Howatston and 
Gaviesyde, all in the barony of Calder ; dated at Alderstoune 20th August, 
1664. Four years later the lands were woodset by Walter, Lord Torphichen, 
and Mr James Kinloch for the sum of 8000 merks to James Dundas, 
youngest son of George Dundas of that Ilk, who had seisin 7th August 
1668. Our next notice of the property is at 5th March 1692, when a 
disposition of the lands of Over Aldingstoun, comprehending Aldingstone 
Maynes, Crofthead, Haslecleuch, Aldingstone Gleib, etc., in the barony 
of Calder, was granted by Walter, Lord Torphichen, with consent of 
Christian Primrose, his wife, in favour of Mr John Mitchell of Todshaugh, 
in the parish of Kirkliston, who had seisin thereupon. 

Mr John Mitchell of Alderstoun was a writer in Edinburgh. Our 
first notice of him is at 3rd March 1680, when he had a charter under the 
Great Seal of the lands of Todshaugh, with manor place, etc., as the same 
were sometime possessed by James Wast, afterwards by Robert Allan, and 
thereafter by Francis Galloway of Todshaugh, formerly lying in the barony 
of Inglistoun and now in the shire of Linlithgow.^ He had a disposition 
of the lands of Over Alderstoun and others, as already narrated, 5th March 
1692, and obtained from King William a charter thereupon, under the 
Great Seal, erecting and incorporating the various lands therein specified 
into a free barony, to be called the barony of Aldingstoun, and held of the 
Sovereign in blench ferm, fee and heritage, with tenants, tenandries and 
service of free tenants, by all rights, ways, etc., with mills, multures, hawk- 
ings, huntings, and fishings, with courts, plaints, herezeldis, bluidwites, in- 
fangthief, outfangthief, pitt, stocks, and gallows,^ paying to the Crown 
therefor two shillings of silver at each feast of Pentecost, if demanded 
only. This charter is dated at Edinburgh, 14th February 1696. At a sub- 
sequent period he acquired from Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse the 
lands of Wester Dressilrig, now called Westfield, and those of Nether 

^ The name of these lands was in the i8th century ahered to its more euphonious equiva- 
lent of Foxhall. 

^ For explanation of these terms, see footnote at page 251. 

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Alderstoun, which are confirmed to him by James, Lord Torphichen, with 
consent of Thomas Marjoribanks of that Ilk, 17th December 1701 ; also 
from various other proprietors, the lands of ^^^ -y -^ >^ 

Cairns Easter and Wester, Baadpark, Wester jg^fffJ^'^'^T^^^ 
Colzium, and Howatston, confirmed by Lord 
Torphichen, 29th July 1708 ; and which several 
lands are, by Crown charter of 9th February Fig. i3.-^ignature of Mr John 
1709, disjoined from the barony of Calder and 

all other baronies to which they were previously annexed, and united to 
the barony of Alderston. Mr John was ordained an elder of Mid-Calder 
parish church 9th October 1698, and was a very regular attendant 
in the Session until 1727. In the year 1722 he was retoured heir of 
his sister, Annabella Mitchell, and in the same year heir of provision 
of Mr James Forrester of Logic. He married (contract dated nth 
August 1687) Isabella Borthuik daughter of Alexander Borthuik of 
Falahill, to whom he gave seisin in liferent of his roume of land called 
the Mains of Aldingstoun and that part of his estate called Dale 
Acres or Aldingstoun Gleib, 13th March 1702. They had two sons. 
Walter and William, and three daughters, Barbara; Elizabeth, born 12th 
August 1708 ; and Margaret; and he died in the month of July 1730. His 
testament is recorded 14th January 1741, William Mitchell, his only son 
then in life, being nominated executor and intromitter. Walter Mitchell 
of Listounshiells, the elder son, died previous to the 21st March 1740, 
when his brother, William Mitchell, was his heir of the lands of Listoun- 
shiells, Easter Colzium and Bents. William, the second son is designed 
chirurgeon apothecary and convener of the Trades in Edinburgh. He 
was retoured heir of provision of Mr John Mitchell of Alderstoun, his father, 
5th December 1738, and he was in the same year admitted to the elder- 
ship in this parish; he died before 13th June 1748, when his sisters 
above-named were his heirs in certain tenements in Edinburgh at the foot 
of the Canon gate thereof. 

The estate and barony of Alderstoun was at this period exposed to 
public sale by William Mitchell, chirurgeon, and other trustees nominated 
by Mr John Mitchell, when John Bell, merchant and late bailie of Edin- 
burgh, was preferred to the purchase as the highest bidder, he having 

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offered twenty-four years' purchase of the free rent and ;f 380 sterling more, 
amounting to ;^42,9I7, 12s. Scots. 

John Bell of Alderston, at Whitsunday 1736, made payment of this 
sum, together with annual rent thereon since Candlemas 1729, conform to 
the articles of roup extending in whole to ;^S8,349, 4s. 7d. Scots ; and he 
had a renunciation of the property from William Mitchell of Alderston for 
himself and on behalf of the other parties interested, dated at Edinburgh, 
29th March 1738. The property so conveyed included the Alderston 
estate, the lands of Westfield, etc., but the deed specially excepts the lands 
of West Cairns, West Colzium, and Wester Causewayend, which had 
previously been disponed to other purchasers. This proprietor died in 
Edinburgh on 3rd November 1738, Charles Bell, his eldest son, being 
executor dative. The testament makes mention of the late Mareon Gray, 
sometime spouse to the deceased, and the free gear amounts to 
;^ 10,488, 14s. 8d.; and from another contemporary document we learn that 
Mr Bell married a second time to Barbara Rule, and that his younger 
children were Robert, John, Archibald, Barbara, Margaret, Elizabeth, and 
Katharine. On 23rd April 1740, Charles Bell, eldest son and heir served 
and retoured to the late John Bell of Alderston, dispones the estate to 
John Cochran, merchant and late bailie of Edinburgh, son of Mungo 
Cochran of Hillhead. 

John Cochran of Alderston obtained a Crown charter of the lands 
and barony, comprehending the lands of Alderston, etc., with mill lately 
built thereon by the deceased Mr John Mitchell, Dyke or Wester 
Dresilrig, Yellowstruther and Bents (which lands of Bents are by this 
charter disjoined from the barony of Calder and united to that of Alder- 
ston), dated at Edinburgh 23rd June 1740. He married Janet Broun with 
whom he had several children, namely, William ; John, born 1741 ; 
George, born 1746; and Janet, born 1743 ; and he died on 2nd July 1749. 
He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

William Cochran of Alderston, who had a precept furth of chancery 
as heir of his father in the above-named lands dated loth August 1750. 
Very shortly thereafter the property was again sold, James Gartshore, 
clerk to the Signet, being the purchaser. 

James Gartshore of Alderston was a writer to the Signet in very 


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extensive practice in Edinburgh, if we may judge by the frequency of the 
occurrence of his name in the records relating to that period. He was 
a son of Mr James Gartshore, minister of Carmichael, and was admitted 
to the society of Writers to His Majesty's Signet on 6th October 1729. 
He had a charter from the Crown on his own resignation of the lands and 
barony of Alderston, with manor place, etc., comprehending, as formerly 
specified, to him and to James Gartshore his only son, the child of the 
deceased Mistress Jean Scott, his spouse, dated at Edinburgh 23rd 
February 1753. His first wife was Jean Scott, third daughter of Sir 
Patrick Scott of Ancrum, Bart., and widow of David Muirhead, younger 
of Linhouse, with whom he had James, before-mentioned, and a daughter, 
Jane, who married in 1755 Thomas Tod of Drygrange, W.S. Jean Scott 
died before 1753, and the laird of Alderston espoused secondly, in the 
month of June 1756, Helen, daughter of John Spottiswoode, advocate, 
to whom he gave a liferent annuity of ;£"i50 sterling out of the lands and 
barony of Alderston in terms of the contract of marriage between them. 
He executed an entail in favour of James Gartshore, his son, and certain 
other heirs of taillie therein mentioned, 25th July 1767 ; and he died on 23rd 
January 1774. 

James Gartshore of Alderston, who succeeded his father, was a 
writer in Edinburgh in 1762, when he witnesses a seisin of the lands of 
Linhouse and others in favour of Alexander Muirhead ; and he had 
a precept of Clare Constat as nearest heir of the deceased James Gartshore, 
of Alderston, his father, 6th October 1774. In 1778 he granted a feu- 
charter of the lands of Nether Alderston to John Gordon, junior, W.S., 
and in the following year he conveyed the lands and barony of Over 
Alderston to trustees whom he directed to provide thereout for the 
jointure of £\^o sterling annually to Mrs Helen Spottiswoode, "his 
mother-in-law" \i.e, step-mother], widow of James Gartshore, last of Alder- 
ston, his father; to pay a principal sum of £^000 sterling due to George, 
Earl of Glasgow, and contained in a bond upon the said lands ; and to 
discharge the claims of certain other creditors. This trust- disposition is 
dated at Alderston, 6th July 1779. 

James Dunn of Alderston was laird in 1798, and at sth October 
1799, when Isabella Dunn, his second daughter, was married to Robert 

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Gordon of Jamaica. In the year 1802 Mr Dunn is described as of Heriot 
Row, Edinburgh, and the title of the lands and barony of Alderston 
vested at that period in his brother-in-law, Richard Dickson of Logie- 
green, the brother of Mary Dickson his wife. This gentleman died before 
nth November 1803, ^md the property was, by disposition dated 15th 
June 1807, conveyed by his trustees to Miss Elizabeth Bruce, eldest 
daughter of David Bruce of Kinnaird, county Stirling, and sister of James 
Bruce of Kinnaird, the celebrated African traveller, and explorer of the 
sources of the Nile. The family which now became proprietors of Alder- 
ston, could thus claim to be lineal descendants of the hero of Bannockburn, 
although in the male line they were not Bruces but Hays, David Bruce of 
Kinnaird before alluded to, being a son of David Hay of Woodcockdale, 
in Linlithgowshire, who took the surname of Bruce on his marriage with 
Helen Bruce, the heiress of Kinnaird. She was succeeded by William 
Bruce of Alderston, who had seisin of the estate on 17th May 1827, upon an 
assignation by Miss Bruce's trustees, under burden of annuities to each of 
his sisters, Elizabeth, Agnes and Margaret Bruce ; and he continued laird 
of Alderston for a period of upwards of thirty years. Dying unmarried, 
Mr Bruce bequeathed the property to Mrs Janet Bathgate Colquhoun, wife 
of Dr James Marr, a physician in Edinburgh, by whom it was again 
conveyed, on the 14th May 1873, to John Wilson of Alderston, the present 

The farms in this parish attached to the estate are those of Crofthead 
and Hazelcleuch, Adambrae, Rosebank, Brucefield, etc. 

Upon a funeral escutcheon of Mary Oliphant, Countess of Strath- 
more, who died in 1731, the coat of Kinloch of Alderston is emblazoned 
as the fourth of the seize quartiers. It is azure, a boar's head betwixt 
three mascles argent 

Nether Alderston. 

These lands, including those of Adambrae Mill, form part of the 
Livingston estate of the Earl of Rosebery. In the early history of the 
property it is a little difficult rightly to discriminate between Over and 
Nether Alderston, but it appears that the latter was the heritage of the 
Muirheads of Lachope. 

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Symon Cowpland was tenant in Aldanestoun in 1482, holding under 
William Murhede of Lachope for the payment of xij merkis of siluer at 
one term of the year and xij bolls of meal at the other term. In the 
year mentioned, the tenandry was in the hands of the superior John 
Sandylans of Caldor, Knicht, as regards the uplifting of the second of 
these tcrmly payments, Lachope being entitled to the twelve merks ; but 
Symon makes complaint that each of these his over-lords has wrangwis 
withaldin fra him doubill malis of ye saide landis of Aldanestoun, namely 
24 merks withholden by William Murhede and 24 bolls of meal by John 
of Sandylans. The Lords Auditors decern the double rent to be restored 
to the tenant pending a settlement of the dispute between the baron and 
his vassal, 12th December 1482. In the year 1516, James Mureheid of 
Laichop raised an action against John Hamilton in Alderstoun for 
wrongous ejection and outputting of Patrick Wellis his servant, out of his 
third part of the lands of Alderstoun, and for destroying his house and 
biggings, so that the same had lain waste for two years. Decreet is given 
against the defender 20th January 1516-17, who is ordered to restore a 
certain quantity of victual and a number of cattle, etc., or the value 
thereof. Johnne Muirheid in Nayther Audinstoune attended a Baron 
Court of Caldcr Comitis in 1583, and his name appears in the list of 
vassals in 1586. On 12th February 1624, James Mureheid of Lachoipe 
is retoured heir of James Mureheid of the same, his father, in the 40s. 
land of Nether Alderstoun, in the barony of Calder Comitis. This 
James Muirhead was seized of the lands on precept by Lord Torphichen 
on 26th August 1628; and with consent of James Muirhead, his son, 
and of Marie Dalzell, spouse of the younger James, he grants a 
charter of the lands of Nether Alderston to John Muirhead of Eister 
Inch of Bathgate, dated at Lauchop 3rd November 163 1. And in 
the following year a fcu-ferm of 200 merks out of the lands of Nether 
Alderston was given by the same parties to John Muirhead of Wester 
Inch of Bathgate. This is the same John Muirhead who about the same 
period acquired the estate of Linhouse in this parish, to which the lands 
of Nether Alderston were for several generations attached. 

The testament of Elizabeth Muirhead, spouse of James Flint in 
Nether Alderston, is dated 21st September 1657, ^^^ she died shortly 

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thereafter, nominating her said husband only executor and legator, and 
leaving to him her whole effects. The Lord Torphichen and John 
Hamilton of Grange are amongst the debtors, and John Muirhead of 
Linhouse is a creditor. James Flynt in Nether Alderstoun was ordained 
an elder of the parish church I2th August 1621, and in 1643 was appointed 
also collector of church penalties. He was deceased in 1666, when 
mention is made of Margaret Libbertoune, his widow. In 1664 Mr John 
Muirhead of Linhouse gave seisin in liferent of his lands of Nether 
Alderston, amongst others, to Agnes Murray his promised wife, in terms 
of the contract of marriage between them ; and the lands are again 
specially designated in a precept of Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse 
as son and heir of Mr John Muirhead above mentioned, 4th March 1680. 

The name of James Smith in Nether Alderston occurs frequently in 
the parish records; he was admitted to the eldership 24th December 1663, 
and two years later had seisin of certain houses at the West Bow of 
Edinburgh. James Smith, possessor of Nether Alderston, had a dis- 
position of the lands by Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse, dated at 
Linhouse 17th November 1707 ; and he obtained a charter thereupon dated 
at Mid-Calder 31st January 1708. He died previous to 1723, and his 
daughter Isobel became the first wife of the Rev. Gilbert Hamilton, D.D., 
minister of Cramond, on 9th January 1742. 

The lands of Nether Alderston are amongst those which, in the year 
1769, were disjoined from the barony of Calder, and annexed, by Crown 
charter, in favour of Mr John Mitchell, to the barony of Alderston ; and 
Adambrae Mill ivas erected on the lands by Mr Mitchell very shortly 
thereafter. There is, at this point, an apparent double proprietorship, 
which we may account for by supposing that James Smith and his heirs 
held the lands, or the greater portion of them, under the Baron of Alder- 
ston, as superior, which seems to have been the case. However this may 
be, it is clear that, in 1762, these lands formed part of the actual possessions 
in property of the Gartshores of Alderston. They were burdened in 1769 
by James Gartshore W.S., with a liferent annuity to Helen Spottiswoode, 
his wife; and they were inherited by the younger James Gartshore of 
Alderston in 1774. By this proprietor there is a feu-charter of the lands 
of Nether Alderston, " which are retoured to be a 40s land of old extent 

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conform to a retour thereof to James Muirhead of Lachope, as heir in 
special to James Muirhead of Lachope, his father, of date 12th February 
1624," in favour of John Gordon, junior, writer to the Signet, dated at 
Edinburgh, 24th December 1777. From Mr Gordon the estate passed to 
Isaac Grant, W.S., who had a charter thereof under the Great Seal, 3rd 
February 1778. He was a son of John Grant in Belnatomb, and after 
being apprenticed to Mr James Gartshore of Alderston, W.S., was admitted 
a member of the Society on ist July 1763. He acted for some time 
as clerk to the Commissioners of Teinds; and he died, 27th December 
1794, aged seventy. By his testamentary trustees, the property of Nether 
Alderston was conveyed on 13th July 1797 to John Balfour of Balbirny. 
This laird also obtained a crown Charter of the lands, dated 20th December 
181 1, to him, and to Lieut.-Colonel Robert Balfour of the 2nd or Royal 
North British Dragoons, his eldest son, in liferent and fee respectively. 
And by these proprietors the lands were again disponed to the Earl of 
Rosebery, to whose representative they now belong. 

The Muirheads of Lachope bore : Argent, on a bend azure, a mullet 
betwixt two acorns of the first. 

Fig. 14. — View of Bankton House from S. 


Bankton House, the seat of James Paterson of Bankton, is situated 
beside the Murleston water, at a distance of rather more than a mile from 
the village. It is a substantial structure, with a handsome facade in the 

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Graecoltalian style, and with a low wing at either end, extending to the 
stables and offices in the rear of the mansion. The house was erected 
by James Bruce, Secretary of Excise for Scotland, the proprietor of the 
lands in 1812; and the work was carried out by Charles Black, a well-known 
builder in Edinburgh, at the commencement of the present century, whose 
two sons, Messrs Adam and Charles Black, became still more distinguished 
in their day and profession, as the founders of the eminent firm of 
publishers which bears their name. The detail and proportions of the 
front elevation are excellent, and the work throughout has been well 
executed, the two columns which support the porch being monoliths. In 
the garden there is a sundial of the usual horizontal type, which bears the 
inscription : — "Engraved for James Bruce, Esq., 18 17." 

The modern name of Bankton was bestowed upon the property by 
Mr Bruce already mentioned ; the ancient name is Cockrig, and the lands 
formed part of the barony of Calder. Walter Tennent in Cockrig was . 
decerned to make payment of certain moneys to John Pargillie, on ist 
February 1585, and is likewise mentioned in a list of the occupiers 
of the tierce lands of the barony, 12th March 1590. Occasional re- 
ferences to Cockrig also appear in the transactions of our Kirk- 
Session in the 17th century. Thus, on 26th October 1646, Hew 
Walker, having slandered Jamis Aikmane in Cockrigs, is ordained 
to mak his publict repentance and satisfactioun therefor, in the face 
of the congregatioun. The history of the proprietorship is the same 
as that of Easter Murieston until the i8th November 175 1, when that 
part of the lands of Murieston called Cockrig were disponed by 
Capt. George Dick of Greenbank to James Wylie in Mid-Calder, son of 
Alexander Wylie there. This gentleman also acquired the lands of 
Annetscross, near Bradshaw, and died at Mid-Calder on 21st April 1778, 
in his eighty-third year. He was twice married, firstly in 1728 to Helen 
Peebles, who died in 1764, aged seventy-three; and secondly, to Jean 
Dickson, a descendant of the family of Hartree, who died 9th December 
1780, in her fifty-seventh year. By his second wife he had an only son, 
James Wylie, W.S., of Cockrig and Annetscross, clerk to the Signet, and 
a magistrate for the county of Edinburgh, who was seized of the lands of 
Easter and Wester Cockrig, on a precept of Clare Constat in his favour by 

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James, Lord Torphichen, dated ist May 1785, and was also superior of 
Easter Murieston, and of Meadowhead, Powbeth, and Addiewell, in West 
Calder parish. He died 21st July 1812. On Sth July 1805 he obtained 
a charter of resignation of the lands of Cockrig under the Great Seal, 
which property he disponed in the same year to James Bruce, Accountant 
General of Excise in Edinburgh, whose seisin took place on nth April 
1807. This proprietor had a feu charter of the East Park of Murieston, 
with the teinds thereof, from Roger Aytoun of Murieston, W.S., lOth 
April 1807, and he subsequently acquired a portion, extending to about 
twenty-five acres, of the lands of Dressilrig, called Sandygate, which were 
incorporated in one estate, thenceforth called Bankton, Mr Bruce married 
Martha Gloag, and died on 13th February 1826, aged seventy-three 
years, leaving four sons and three daughters, namely, John of Bankton, 
who died in 1853, aged 62; Archibald of Bankton; Thomas, W.S., died 
1837, aged 41; James, M.D., died 1828, aged 21; Martha, died 1840, 
aged 40; Isabella, married George M*Mikin Torrance of Threave; and 
Miss Margaret Jean Bruce. The property was sold by the eldest son 
to his brother, Archibald Bruce, who Was an accountant in Edinburgh, 
where he died unmarried in 1867 in the seventy-second year of his age. 
After his death the estate was alienated by Thomas Bruce, merchant in 
Liverpool, proprietor in fee, with consent of Isabella Bruce or Torrance 
and Margaret Jean Bruce, life-renters of the subjects, to Robert Mason 
of Meadowbank, near Edinburgh, the disposition in whose favour is dated 
loth May 1869. He held the property only until 1871, when it was again 
conveyed to the present proprietor. 


The old castle of Cairns, which for upwards of four and a half 
centuries has reared its massive head against the storms and tempests of 
the upland district of the parish in which it is situated, is understood to 
have been built about the year 1440 by Admiral Creichtoun, Earl of 
Caithness, in whose family the property remained for several generations. 
Our earliest notice of the Creichtouns is at 2nd February 1418, when 
Stephan de Creciitoun de Carnis appears amongst the witnesses to a 

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charter of the lands of Warmiston in the barony of Ratho, in favour of 
Andrew Wardlaw, by Robert Duke of Albany, regent of Scotland, at 
Strivelyn, 2nd Feb. 141 8. He had two sons, namely, George of Cairns 
and James of Ruthven, provost of Edinburgh in 1478. The latter is 

Fig. 15. — View of Cairns Castle from E, 

designated "brother of George de Crechtoun of Carnis, knight" in a 
charter in his favour of the lands of Ruthven in the lordship of Brechin, 
29th April 1452 ; and his descendants continued to hold that estate for 
several generations. 

George de Crychtoun, son and heir of Stephen de Crychtoun 
of Cairns, grants a charter of all his lands in the toun of Lanyng in the 


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barony of Cramond* to Edward Crechtoun of Kretilhoi 
1427. He was knighted before 1440; was admiral of th< 
1449 to 1453 ; and in the last-mentioned year was create 
Earl of Caithness for his good and faithful services. H 
witness to the charters of James II. between 1439 and 1 
lands were bestowed upon him in the counties of Inverr 
Dumfries, as well as in Edinburgh, and Linlithgow shire 
Castle of Cairns, which he is said to have erected, he h 
ness Castle, whence he occasionally took his designation 
is told that he was confined for a certain period in his cas 
by his own son. Sir James Creichtoun. He is desigi 
Crechtoun de Blaknesse, Knycht, on 22nd December 1431 
nesses at Lanark a charter to Lord James Douglas. < 
Earl of Caithness, George de Creichtoun, admiral, had 
the Crown, on his own resignation of the barony of 
barony of Strathurd, half the barony of Whitburn, the \\ 
Bernetoune, Carnyhill, Aldinstoun, and Brethertoun in 
Edinburgh, the lands of Grestoun and Gillishauch, cc 
others, which the King, with advice of his parliament, 
the earldom of Caithness, at Edynburgh, 8th July, 1452. 
have been twice married. The second wife was Jon( 
William Borthwick- of Borthwick, and relict of James D< 
Dalkeith, whom he married in 1452 ; and he was decease 
March 1460, leaving three sons and a daughter, namely 
Cairns; Patrick, mentioned in 1491 ; John, mentioned als 
Jonet, who in 1460 was the wife of John Maxwell. 

Sir James Creichtoun of Cairns, who is said to hav 
father in his own castle of Blackness, is mentioned as lair 
he sold and alienated the lands of Grevistoun and Gil 
county of Peebles. He is designed as James Creichtoui 
Knight, in charters of James III. in 1472 and 1491 ; and ' 

* The Rev. Dr Sommers, in his account of the Parish, published ii 
tradition respecting the Castle of Cairns, that it was " founded by Sir Wil 
High Admiral of Scotland, who had a possession in the parish of Cramond 
report is destitute of any historical proof. This appears therefore to afford £ 
tnith of history being preserved during 400 years, in the unstable grasp of lege 

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8th April 1492, when Andrew his son had a grant of land in Edinburgh 
beneath the castle wall thereof. He married a sister of Mr William 
Levenax of Caly, and had two sons, Sir James of Cairns, and Andrew 
above-named, and two daughters, Margaret and Marion, who also sur- 
vived him. 

Sir James Creichtoun of Cairns, the elder son of the foregoing, is 
styled son and heir-apparent of Sir James Creichtoune of Carnis iSth 
October 1472, when he obtained a grant of lands from James III. to him 
and to Margaret his wife. There appears also an item of ;f66, 13s. 4d. 
in the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland in the year 
1490-1, as due from Schir James Crechtoun of the Carnis, as a composi- 
tion for a charter of tailze of his lands. He acquired various lands in 
Perthshire, and was on 7th June 1493 appointed Coroner for that county. 

Sir John Creichtoun of Cairns is the next laird mentioned. With 
Elizabeth Lyoun, his wife, he had from James V. a charter of lands in 
Clackmannanshire, 31st August 1529, which his Majesty unites and erects 
into the barony of Strathurde, and from which he thenceforth took his 
designation. Sir John Creichtoun of Straithurde and Jonet Sincler, his 
spouse, are mentioned in a charter of the lands of Petlandy, 2nd August 
*535> and in 1547 he was appointed by the Privy Council one of the 
arbiters on behalf of Lord Ruthven and his followers, at feud with Lord 
Gray and others, to convene at Edinburgh, the 28 day of April nixtocum, 
to appunct and aggre upon all maner of querelis, debatis, and contra- 
versyis quhatsumevir standing betwix thame, 9th May 1547. By him the 
lands of Cairns, Shielhill and Brotherton were alienated to John Tennent, 
in whose family they remained for about 150 years. 

John Tennent of Cairns was a son of Alan Tennent in Wester 
Colzium, and he became an officer of the Household of King James V. 
He was descended of a family long connected with Edinburgh, a branch 
of which became landed proprietors in this district about this period. 
John Tennent was an esquire or man-at-arms in the Castle of Edinburgh 
in 1337 stud in 1340; James Tennent was baron-bailie of Calder in 
1478. John Tennent, familiar servant to the King, had a charter of 
the lands of Listounschiels, dated 26th February 1537, from Walter, Lord 
St John, Knight of Jerusalem and Preceptor of Torphichen, to him and 
to Mariota Achisoun his spouse and their heirs, whom failing, then to 

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Patrick Tennent, brother-german of the said John. He had also a charter 
of vendition and alienation of all and sindrie the lands of eister Carnis 
with the tower tharof, and of all and sindrie the lands of Schielhill and 
Broyrtoun with their pertinents, from James Creichtoun of Strathurd, 
Knyt, with remainder also to his brother Patrick, failing heirs of his own 
body, which charter was confirmed by John Sandilands, fiar of Calder, in 
the year 1542. He died without descendants and was succeeded by his 
said brother. 

Patrick Tennent of Cairns is first mentioned on loth October 
1539, when he had a charter of West Colzame from John Sandilands, fiar 
of Calder, which narrates that the lands are occupied by Alan Tennent, his 
father. The charter is to Patrick Tennent, burgess of Edinburgh, and 
Elizabeth Hoppar his wife and their heirs. On 25th May 1541, he had 
another charter from Andrew Abbot of Melrose, of the ;^io land of 
Hairhoip in the county of Peebles, to him and his said spouse, and to 
James Tennent, his son and apparent heir, upon the resignation of John 
Tennent, servitor to our Sovereign Lord, brother of the said Patrick. He 
ultimately succeeded his brother in the lands of Easter Cairns and 
Listounschiels, as appears by the following confirmation, produced by 
his grandson, and recorded in the books of the Baron Court of Calder 
in 1586. 

1586, April 19. — Compeirit Johnne Tennand appearand of Caimis and producit ane 
confirmatioun gewin be Johne Sandilandis fear of Calder, with consent of James Sandi- 
landis of Calder, Knycht, franktenementar of ye said baronie, of ane charter of vendition 
and alienation of his loving tenant J hone Creichtoun of Strathurde, Knyt, maid to ane 
honest man Jon tennent, familiar servitor to umqll our Souerane that last decessit, and 
to Marioun Aitkinsoun his spouse and the airs to be lauchfuUie gottin betuix thame, qlk 
failzeing to ye airis lauchfullie to be gottin of the sd Johnis bodie, qlk failzeing to Patrik 
tenent, broyr-german to ye said Johne and his airs quhatsumewir, off all and sindrie ye 
said Johne Creichtoun's lands off Eister Carnis with ye tower tharof, and of all and sindrie 
his lands of Schielhill and Broyrtoun with their pertinents, to be halden fra the sd John 
Creichtoun and his airis, and of ye baron of ye baronie of Calder Comitis. At Edyn- 
burgh, xvj. Junii 1542 zeiris. 

James Tennent of Cairns, who is mentioned as apparent heir in the 
charter of 1541, succeeded his father above named. On 8th December 
1582, he makes complaint to the Privy Council against John, Earl of 
Mortoun, warden and justice of the West Marches of this realme, that 

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upon " alhallowevin last wes " certain commoun and notorious thevis, of 
the names of Armstrang and Littil, being the said earl's proper men, 
tenants and dependers, came with their accomplices under silence of night 
to his lands of Hairhoip in Tweddell, " and thair thiftuouslie straw, reft, 
and away tuke six scoir and ten yowis and weddiris pertening to him." 
The earl, having failed to appear, is denounced a rebel and put to the 
horn. James Tennent of Cairnis attended a Court of the Barony on ist 
February 1585 ; he is mentioned amongst the vassals bound to present 
themselves at Wappenschaws in 1586; and his name likewise appears in a 
list of" Landit men" prepared for James VI. in 1590. 

1588, Aprilis 9 — The qlk day the bailie decerns James tennent of Cairns as cautioner 
for Patrick tennent, to pay to George tennent in Calsayend, xxxiij s. iiij d. for ii firlots 
blak aittis. Item for melt and drink furaeisit to him betuix alhalowmess and zuill 1586, 
V merks vj s. viij d. 

James Tennent of Cairnis was protected by the Privy Council 12th 
June 1590, and on the 19th of the same month James Lawsoun in Cairn- 
mure became caution for James Tennent of Cairnis in ;^iooo, and for 
Johnne Tennent, younger of Cairnis, in ;f 500, that they should not molest 
sundry persons. James is likewise mentioned as an absentee from a 
Baron Court held on 27 April 1591. The lonely situation of the old 
tower, remote as it was from any centre of habitation, is sufficient to 
justify the strength of its walls and defences, but this did not prevent 
the lands from being exposed to frequent depredations of border thieves 
in the lawless days of James VI.'s reign. Accordingly, we find Lance 
Armstrang of Quhythauch, and other Armstrongs, Scotts, and Elliots, 
for whom Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm is answerable, upon 9th August 
1600, stole furth of the lands of Cairnis, four scoir oxen together with 
horses to the value of 6000 merks, and slew the following persons \nafnes 
blank in register\ and dismembered divers other good subjects quha rais 
to the fray for reskewing the saidis guidis. As the delinquents are 
" disobedient and unansuerable thewis and lymnaris haveing schaikin af 
all feir of God, reverence of the law and regaird of honestie,*' and from 
whom no redress can be got, the laird of Branxholm is directed to enter 
them before the Council on isth March ensuing, or else to compensate Sir 
James Sandilands, in whose name the complaint is made, according to the 
following prices : viz., five oxen worth ;£ioo, five kye worth j^SO, five oxen 

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worth lOO merks, a horse and a mare worth lOO merks, " ane grite broun 
horse " worth 500 merks, a young gray stainit horse worth 1000 merks, a 
gray hackney worth 200 merks, "ane lyart haknay " worth 100 merks, a 
black nag worth ;^30, and a brown horse worth 100 merks, — the corn- 
plainer having by his "grit aith" declared that the goods were of the 
value forsaid. 

James Tennent of Cairnis makes his complaint to the Privy Council 
in November of the same year, that Sir Michael Balfour of Burley had 
charged him to buy a stand of horseman's arms, conform to the Act of 
Estates requiring the proprietors of lands to maintain warlike equipments. 
The "pruife of the lance and sword " was to cost £s^> and the "pruife of 
hacquebute " £60, The complainer, however, alleges that he is " bot ane 
verie meane man," liferenter of a roum called Hairhoip, whereof his son is 
fiar, which yields only 300 merks, and that he has nothing else to sustain 
him " now in his ageit and latter dayis." And true it is that he is already 
provided with better arms than is required for a person of his degree, 
namely, a jack, knapscaw, spear, plait-sleeves, hagbut and gauntlet, and, 
being past the age of sixty years, is exempt from military service. 
Further, he is subject to " dyvers diseassis and infirmiteis, and is not able 
to mak service in weiris on horse nor fute.*' He is ordered to buy a stand 
of footman's arms only. 

According to Nisbefs Heraldry, James Tennent married a daughter 
of Somervell of Drum, and he was deceased prior to Sth April 1603. He 
had two sons, namely John, who succeeded him, and Mr Joseph, A.M., of 
Listonscheils, who became minister of Bedrule. The latter-named received 
his degree from the Edinburgh University loth August 1595, and, previous 
to his induction at Bedrule in 1601, he had officiated for some time at Tra- 
quair, of which parish he was the first regular Presbyterian minister. He 
also appears to have held the charge of Abbotsrule for several years in con- 
junction with Bedrule, and he died in 1633 aged about fifty-eight. On 27th 
July 1632 he " sett a tack of the tcandes of the paroch of Bedreull to Mr 
James Lausone of Cairnemuire for his lyfT-time, the lyff-time of four several 
aires, and fyue nineteen zeirs thairefter," but this was rectified by Act of 
Parliament 17th November 1641. 

John Tennent of Cairns, the elder son of James Tennent before men- 
tioned, was bom about the year 1 572. He appears first in 1 586 as appearand 

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of Cairns, and again on 18 May 1591, when he became cautioner that the 
occupiers of the tierce lands of the barony of Calder pertaining to " Dame 
Jean Ross, relict of the deceast Sir James Sandilands of Calder, Knight, 
and Harie Stewart of Cragyhali now her spouse," shall desist and cease 
therefrom under a penalty of 100 merks each. In the following year, he 
was surety for Sym Scott of Bonnytoun that he should not resett nor inter- 
commune with Francis, Erll Bothuil, nor his accomplices during his 
rebellion ; and in 1595 Hary Stewart of Cragyhali and James Tennent of 
Lennox (Linhouse) are caution to the Privy Council that Johnne Tennent 
younger of Cairnis shall not harm Alexander Douglas, macer. On 5th 
April 1603 there are two precepts by James, Lord Torphichen, in favour 
of John Tennand, now of Cairnes, as nearest heir of the deceast James 
Tennand of the same, his father, of all and whole the lands of Easter 
Cairnes, with the old tower thereon and the lands of Schiellhill and 
Brethertoun, within the barony of Calder Comitis, to hold of the said James 
and his successors. Lords and Barons of Calder, for the yearly payment of 
six silver pennies on the ground of Cairns at each feast of Pentecost, if 
demanded allenerlie ; also of the five merk land of Listounscheillis in the 
barony of Auldlistoun. The witnesses to these instruments and the seisins 
following thereon are James Tennand of Linhous, Mr John Spottiswood, 
rector of Calder, Mr Robert Williamsoun of Mureston, and Mr Peter Kin- 
loch of Alderstoun, — James Tennand, eldest lawful son to the said John 
Tennand, now of Cairnes, being also present. John Tennent of Kairnis was 
on an assize 21st June 1605, and in 1608, he becomes surety in 2000 merks 
for James, Lord Torphichen, that he shall not harm James Polwart of 
Cauldlaw. In the following year he appears again as cautioner that Stevin 
Lokhart, tailor, servitour to my Lord Torphechin, shall answer before the 
Privy Council on the 13th February to a complaint against him by the 
deacon of the tailors of Edinburgh. He married Jean Hamilton, who is 
mentioned as his wife in a charter by her husband of the five merk land of 
Listounscheillis in favour of Mr William Scot of Elie, 12th July 1603. This 
property, as we have already seen, came subsequently into the possession 
of Mr Joseph Tennent, minister of Bedrule, to whom his brother John 
Tennent of Cairnes was retoured heir in some tenements in Edinburgh 
nth May 1633, and in the lands of Listonshiels, ist December 1637. The 
laird died previous to 25th February 1647, having had a son James who 

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succeeded him, and three daughters, namely — Anna, baptized 4th March 
1606; Jean, married (contract dated 9th August 1624) to William Campbell, 
son of the deceased Colin Campbell of Aberughill, which Jean died before 
i6th February 1635 ; and Marjory married to John Brown as below. 

1632, December 11 — ^Jhone Broun, zounger in Gorgymiln, and Marjory Tenncnt 
dochter to J hone Tennent of Caimis, war maryed be ane warrand from ye Byschop of 

A curious complaint regarding the position of his seat in the parish 
church was made in 1629. 

idi^June 21 — The Seassioun, becaus of ane complaint gewin in be ye lard ofTSelmes 
against ye lard of Camis for taking away off ye sight of ye minister fra him be his desk, 
it was thocht gud that Camis sould be spokin against his compeirance ye nixt day to 
advyse in ye said matter with ye Seassion of ye Kirk. 

June 28— This day the Lard of Camis, compeiring, refusit to all things thay advysit 
him anent Selmes. 

James Tennent of Cairns, the succeeding laird, was served heir- 
general of John Tennent of the same 25th February 1647. Very shortly 
thereafter, he commenced to give trouble to his parish minister, whose 
pronounced republican tendencies seem to have alienated the support of 
the major part of the heritors. 

1647, April 4 — The laird of Caimis delaitit to have dmnken in Jamis Bischops 
house about fyftein days since in tymc of the aftemoon preaching, denyed he was drinking, 
but alledges he had " the collict " and was obliged to lie down ; and whereas it was said of 
him he shot a hynd yt day, he said he shot him on the Thursday befoir. 

1653, October 27 — The whilk day, the Laird of Caimes compered before the Sessione 
and being sharplie rebuked for not frequenting the Kirk on the Lord's day, he promising 
to amend, was dismissed. 

The " amendment " here promised did not, however, take place, and on 
four subsequent occasions in 1654-6 the laird and Laidy Cairnes, togidder 
with thair servants were rebuked for not cumming to the kirk on the Lord's 
day, and withall assured that if they cam not, thay wold be debarred frome 
the Sacramentes in tyme cuminge. He had a son, James, who succeeded 
him, and two daughters, Margaret, married to John Somervell, writer in 
Edinburgh ; and Lillias, who married Gavin Jamesone at the Waulkmyln 
of Calder, and had two daughters, namely, Jean Jamesone, who died without 

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descendants, and Margaret Jamesone, who married first to James Somer- 
vell of Drum, Lord Somervell, and secondly to James Drummond, Clerk 
of the Bills. 

James Tennent of Cairns, the next laird, was seized in the month of 
July 1672, of the lands of Easter Cairnes with the tower thereof, the lands 
of Shiellhill, Badpark, and Brothertoune, as " also of that other half of the 
said lands of Cairnes, now called West Cairnes," with the pendicle thereof 
called Wester Calsaend, with houses, biggings, etc., upon a precept of 
Clare Constat by Walter, Lord Torphichen, as heir of the deceased John 
Tennent of Cairnes, his grand-father. At the same date there is another 
precept by Lord Torphichen setting forth that the deceased Patrick 
Tennent, burgess of Edinburgh, great great-grandfather of James Tennent 
now of Cairnes, died vest and seized as of fee in the lands of Wester 
Colzame, previously occupied by Allan Tennent his father, lying in the 
barony of Calder, and directing sasine of the same lands to James Tennent 
now of Cairnes as lawful and nearest heir of the before-mentioned Patrick. 
The notices of these technical instruments may appear somewhat 
tedious, but they have a value genealogically, and it may be convenient 
at this point to review the several generations of the Cairns family in a 
tabular form : — 

Allan Tennent, 
in Wester Colzium, 1539. 


John Tennent 
of Cairns, 1 542, 
page to James V, 

Marion Patrick Tennent 

Atkinson, of W. Colzium, 1539, and 

d. s. p. of Hairhope, 154 1. 



Jambs Tennent of Caims, = A Daughter of Somervell of Drum, 

b. ante 1541, d. between 1600 and 1603. I 

John Tennent =3 Jean Hamilton, 

of Cairns, b. circ 1572, 
d, between 1640 and 1647, 

1603- 1640. 

Mr Joseph, 

Minister of Bedreull, 

d. 1633. 

James Tennent, Jean, 

of Cairns, b. ante 1603, m, Wm. Campbell, 

heir 1647. 

James Tennent of Caims, heir of his grandfather, John, 
and of his great-great-grandfather, Patrick, anno 1672. 

nu John Broun, 

b. 1606. 

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James Tennent of Cairns was in May 1663 charged to answer to the 
Session of the kirk anent his clandestine marriage, but appeared not ; and 
he and Jean Graham his spouse were again cited in the month of July, as 
well as several other persons who were rebuked for having been witnesses 
to the ** disordourlie manage of the lard of Carnis." On 30th November 
1667 he grants a bond binding himself to infeft Jean and Margaret 
Jamesone, his nieces, in an annual rent of £/\& out of the lands of Wester 
Colzium, and in 1672, there is another bond by him upon the same lands 
in favour of Robert and James Grahame, lawful children of the deceased 
Hugh Grahame in Nether Williamstoune. Jeane Grahame, spouse to James 
Tennent of Caimes, had seisin in liferent of the lands of Listounshiels on 
a disposition by her said husband 14th July 1679 ; and in the same year, 
having no children of his own, he made a settlement of his whole lands as 
well as any others which might pertain to him the tyme of his deceise, 
" quhensoevir the samyn at the pleasour of God sail happin " in favour of 
William Tennent, mariner, grandson of umquhile Mr John Tennent, 
persone of Calder, [who was] sone to James Tennent of Linhouse, under 
reservation of the liferent to himself, an annuity to Jeane Grahame his 
spouse, surviving him, and subject to any other burdens which he might 
thereafter lay upon the lands. The disposition is subscribed at the Caimes 
27th December 1679, William Listoun of Easter Colzium and Walter 
Johnstoune, notary in Calder, writer of the document, being witnesses. 

During the religious persecutions which characterised the latter part of 
Charles II.*s reign, the Cairn hills were the scene of conventicles, or 
meetings for worship conducted by outlaws and the proscribed clergy; 
and they also afforded hiding-places in their recesses and caverns for the 
persecuted Presbyterians. We have noticed elsewhere a gathering of 
this description held on Cairn-hill on ist June 1684, and another at 
Caldstane-slap on the 8th of the same month, regarding which Tennent 
of Cairns was charged to appear and give evidence before the Privy 
Council. This laird died in the month of March 1685, and Jean Grahame, 
his widow, afterwards espoused George Baillie of Manorhall. She was 
still living in 1709, when 'she was seized of an annual rent of 300 merks 
out of the lands of Ovcrlongford. Margaret Tennent, sister-german to 
the late James Tennent of Cairns, and relict of John Somervell, writer 

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in Edinburgh, and Margaret Jamesone, his niece, spouse of James 
Somervell, elder of Drum, gave in a renunciation of being heir on i8th 
November 1685. After this Thomas Somervell, tailor, burgess of Edin- 
burgh obtained a decree of the lands Sth March 1686 for payment to 
him of certain obligations due, and he was formally infeft therein on 
the 23rd June in the same year. Captain William Tennent, however, 
who is mentioned in the above-mentioned disposition, afterwards re- 
deemed these charges, and was adjudged by the Lords of Council and 
Session to be heritable proprietor i8th February 1693. 

Capt. William Tennent of Cairns is designed skipper in Kirkcaldy, 
but his relationship to the race of the preceding lairds is not otherwise 
indicated than in the disposition of 1679. ^^ had a charter of the 
property from Walter, Lord Torphichen, 4th August 1694, which shews 
the lands at this time held by the family, namely those of Easter 
and Wester Cairns, Scheillhill, Baadpark, Wester Colzeam and Wester 
Calseyend, with manor place, etc., in the parish of Calder and shire of 
Edinburgh. And in a bond by William Tennent, "skipper in Leith," 
15th April 1699, the lands of Listonshiels and Easter Calsayend are 
embraced, in addition to those above-named. 

He was the last laird of the surname of Tennent, and the lands next 
came into the possession of Mr John Mitchell of Alderston, a writer in 
Edinburgh, and an extensive landed proprietor in the parish. He had 
a disposition of the lands of Cairns, etc., by James, Lord Torphichen, on 
29th July 1708, and the same are embraced in a charter in his favour 
under the Great Seal 9th February 1709, whereby the lands therein 
named are dissolved and disjoined from the barony of Calder and all 
other baronies to which they were previously annexed, and united to the 
recently erected barony of Alderston. Mr John Mitchell died in the year 
1730, and the lands of East Cairns and Baadpark with the old tower 
thereon, were alienated by his son and successor William Mitchell, 
surgeon, apothecary and convener of the trades of Edinburgh, in the 
year 1737. The purchasers were George Gray, tenant in East Cairns, and 
John Gray, portioner of Kirknewton, his younger brother, to whom the 
estate was conveyed in two pro indiviso halves on 29th December, 1737. 

The property was held by the respective descendants of these two 

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brothers for a period of about eighty years, after which the integrity of 
the lands was again established through the purchase of both shares by 
the Rev. Dr. Laird. We have therefore at this point to follow their history, 
which we shall do briefly, in the two lines of heirs-portioners. 

George Gray, tenant in East Cairns, the elder brother, had two sons, 
namely, George, who succeeded his father as occupier, and John, who 
became a writer in Edinburgh. The last-mentioned had a disposition of 
his father's share of the estate on loth April 1751, under the burden of 
j^ioo Scots yearly, to be paid to his said father during all the days and years 
of his lifetime. This John Gray, writer in Edinburgh, married Elizabeth 
Gray, and had, besides two daughters, a son, James, to whom he disponed 
his half of the lands of East Cairns, and Baadpark, with the old Tower 
thereon, as also the half of the seat in Calder kirk, and of the burial- 
ground thereto belonging, under the burden before-mentioned, and subject 
also to the further charge of j^io sterling, to be paid annually to Elizabeth 
Gray, spouse of the said John, the granter hereof. The date of this dis- 
position is 31st December 177 1, and John Gray, writer, and his son James, 
were both deceased before 1777. On 17th December in that year, Janet 
Gray, spouse of Alexander Reid, tenant in Humbie, and Elizabeth Gray, 
her sister, were retoured heirs-portioners, and of provision, of the late 
James Gray, their brother-german in the above-named subjects. Janet, 
the elder sister, subsequently became sole proprietor of this half of the 
lands. Her husband was a son of George Reid of Balerno, and he 
afterwards became possessed of the property of Rathobank in the parish 
of Ratho; he died before 1806, and George Reid of Rathobank, his son, 
was heir of his mother of a half share of the lands of Cairns and Baadpark, 
of which he was seized 8th July 18 15. By him the property was con- 
veyed to the Rev. Hugh Laird, D.D., in 18 18. 

Adverting now to the second half share of the lands, we notice that 
this was disponed by William Mitchell, before designed, to John Gray, 
portioner of Kirknewtqn, in liferent, and to George Gray, younger, his son, 
in fee. George succeeded as heritable proprietor, and on 2Sth January 
1775 conveyed his portion to George Gray, tenant in East Cairns, who 
wa3 his own cousin-german, and whose brother, John Gray, at this time 
held the other half share of the property. The last mentioned George 

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Gray married Jean Flint, and had a large family of sons and daughters, 
namely: George, born 1766; John, born 1770; James, born 1772; 
Alexander, born 1776; Robert, bom 1782; Jean, born 1764, married 
Alexander Miller, saddler in Mid-Calder; Elizabeth, born 1768, married 
John Thomson in Stenypath; Katherine, born 1774; Janet, born 1778; 
Margaret, born 1780; Agnes, born 1784, died 1809; and Mary, born 1787, 
who also died young. His will is dated at Cairns, nth February 1803, 
and he died in the year 18 13. 

The proprietorship became now again consolidated through the 
purchase of both portions by the Rev. Hugh Laird, D.D., who was seized 
of the lands upon a disposition from the trustees of the late George Gray 
of Cairns, of date 20th August 18 19, and another disposition from George 
Reid of Rathobank, dated 2nd December 181 8. This clergyman was a 
student at Glasgow University in 1788, and was licensed by the Presbytery 
there ist July 1795. After officiating for nearly two years at Norriestown, 
near Kincardine, he was appointed in 1802 minister of Portmoak, in 
Kinross-shire, where he ministered for about forty years. He was dis- 
tinguished amongst his brethren as an eloquent preacher and an able 
organiser ; **his style was calm, clear, and truly rational — assigning to doc- 
trine and moral duty their appropriate places." The degree of D.D. was 
conferred upon him by the University and Marischal College of Aberdeen in 
October 18 13 ; he joined the Free Secession in 1843, and died 28th August 
1 849 in the eighty-sixth year of his age. Dr Laird married, in 1 802, Elizabeth 
Blackball, of the parish of Dunbog, who died on 8th November, 1843, aged 
sixty, and with whom he had a numerous family, namely : James who died 
in 1832; Rev, Alexander Oswald, minister of Abbotshall from 1839 till 
the Disruption, and thereafter of the Free Church of St John at Dundee ; 
Hugh, a writer in Kinross, died 1882 aged seventy-two ; Rev. John, minister 
of Inverkeilor 1836- 1843, and afterwards of the Free Church of St George 
at Montrose; Robert, died 1842 aged thirty; George; Rev. Henry 
MoncriefT, minister of the Free Church at Leslie, Fife, died 1852 : Michael 
Linning, died 1838 aged twenty; Elizabeth-Simson ; Amelia-Balfour; 
Mary-Henderson ; and Christiana, who married the Rev. James Swinton, 
minister of the Free Church of Portmoak. 

On 15th April 1823 Dr Laird granted a feu charter "of two acres of 

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the grounds of East Cairns at or around the present sheepfolds on the 
Edinburgh and Lanark road, near the 13th mile-stone, for the erection 
thereon of a new Inn and offices to be called the Cairns Castle Inn." The 
building erected at that time has now been converted into the school- 
house of Causewayend. Dr Laird's connection with this estate was not 
of long duration, for he again disponed the united lands of Cairns and 
Baadpark to Mr Michael Linning of Colzium, clerk to the Signet, on 13th 
December 1827. 

This proprietor was a son of Thomas Linning, and grandson of the 
Rev. Thomas Linning, minister of Lesmahagow, and was born in the year 
1775. He married 29th April 1800 a daughter of Henry Patrick Wilson 
in the East India Company's service ; and was admitted a member of the 
Society of Writers to His Majesty's Signet on 18th June in the following 
year. He was a man whose genius, in a variety of directions, was in ad- 
vance of the age in which he lived. It is upon these lands and the 
adjacent hills that the water of Leith takes its rise, and to Mr Linning 
belongs the credit of having first perceived the importance and capabilities of 
this stream, both with regard to procuring from it an abundant and constant 
supply of water power for the use of machinery, and for furnishing pure 
water to the city of Edinburgh. As early as the year 1818, he advocated 
the construction of a compensation reservoir on the lands of East Cairns 
and Harperrig, for retaining the flood and surplus waters of the stream ; 
and upon his initiative various surveys and reports were made by experi- 
enced engineers. Mr Linning, however, did not live to see effect given to 
his theories, but like so many whose lives have been a blessing to their 
race, he expended his energies, as well as the whole of his material wealth, 
upon benefits which have since been reaped by his fellows. He died on 
17th February 1838, leaving his affairs in an embarrassed situation, and the 
lands were sold for behoof of his creditors to Robert Downie of Appin, 
who held a bond for ;^Sooo on the lands of East Cairns and East Colzium 
executed by Mr. Linning in 1829. Shortly after this, the Edinburgh 
Water Company was formed for the purpose of carrying out the above- 
named projects, and they acquired the property in November, I84^^ 
The springs are now tapped on the lands of Colzium and Baadpark, 
whence two pipes> each 18 inches in diameter, convey the water to 

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Edinburgh; and the reservoir to equalise the flood of the stream — rendered 
all the more necessary by the absorption of a portion of the supply at the 
springs — was constructed in 1845, and enlarged in 1891. The upper 
portion of the lands, denominated Baadpark, was sold by the Edinburgh 
Water Company in 1849, James Gray being the purchaser; and it was 
again conveyed in 1864 by his testamentary trustees to William Hamilton 
of Cairns, the present proprietor, who also purchased the lands of East 
Cairns from the company in 1869. 

The present house of Cairns was erected in 1872, upon the site 
of the old farm-steading, and under the shadow of the castle ruin, 
which forms a picturesque view from the modem windows. The castle, 
which is situated upon a small eminence on the southern bank of 
the burn, formerly consisted of two square towers about 40 feet in 
height, arranged upon the L plan, with a turret stair, giving access to 
the upper flats of both wings. The basement was vaulted, two ma.ssive 
cylindrical arches supporting the main floor of the castle. Beneath these 

arches were dungeons or 
cellars, approached from 
the outside by a circular- 
headed doorway, and 
having an arrow-slit in 
the west wall. The 
jambs of this arch are 
deeply rabbitted and the 
door opened outwards; 
a small squint or loop- 
hole exists (Fig. 15) 
whence observation 
could be made by those within of any approach to the entrance. An 
arched opening communicates with the inner and smaller dungeon where 
there are no windows. The doorway of the main floor of the castle is also 
on the eastern side and must have been approached by an outside stair 
which no longer exists. The upper portion of the structure could scarcely 
have been in keeping with the older style" of baronial architecture, the 
windows being larger than is usual in buildings of the same period. 

Ground Floor. First Floor. 

Fig. 16. — Plan of Cairns Castle. 

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Indeed, there are indications that the top flat or storey may be of a rather 
later date than the lower part of the building, and if this be true, the 
turret stair must also have been an addition not contemplated in the 
original design, which appears to be the case from its peculiar form 
and construction. 

The proprietor has a drawing of Cairns Castle executed by Wintour 
in 1855, which shews the two towers intact. Since that date one of these 
towers has almost entirely disappeared, and but for the iron tie-rod with 
which the ruin has recently been held together, the second tower would 
probably have fallen ere this. The present aspect of the structure is 
represented in our illustration on page loi. An excellent view of 
Cairns Castle from the south, and one also from the N.W. are given in 
Mr. J. Munro Bell's Castles of the Lothians^ published in 1893. 

The house of Baadpark was built by George Gray of Cairns, whose 
initials with the date 1798, are cut upon the lintel over the entrance door. 

In the heraldic MSS. of Sir James Balfour, of date about 1640, the 
armorial bearings of Tennent of that Ilk are given as argent a boar's head 
couped in chief and two crescents in the flanks sable. James Tennend of 
Cairns registered his arms in 1672 : Argent a boar's head betwixt three 
crescents sable, with the motto pro utilitate. And at the same date 
William Tennend of Lennos [Linhouse] recorded a similar coat, within a 
bordure sable, which seems to imply that the house of Cairfts was regarded 
as the older or representative line. 

F>g» '7- — Arms of Tennent of Cairns. 

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Wester Causewayend. 

The lands of Wester Causewayend in the southern or highland district 
of the parish were anciently attached to the estate of Cairns, — the lands 
of Cairns Easter and Wester, with the pendicle thereof called Wester 
Calsayend, being frequently mentioned in the seisins and dispositions of 
that property. 

The name is no doubt derived from the old paved or causewayed 
road which appears to have terminated here. The construction of this 
road has been ascribed by the old writers to the Romans. " At one time," 
adds the Rev. Dr Sommers in 1838, "this causeway was in tolerable repair 
until several years ago, when by an unlucky oversight, it was dug up and 
much injured and obliterated by a roadmaker who used the stones in the 
way of his profession, to save himself the expense of procuring other more 
distant material." Upon the modern house of Wester Causewayend the 
initials J. G. are cut with the date 1802. 

With the sole exception of the Calder House inheritance, this small 
property affords the only instance in the •^parish of lands which have de- 
scended in one family for a period of nearly 200 years. The Grahams of 
Causewayend appear to have first become connected with the estate upon 
the extinction of the old race of Tennent of Cairns. James Tennent 
of Cairns, the last laird in the direct line, was called before the Kirk- 
Session in 1663 to answer respecting his "clandestine marriage" with Jean 
Graham. He died in 1685, and his widow thereafter married George Baillie 
of Manorhall. We observe also a bond by the same James Tennent, dated 
26th July 1672, of an annual rent of £^0 out of the lands of Wester 
Colzium in favour of Robert Graham in Corstorphine, in name and behalf 
of Robert and James Graham, his nephews, children of the late Hugh 
Graham in Nether Williamston. 

Whether connected with this race or not, we find mention made of 

John Graham of Wester Causewayend, who on 18th September 1737 
had a disposition of the lands of Causewayend in the parish of Mid-Calder 
from William Mitchell, surgeon, with consent of the trustees of the late 
Mr John Mitchell of Alderston, his father. John Graham of Wester 
Causewayend died on the 9th March 1754, aged sixty-four years and is 


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buried in the parish churchyard of Mid-Calder. He was succeeded 
in the property by 

James Graham of Wester Causewayend, who married Christian 
Somervell, and had three sons and two daughters, namely, James, his heir ; 
Thomas, in Easter Causewayend, whose wife, Margaret Waddell, died in the 
year 1805, aged fifty-two ; John, of Handaxwood, father of the late James 
Graham of Muirhousedykes, and of John Graham of Meadowhead, and 
other children ; Christina, married John Graham, tenant in West Colzium, 
and died in 1808, aged seventy-five years ; and Janet, who married Flint of 

James Graham of Wester Causewayend, the eldest son of the above- 
mentioned family, married a daughter of Gray of Cairns, and had a son 
John, who succeeded to the estate, and three daughters, namely, Janet, who 
married John Gray, Beerside ; Christina, who became the wife of William 
Graham, Auchinoul ; and Elizabeth, married to James Waddell, 

John Graham of Wester Causewayend, the last laird in the male 
line, died in the year 1869, and was succeeded by his only daughter, 
Mrs Janet Graham Kerr, the present proprietrix, widow of the late William 
Kerr, occupier of the lands, who died 8th September 1870, aged forty-five 


This house stands, as its name implies, on the bank of the Calder 
Water, between its confluence with the Almond and the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow road. It has been erected upon the lands of the old Waulk-myln 
of Calder, a term signifying a factory for subjecting home-manufactured 
cloths to the processes of fulling and dyeing. The Waulk-myln was the 
indispensable adjunct of every barony in ancient times, and although the 
original buildings were converted into a brewery in the early part of last 
century, yet it appears that dye-works existed at Calderbank so recently 
as the year 1770. Alexander Wylie, dyster in Mid-Calder, died on 6th 
January 1721, and was succeeded in the business by James Wylie, his son, 
who became possessed of the lands of Cockrig and others, besides various 
subjects in the village. He died in 1778, and **his two-seventh parts of 

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the lands of the Waulkmiln of Calder now commonly called Calderbank," 
were in the possession of his son and heir, James Wylie of Annetscross, 
W.S., in the year 1799. 

Gawin Jamesoun at the Walkmyln was to present himself with a horse 
worth XX lib at the Wappenschaw display in August 1586. A second 
Gavin Jamisone at the Walk mill of Calder married Lillias Tennent, 
second daughter of James Tennent of Cairns ; and had two daughters, Jean 
and Margaret, who with their parents were all living in 1667. The elder 
daughter died without descendants, but Margaret Jamisone succeeded, on 
the death of her uncle, James Tennent of Cairns, younger, as co-heir at law 
to that estate, which was renunciated by her and her aunt in favour of a 
distant relative. Captain William Tennent This was in the year 1686, 
and Margaret Jamieson was then the second wife of James Somervell, 
elder of Drum, properly nth Lord Somervell, but that his grandfather 
did not assume the title. It appears that the late laird of Cairns had 
bequeathed his estate to Captain William before-mentioned under burden 
of his debts, which were considerable, and to annual rent charges to his 
widow, sister, and niece ; and amongst the many discharges recorded by 
William on his redemption of the property in 1688 appears a receipt 
under the hand of John Tennent, merchant in Edinburgh, for ;^io, for a 
plaid to the said Margaret Jamieson, by way of compliment to her. After 
the death of her first husband, Somervell of Drum, Margaret married 
again to James Drummond, Clerk of the Bills, and she was deceased in 
1726, leaving a daughter Margaret Drummond. Gavin Jamisone died 
prior to Sth March 1688, and was succeeded by George Jamisone in the 
Waulk myln of Calder. George had three sons, namely, Henry of 
Walkmill, Gavin of Bridgend, and Walter, who was seized of an annual rent 
of j^6o furth of the lands of Bridgend, loth September 1704, of which right 
his son George Jamisone, tenant in the mains of Pumpherston was heir 
in 1725. We shall return in a moment to the eldest son, but we 
may notice of Gavin, the second son, that he acquired the lands of 
Bridgend of Calder in the year 1695 ; and at a subsequent period 
had a disposition (wherein he is designed notary at Bridgend), of the 
lands of Easter Dressilrig, from James, Lord Torphichen, with consent 
of Dame Christian Primrose, his mother, i6th October 1704. He died 

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in 1722, and James Jamisone, his son, had precept as heir of his deceased 
father of the lands of Bridgend, with the seat in Calder kirk thereto 

Henry Jamisone was baptized on the i8th February 1658, and 
succeeded his father in the Walkmill. He is mentioned on 24th May 
1699, when Hendrie Jamisone in Walkmylne of Calder, and Isobel 
Donaldsone, his spouse, grant a disposition of two houses and yards 
in the town of Mid-Calder to John Dick, merchant there. Then, in 
17 1 8 there is a disposition by the Lord Torphichen in favour of Henry 
Jamisone, eldest son of the late George Jamisone, in the Walkmilne, of 
that part of the lands of the Walkmilne of Calder, and the milne itself, 
as presently possessed by the said Henrj% dated at Calder House, 9th 
May 17 18, Mr John Mitchell of Alderston being a witness. In the year 
1725 he acquired from Margaret Drummond a part of the lands of 
Pumpherston called Bridgehauch, with the piece of brae bewest the same, 
and little hauch at the foot of Powispath. The progress of writs narrated 
in this disposition shows that these lands had previously pertained to Jean 
Jamisone, sister of the above-mentioned Gavin Jamisone at the Walkmill, 
and spouse of John Calder of Coustoun ; and that they were by her con- 
veyed on 1 2th July 1680 to Margaret Jamisone, her niece, then wife of 
James Somervell of Drum. By her second husband, James Drummond, 
Margaret had a daughter, Margaret Drummond, who succeeded her in 
these lands, and with consent of her husband, James Ferguson, goldsmith 
in Perth, disponed the same to Henry Jamisone of Walk Mill on isth 
November 1725. And the same lands were confirmed to the said Henry 
by Alexander Hamilton of Pumpherston, as superior, 2nd October 1736. 
The lands of Bridgehauch, as above specified, were again conveyed on 
23rd October 1738 to James Moubray, brewer at Walkmill; and we may 
here remark that they were acquired in 1763 by the trustees of the United 
Presbyterian congregation, whose first meeting-house was erected thereon 
in the following year. Henry Jamisone of Walkmill was ordained an elder 
of the parish church 29th January 1699; and he died in the month of 
December 1739, mention being made in his will of his sons and daughters, 
as under, viz. : Gawine, sailor in Leith ; Elizabeth, relict of Thomas Mercer 
of Binnhall ; Helen, relict of Jamieson of Bridgend ; Christian, spouse of 

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James Moubray, brewer at the Walkmyln of Calder; Jean (born 1708), 
spouse of John Schaw, wright at Bridgehouse of Mid-Calder; James; 
and George Jamisones, which three last were deceased before 1743. By 
arrangement between these heirs-portioners, the five-seventh parts of the 
lands of the Waulkmyln of Calder with the Waulkmyin Itself, and other 
houses and biggings, as they were sometime possessed by the deceased 
Henry Jamisone, were inherited by James Moubray, the husband of 
Christian Jamisone; and upon an old plan of the village made in 1763, 
" Moubry's lands " are marked as embracing si acres on the west side 
of the road leading to the North Bridge, where the house of Georgeville 
now stands, in addition to the two acres between the road and the river. 
This proprietor was deceased prior to 27th November 1771, when 
he was succeeded by his eldest son, Henry Moubray, a merchant at 
Gibraltar, who on his return to his native parish, erected the present 
house as a private residence for himself and his family, and gave to the 
lands the more euphonious name of Calderbank. He obtained a charter of 
the property on his own resignation from Elizabeth, Lady Torphichen, and 
Major Andrew, and Captain Robert Sandilands, as tutors to James, Lord 
Torphichen, dated at Calder House, 9th January 1772 ; and he died on 
the 14th June 1803, aged sixty-nine years, and was buried at the church- 
yard of Mid-Calder. In his property of Calderbank he was succeeded 
by his eldest daughter, Miss Alison Moubray, who had a charter from 
Lord Torphichen in 18 18. This lady died on the 27th December 1842, 
in her sixty-ninth year, and the property of Calderbank was acquired by 
the late Peter M*Lagan, afterwards of Pumpherston. 


This estate is situated about half in this parish and half in the parish 
of West Calder, its extent being embraced between the Almond, the 
Breich, and the Killandean Waters. The site of the present mansion- 
house upon the lands of Howatston, like the name which now designates 
the lands, is comparatively modern ; the ancient seat of the property was 
at Grange of Breich, its position being marked by the modem farm- 
steading of Grange. The estate having come into the possession of the 

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Rev. Dr Hardy in the year 1786, he gave it the name of " Charlesfield " in 
memory of the Rev. Charles Wilkie, under whose will he acquired it, and 
in the years 1795-8 he erected the present residence at the eastern end of 
the property, near the village of Livingston. It is a plain rectangular 
structure of two stories and attics, with a low range of buildings containing 
the kitchen offices at the eastern end ; and to this a square tower with 
pointed windows and terminating in embattled parapets was added at the 

Fig. 18. — View of Charlesfield House from S E. 

NE. angle by Sir William Andrew in 1879. The lodge at the entrance 
to the park consists of a tower of similar design, and was built at the 
same period. 

The lands of Grange occupy a position so far unique in the history of 
lands in the parish, since they seem at no time to have been within the 
jurisdiction of the barony of Calder : at the earliest period to which our 
information extends, Grange of Breich formed a part, by annexation, of the 
barony of North Berwick. 

Thomas Hammiltoune of the Grange beside Levingstoun found the 

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laird of Calder surety that he should enter on 12th May 1562 to answer 
for abiding from a raid at Jedburgh. Six years later Gawin Hammiltoun 
is mentioned as occupying the lands of Grange of Breych in the parish of 
Calder when the property was conveyed by Dame Margaret Hume, 
Prioress of the convent of Northberuick, to Alexander Hume, son of 
Patrick Hume of Polwart, 28th January 1 568. This Alexander Hume 
was Provost of Edinburgh at the time of his death, which took place on 
the 22nd July 1597. His latter will is dated at North Berwick 4th June 
preceding, and by it he appoints that his body be buried " without ony 
vane pompe or ceremonie," in his own parish kirk, ** beside his bed- 
fellows." Sir John Home of Northberuick had a charter of the lands of 
Grange of Breich with mansion-house, in the parish of Calder, from James 
VI, dated at Grenewiche 7th June 1609. But it is the fortunes of the 
Hamiltons, who although at this time tenants only, ultimately became the 
heritable proprietors of the lands, that our history follows. In common 
with the rest of his surname Gawin Hammiltoun in Grange supported the 
cause of Queen Mary, and his name occurs somewhat frequently in the 
register of the Privy Council between the years 1578 and 1580, in connec- 
tion with the proscription of the Hamiltons which characterised the period 
of Morton's resumed supremacy. Thus, on 4th June 1579, he is charged, 
in company with many other gentlemen of the name of Hamilton, to 
appear before the King under pain of rebellion, and on the 13th of the 
same month he was required to find caution that he should not inter- 
commune nor comply with Lord John, nor Lord Claud Hamiltons, and 
that he would compear when called, on fifteen days' warning. Gawin 
Hammiltoun in the Grange was charged to appear with horse of the value 
of 40 lib. at the Wappenschaw held on the hill of Calder on the 4th August 
1586; and he is still mentioned as occupier of the lands and mansion 
of Grange de Breiche in the parish of Calder, in a Crown charter of the 
same to Alexander Hume of Northberuick, 20th March 1588. He was 
succeeded by his son 

John Hamilton of Grange, who obtained an award of the baron- 
bailie of Calder on i8th October 1587, that "Jon Bego in Howatstoun 
should content and pay to Jon Hamiltoun, son to Gawin Hamiltoun in ye 
Grange, ten merks money as for ye pryse of ane boll seid beir." His name 

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further occurs in the records of the same Court in the years 1592 and 
1596. Thus: — 

1592, May 2— The qlk day the baillie decerns John Hamilton in Grange to pay to 
James Aikman, ten punds vj sh, viij d. money in terme of law for a gray mair received be 
the said John fra him at Witsonday, 1590, and becaus this mater being denyed be the 
defender and referrit to the pursewer's probatioun, he previt the same sufficientlie as was 
cleirlie knawin to ye said baillie. And decernis the sd Jon to pay vj lib for expenses. 

1596, October 12— Johne Hamilton in Grange, to obtein to James Hamilton, wricht, 
Alexander and Agnes Hamiltons acquittances of nyne boUis aittis deliverit be him to 
Henry Loch ye said Johnis tenand, of ye bairns part off geir and absolvis the said John 
of all furder claim yranent. 

John Hamilton of Grange, is again mentioned in 1600, when a war- 
h'ke demonstration was made against him by Patrick Hammiltoun of the 
Peel of Livingston. The violence was repeated in May 1602, upon which 
the matter was brought to the notice of the Privy Council by Sir John 
Home of North Berwick, who made his complaint as follows :— 

Upon 27 September 1600, Patrik Hammiltoun of the Peill of Levingstoun came 
with many of his friends and servants to the pursuers lands of Grangebreich, and there 
sought Johnne Hammiltoun, pursuers tenant for his slaughter, but not finding him reft 
his best horse. Again upon the day following, being the Sabbath day, the said Patrik 
with sixteen others all armed, came to the said tenants house, broke up the doors, 
windows and easings thereof with great joists, pursued him and wounded sundry of his 
servants with long staves. They then trod down and destroyed all his corns with their 
horses, and spuilyied all the shorn corn. Again in May 1602 the said Patrik came to 
the pursuers lands of Grangebreich, and there broke the ground thereof with a plough 
and sowed the same with bear. 

In the year 162 1 John Hamiltoun of Grange of Breich, with consent of 
Alison Kinloch, his spouse, granted a charter of the one half of those lands 
in which he is infeft, and of the other half thereof in which his said spouse 
is infeft, in favour of John Hamiltoun, their son, and Catherine Mureheid 
his future spouse and their heirs reserving the liferent of the said subjects ; 
dated at Grange of Breich 2Sth June 1621. Mr Patrick Kinloch, younger of 
Alderston, is amongst the witnesses, and James Hamiltoun, brother of the 
said John Hamiltoun, younger, is a witness to the seizin which followed on 
25th July 162 1. John Hamiltoun of Grange witnesses a transaction 
regarding the lands of Easter Colzium 5th March 1632 ; and in 1634 he 

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acted himself caution to the Session that John Hasty his servant should 
satisfy the Kirk. His latter will is dated 29th November 1639, whereby 
he nominates William Watsoune in Breich, his son-in-law, his only 
executor, and desires the residue of his effects to be divided amongst all 
his oyis [grand-children]. He died within the same year, 1639, and Alisone 
Kinloch his wife is stated in the will to be " deadlie seik at this present." 

John Hamilton of Grange, the son of the foregoing, was an elder 
of the parish church of Calder in 1645, when he was directed to unite with 
the lairds of Linhouse and Alderston " to keip the thrie kirk duiris the 
nixt Sabbath and ilk preaching day yreftir, during the tyme of the remain- 
ing of the visitatioun that no straingers cum within the kirk." The 
visitation here referred to was a time of common sickness or pestilence, to 
guard against which none of the inhabitants were allowed to inter- 
commune with those who lived in other parishes. On the proposal for the 
division of the parish into Mid and West Calder, John Hamilton of Grange 
appeared before a Committee of the Estates of parliament on 12th March 
1647 to urge a protest, but his objections were overruled. He married in 
162 1, as we have already seen, Catherine Mureheid, who died in the month 
of December 1636, leaving three sons and two daughters, namely, John, 
who succeeded his father, James, Patrick, Alesoune and Katherine, all 
named in their mother's will, which is confirmed 21st March 1637. The 
laird of Grange died between 1660 and 1666. 

John Hamilton of Grange, the next proprietor, was twice married, 
firstly to Agnes Patersone, daughter to the deceased William Patersone of 
Corsewoodbume and Christiana Hamilton his spouse, to whom he gave 
seisin of half his lands of Grange 27th April 1660. The marriage contract 
is dated 30th January 1660, at which time the bridegroom was "younger 
of Grange of Breich." His second wife was Margaret Ros, who survived 
him, and was mother of his son and successor, William Hamilton. On 
14th February, 1666, John Hamilton of Grange, son of John Hamilton of 
the same was retoured heir of his grandfather, John Hamilton, of the lands 
of Grange of Breich. His name is also mentioned in transactions relating 
to the lands of Brotherton in the years 1673 and 1676. 

William Hamilton of Grange had seisin of the lands on a precept 
of Clare Constat by Mr Hugh Dalrymple of North Berwick as lawful 


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and nearest heir of the deceased John Hamilton, his father, 17th April 

1696 ; and upon the same date he granted a bond upon the lands (cor- 

/1 ^ a/f^ roborating a previous bond of the year 

^^%^UtnL^arL:> ]^JJ\ ^[ J^J;^ Whythead. writer 

„, f^ in Edinburgh. He was twice married, 

^ firstly to Grizel Campbell, who was 

Fig. 19.— Signature of William Hamilton his Wife in 1696 ; and secondly to Mar- 

of Grange, 1696. _. 11/.^^. /% 1 t r 

garet Boswell of Pierscroft, daughter of 
George Boswell, brother-german to David Boswell of Balmuto. The 
contract of marriage is dated isth October 1698, the said laird of Balmuto 
being a witness ; and in implement of which contract Hamilton gave seisin 
to his said future spouse of an annuity of 500 merks out of the lands of 
Grange of Breich presently possessed by him and by Margaret Ros, relict 
of John Hamilton of Grange of Breich, his mother. Margaret Boswell 
died in the month of June 1710, and her son, George Hamilton, was 
retoured her heir 15th February 1712. The same George, son of William 
Hamiltoun of Grange of Breich, was served heir of his grand-aunt, Elizabeth 
Bruce, and of his great grandfather John Bruce of Westerabden, in certain 
.lands in Fifeshire, in the years 17 12 and 17 14. 

Mr James Whythead next became seized of the land§ upon a heritable 
bond for ^^4030 Scots b}' William Hamilton of Grange and Grizell 
Campbell his wife dated 17th April 1696. He is designed writer in 
Edinburgh in 1690, and at the date of the bond above-mentioned was 
Chamberlain to the Earl of Tweeddale. His wife was Grizell Drummond, 
but he died without issue before 17 10. He was succeeded in these and 
other lands by his nieces, the daughters of his brother, Robert Whythead 
of Park, namely Lilias Whythead, wife of Alexander Heart in Lin- 
lithgow, and Margaret, her sister, whose husband was John King, one 
of the bailies of Glasgow. By these co-heiresses the property was dis- 
poned in 171 3 to Mr Alexander Guthrie, W.S. This gentleman was 
admitted to the Society of Writers to the Signet 4th January 1698. He 
married in 1700 Jean Menteith, daughter of James ^enteith of Auldcathie, 
and died on 30th September 1729. He again conveyed the lands of 
Grange to David Home, who was laird in 1726, and also at 28th May 173 1, 
when he gave a bond for ;^ioo sterling to John Aitkine, Under Secretary 

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for War for Scotland. He was deceased before 19th June 1734, when 
Alexander Home, writer in Edinburgh, gave in a renunciation of being his 
heir ; and the estate a few years later was brought to judicial sale, when 
the Rev. John Wilkie became the purchaser for the sum of £iA7Zi i6s. 8d. 

Rev, John Wilkie of Grange of Breich was descended of a family 
which, for upwards of four centuries, has been seated at Rathobyres in the 
parish of Ratho, from the main stem of which sprang Sir David Wilkie, R.A. 
Having graduated at Edinburgh in 1699, he was ordained minister of the 
neighbouring parish of Uphall in 1706, where for a period of more than 
fifty-five years he exercised his sacred calling. On 31st July 1740 there 
is a decreet of the Lords of Council and Session decerning to him all and 
haill the lands of Grange of Breich, with the teinds, houses, pertinents, etc., 
and he obtained a charter thereof from Sir John Dalrymple of North 
Berwick, Bart., the superior, dated 21st March 1741. He died at an 
advanced age on the 28th May 1762. A sermon on witchcraft, which he 
preached in Mid-Calder church on 14th January 1720, was published in 
that year. By his wife, Eupham Skein, he had an only son, 

Rev. Charles Wilkie of Grange, who succeeded to the property. 
He was seized of the lands upon a precept in his favour by Sir Hugh 
Dalrymple as heir of his father, dated at North Berwick House, 21st 
September 1762. Like his father, Mr Wilkie studied at Edinburgh, and 
embraced the ecclesiastical profession ; he was licensed by the Presbytery 
of Dalkeith in 1733, and having been presented in the same year by 
Charles, Earl of Hopetoun, to the benefice of Ecclesmachen, rendered 
vacant by the death a short time previously of the Rev. Mr Baillie, he was 
shortly thereafter ordained to that parish, where he ministered for about 
thirty years, filling also the office of one of the trustees of the Moodie 
Mortification to Calder School. He married in 1756 Eupham Flint, who 
died childless, and at his own death without heirs, Sth November 1786, he 
bequeathed his landed property in the parish of Mid-Calder to his intimate 
friend, the Rev. Dr Thomas Hardy of Navity, one of the ministers of 
Edinburgh, charged with certain obligations to his widow and some distant 
relatives. We have already said that his memory has been perpetuated in 
the present name " Charlesfield," and his connection with the property was 

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also marked in the name of Wilkie's Wood, a plantation of about twenty- 
five acres in extent, which is shown in the Ordnance Survey as occupying 
the extreme western angle of this parish, but which was demolished in 1858. 
The Very Rev. Thomas Hardy, D.D., one of the ministers of St 
Giles, Edinburgh, and Dean of the Chapel Royal, the next possessor of the 
property, was the only son of the Rev. Henry Hardy of Navity in the 
parish of Ballingry, minister of Culross, who was descended from a family 
long settled in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, which had for two 
generations at least held the lands of Gogarmains, in the parish of 
Corstorphine. After passing the usual classical and theological course at 
the Edinburgh University, he was ordained in 1774, when twenty-five years 
of age, to the ministry of Ballingry in Fifeshire where he continued about 
ten years. In 1784 he was translated to the High Church of Edinbuigh, 
and later was again removed to the New North Kirk or Haddo's-hole, 
which was one of the four parish churches into which St Giles' Cathedral 
was at that time divided. He was appointed in 1788 Regius Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History at Edinburgh, and in the same year the d^ree of 
D.D. was conferred upon him by that University. Both as a lecturer and 
as a preacher he acquired the highest popularity, and attained to a situa- 
tion of considerable importance in the church, having been Moderator of 
Assembly in 1793. He published several sermons, a work entitled The 
Patriot : The Principles of Moderation^ etc, and was the composer of the 
27th and 28th Paraphrases, besides several hymns. He died at his town 
residence, which is still standing, at the corner of Richmond Place and 
Hill Place, Edinburgh, on the 21st of November 1798, in the fifty-first year 
of his age; his portrait and biography appear in Kay's collection of 
portraits of celebrities of the Scottish capital. Dr Hardy was seized 
of the lands of Grange of Breich, and also those of " Howatstone alias 
Charlesfield " on a charter of resignation by Sir William A. Cunynghame 
of Livingston, dated 3rd January 1794. Shortly after his acquisition of 
the estate, he erected the present mansion-house as a country residence for 
his family, his property of Navity House, which was across the Forth, being 
too inconveniently situated for him, owing to his multifarious engagements 
in the city. His wife was Agnes Young, daughter of the Rev. William 
Young, minister of the united parishes of Hutton and Corrie in Annan- 

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dale, and sister of Alexander Young of Harbum, W.S., an extensive land- 
owner in this and the neighbouring parish. She was married to Dr Hardy 
in 1780, and after her husband's death lived with her family for many 
years at Charlesfield, where she died very suddenly whilst walking in the 
avenue on the 4th of June 181 2. They had a numerous family. Henry, 
the eldest son, a student for the bar, predeceased his mother, and the 
third son, the Rev. Charles Wilkie Hardy, after completing his academic 
career at Edinburgh, was appointed minister of Dunning, in Perthshire, 
in 181 3, but died unmarried in less than a year after his ordination. 
Captain William, the second son, and Dr Thomas, the youngest, both 
survived to become lairds of Charlesfield ; of the daughters, Sophia, the 
youngest, was married first to Gilbert Bertram, merchant at Leith, and 
secondly to Robert Allan, F.R.S., Professor of Surgery at Edinburgh, 
author oi Allan's Surgery and other works. 

Capt. William Hardy of Charlesfield, an officer in the military 
service of the East India Company on the Madras Establishment, was 
the second son of the last mentioned, and was born in the year 1785. 
He rose to distinction in the Hon. Company's service, taking an active 
share in the operations for the suppression of the rebellion in Ceylon in 
i8i8, and acting for some time previous to his death as Resident of 
Tanjore. He never returned to his native country, but died of fever at 
Seringapatam in the year 1824, when the succession passed to his younger 

Thomas Hardy of Charlesfield, F.R.C.S., was seized of the lands of 
Howatstone, on a precept of Clare Constat in his favour by Sir William A. 
Cunynghame of Livingston, as heir of his brother Capt William Hardy, 
in August 1825 ; and of the lands of Grange of Breich upon a charter by 
Sir Hew Dalrymple-Hamilton of North Berwick, dated 13th March 1826. 
This proprietor was at that time a surgeon in private practice in Edin- 
burgh, but for many years before his death he lived with his family for 
the greater part of each year at Charlesfield House. He married, in 1821, 
Robina Forrester, daughter of Robert Forrester, Treasurer of the Bank 
of Scotland, and died at his town house in Duke Street, Edinburgh, 4th 
March 1836. His eldest son, the Rev. Thomas Hardy, sometime of 
Charlesfield, is the present minister of Fowlis Wester, Perthshire ; and of 

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his other childreit mention may be made of the late Miss Robina Hardy 
of Edinburgh, author of Jock Halliday and numerous other works of 
fiction, who died I2th August 1891. 

For several years after 1836 Charlesfield House became the residence 
of Thomas Robertson-Chaplin of CoUiston, a well known Edinburgh citizen, 
under lease from the testamentary trustees of the late Mr Hardy ; and in 
1846 the estate passed by purchase into the possession of Henry Raebum 
of Howden. 

Mr Raebum was the only survivifig son of Sir Henry Raebum, the 
distinguished portrait painter of the early part of the present century. 
Having married Charlotte, daughter and eventual heiress of Mrs Elizabeth 
White of Howden, he ultimately succeeded with his wife to that property, 
which continued to be his residence for many years after his acquisition 
of Charlesfield. He removed hither in the year i860, and devoted much 
care and large sums of money to the improvement of the estate, until his 
death, which occurred at Charlesfield House, 23rd July 1863. His family 
consisted of three sons and four daughters, namely, Henry, resident in 
New Zealand, who died without descendants ; John Peter of Charlesfield, 
who died unmarried, 1872 ; Logan White Raeburn of Charlesfield, married 
Katherine Bruce Fernie of Dauntsey House, Wilts, but died also without 
surviving issue in 1877; Anne of Charlesfield, married William ■ Patrick 
Andrew, a medical officer in the service of the East India Company, 
who received the honour of knighthood and the decoration of Com- 
panion of the Indian Empire 20th January 1882, and died in 1887 leaving 
descendants ; Miss Charlotte Raeburn ; Elizabeth Hay Raebum, married 
John Eraser, M.D., surgeon, Hon. East India Company ; and Miss Caroline 
Raeburn. Lady Andrew of Charlesfield died at Hastings, 24th July 1893. 


The lands in this parish attached to the estate are a portion of the 
farm of Grange and the policy lands of Howatston. The former, as we 
have seen, were anciently included in the barony of North Berwick, but 
the latter, upon which the modern mansion-house is built, has in all 
historic times been within the jurisdiction of the barony of Calder. Thus, 

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on 1st October 1484, there is a charter by Gawin of Levinstoun of the 
lands of Howatstoun lyand in ye barone of Caldor in favour of Mergrete 
Hay, spouse of John of Glendony, Six years later an action was raised 
in the Court of Session by John of Glendovyn and Mergrete Hay his 
spouse against Gawine Levinstoun of yt ilke for wrangwis vexacioun and 
distrubling thame in ye peaceable possessioun of ye landis of Howatstoun 
pertening to ye said Mergrete who enjoyed the same be virtue of ane 
charter and seisin maid to hir be umquhile John of Levinstoun. The 
lords on nth March 1490 ordain the said lands to be broikit and manurit 
be ye said Mergrete and hir spous for all ye dais of hir lif. But it appears 
that the laird of Livingston did not give up his pretensions in consequence 
of this decreet, and the tenants of the property next claimed the protection 
of the Lords of Council against a double rent exacted from them. On 
Sth July 1492 James Bego, Thomas Loch, John Zoung and Janet 
Patersone, tenants of the lands of Howatstoun in the barony of Calder, 
raised an action against Johne of Glendony and Mergrete Hay his wife, 
and against Henry Levinstoun, son and apparent heir of Gawin of 
Levinstoun of yt ilke, for taking dowble malez of the said landis, and that 
Glendony had wrangwis awaytuke and withhalden fra the forsaid tenents 
five horses and four hed of nolt. The matter is continued {i,e. postponed) 
but the lords in the meantime charge the parties to " restore and deliuer 
agane ye saidis guidis to ye said pure tenentis and yt thai vex not ye 
saidis tenentis in ye meyntyme quhill ye deciding of the said mater." 

There are several instances in the parish of lands being cultivated for 
generations,: and even for centuries, by members of the same family of 
tenants. John Bego in Howatstoun, who probably was a descendant of 
the above-mentioned James, died in the month of May 1574, leaving by 
Agnes Balgirvir, his relict spouse, John, Marioun, Helen, Bessie, Thomas, 
and Margaret Begos, his children, all named in his will, which is confirmed 
4th February 1575. Johnne Bego is mentioned as one of the four tenants 
in Howatstoun in 1586, and John was still tenant in 1626. George Bewgo 
in Houatstone died in the month of December 1655 ; and it is said that 
from this race descends Bewgo, the friend of Burns, and an engraver of 
some repute at the end of last century. Thomas Loch likewise appears 
in the plaint above referred to in 1492 ; William Loche was tenant in 

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1586; Henry Loch in 1590; and on 9th October 1698, Hendry Loch in 
Howitstoun was ordained an elder of Mid-Calder parish church. 

The tenants in 1586 were Thomas Levingstoun, John Bego, Johnne 
Walker and William Loche, who are all bound to appear in arms to 
serve the laird of Calder in all oistis and raids whenever they shall be 
lawfully charged thereto. John Walker is still mentioned in 1590 and 
1605, and in 1630 he satisfies the kirk for breach of the Sabbath. George 
Walker in Howitstoun, in 1654, was "too much addicted to excessive 
drunkenness." Thomas Levingstoun in Howatstoun appears in a list of 
occupiers of lands within the barony of Calder in 1 590 ; John Livingston 
was tenant in 162 1 ; Thomas Livingston, there, was a kirk elder at 3rd 
December 1691, when he was due to the Session six bolls of meal. They 
agreed to accept his bond for the same, and " would not otherwise more 
strictly deal with him, he being straitened through the calamities of the 
late tymes, and exposed to sufferings for his principles." Thomas Nimmo 
in Houatstoun was rebuked, 12th May 1695, for swearing, drunkenness, 
and the want of family worship in his household, all of which he 
acknowledged, and promised through the Lord's strength to amend his 
ways. Various other notices of the early tenants of Howatston appear in 
the transactions of the Barony Court. 

1585, May 4— Decernis Jon bego in Houatstoun to keip guid nychtborheid in 
pasturing his gudis with Thomas Lewingstoun, under the penes conteint in ye acts and 

1586, April 19 — Theqlk day the baillie decemis Thomas Lewingstoun in Howat- 
stoun, to keip guid nychtborheid with Jon bego thair, and to that effect to procure a Hird 
with him and to pay ye half of his hyr to keip ye gudds, etc. 

1586, October 20 — The qlk day the baillie decernis Henry Loch in Howatstoun, to 
deliuer to James Steinsoun ane sword quhilk the said James gave to him in keiping in 
Gawesyde at his manage thair at midsomer last. 

1594, February 18— The baillie, finding that be contract and appointment maid 
betuix Agnes Bagarvy and Jon bego in Howatstoun, her sone, he is obleist to give hir a 
sixth part of all cornis growand upon thair roume of Howatstoun, she furnissand the saxt 
part of ye rent and payand to ye persone ye saxt part of ye teind — decernis him to 
observe the said contract, which is of date ye xviij of November 1581, for all ye dayis of 
hir lifetyme. 

1600, March 3— Decerns Henrie Loch in Howitstoun, to pay to J as Lewingston, 
sone to Thomas Lewingston, sextein merkis money. 

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On 14th June 1623 John Kinloch, brother of Mr Patrick Kinloch 
of Aldinstoun, had a charter from John, Lord Torphichen, of an annual 
rent of £/^o out of the lands of Howatston, in the barony of Calder, in 
which annual rent he was succeeded by his brother above-named in the 
year 1625. There is also a charter by the same Lord Torphichen in 
favour of Mr William Sandilands, his brother-german, and Grissell 
Bannatyne, his spouse, of that half of the lands of Howatston presently 
occupied by John Livingston and John Bewgo, under reversion of the 
sum of 4000 merks, at Calder 26th July 1626; this was however re- 
nounced by the said spouses in November 163 1, the transaction taking 
place " in the said nobil Lord's chalmer in Edinburgh, on the south side 
of the gaitt foment the Trone, in presence of Mr Harie Sandilands 
brother to the said Lord, and James Sandilands of Murehousdykis " 
The lands of Howatston were next disponed by his lordship to Mr 
Patrick Kinloch of Alderston, advocate, whose son, James Kinloch of 
Alderston, had seisin in 1640, and they were for many years attached 
to the estate of Alderston. Before the close of the 17th century, 
however, the property came back to Lord Torphichen, and the lands 
of Howatstounes are named amongst others in the barony of Calder 
which bore the provision of an annual rent of 4000 merks to Christian 
Primrose, spouse of Walter, the 6th Lord, conform to her contract of 
marriage, 5th March 1692. Then on i6th December 1701 there is a 
contract of alienation of the lands (as presently possessed by Henry and 
John Loch and others) by James, Lord Torphichen, with consent of Dame 
Christian Primrose, his mother, in favour of Mr John Mitchell of Alderston, 
for whom they were disjoined from the barony of Calder and united to 
that of Alderston by charter under the Great Seal 9th February 1709. By 
this proprietor the lands were again conveyed to Mr Alexander Dalgleish, 
minister of Linlithgow from 1699 until his death, 30th May 1726. This 
clergyman, by his wife Susanna, daughter of Duncan Campbell of 
Auchlyne (whom he married 27th September 1702) had, besides other 
children, a son, Mr Robert, who succeeded him in the benefice, and a 
daughter, Jean, married to Mr Robert Spears, A.M., minister of the 
second charge of Linlithgow for about fifteen years previous to 1743, and 
thereafter of Burntisland. By him and by Jean Dalgleish his wife, the 


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lands of Howatston were disponed to Mr Charles Wilkie of Grange, 
minister of Ecclesmachan, and they were then united with his lands of 
Grange in one estate, afterwards called Charlesfield. This disposition 
in favour of Mr Wilkie is dated at Burntisland 5th November 1750, and 
the marches of the property are thus described — all and whole the lands 
of Howatston bounded between the water of Almond on the north, the 
water of Killing and the lands of Nether Alderston on the south, the 
lands of Grange and Grangeside on the west, and the joining together 
of the two waters on the east parts, lying within the barony of Alderstoun, 
parish of Mid-Calder and shire of Edinburgh, with liberty of casting 
peats and pasturing on the moss of Brastoun. 

The houses of Grange and Hewistoun are marked on Blaeu's atlas, 
published in 1662. 


The estate of Colzium, situated in the southern or upper portion of 
the parish, extends to some 2,700 acres, and now embraces the lands of 
Easter and Wester Colzium and those of Wester Cairns. The house 
occupies a commanding position, and is a substantial structure, the walls 
presenting the appearance of considerable antiquity, but we are without 
precise information in regard to the period of its erection. It is situated 
upon the lands of Easter Colzium, at a height of fully 1000 feet above sea- 
level. In the year 1609, the lands of Easter Colzium, with tower and 
fortalice, are mentioned in the records. It is impossible, however, that the 
present house should be of that age, nor can it in any sense be described 
as a tower or fortress; we must therefore suppose that it occupies the 
position of an older and fortified erection. The house of Colyam is like- 
wise marked in Blaeu's map of the district in 1662, but this also must refer 
to an earlier structure. The present mansion is an example of the X plan, 
and IS of moderate dimensions. Besides the high wing in the centre there 
are two low wings at the back, the roofs of which are just visible in our 
illustration above the courtyard wall ; the front elevation faces the south, 
and presents no feature calling for special remark. The steading of 
Wester Colzium is now in ruins. 

A picturesque and secluded nook on the confines of the estate, 

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near to the Crosswood burn, is traditionally pointed out as one of the 
rendezvous of the Covenanters in Charles Il.'stime, and a projecting piece 
of rock there named Wolf-field Craig is still sometimes called "The 
Pulpit" The history of the lands has a chequered aspect exhibiting a 

Fig. 20, — View of Colzium House from N. 

series of changes in proprietorship, there being no single family which 
even for two complete generations could claim to be "of Colzium." We 
commence our account with 

Martyne Ker of Eister Colzame who was charged to attend wappin- 
schaw displays, armed and on horseback, in 1586. On 20 May 1595, he 
was decerned to pay xxxviij s. which was owing by him to the late 
William Reid the tyme of his deceis, to Jonet Reid as sister and narrest 
off kin to the creditor. His name occurs also in connection with a cattle 
raid committed by the followers of Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm on 
25th June 1598, when they reft from Sir James Sandilands and his tenents 
twenty-four oxen. Archibald Eliot of Mirrieneis, at the command of the 
laird of Branxholm, re-delivered seven of the said oxen to Mertein Ker 
and Williame Welshe. On 7th June 1595, Martin Ker had a disposi- 
tion of the lands of Easter Colzium from James Sandilands of Calder, 
with consent of his curators ; and his daughter Agnes married David 
Wilson in Bonnyngton. The marriage contract is dated 24th October 

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1609, in implement of which the said David and Agnes were infeft in 
the lands of Easter Colzeam, with houses, tower and fortalice, in the 
barony of Calder. This was renunciated by David Wilson in favour of 
Martyne Ker, his father-in-law, 5th March 1632, at which time the latter 
is designated Mairteine Ker in Cammalty. And by Martyne the lands 
were again renounced in favour of John, Lord Torphichen at Calder, ist 
June 1634. Some twenty years later, Walter, Lord Torphichen, grants 
a charter of the steading, roume and lands of Easter Colzeam to William 
Listoun, second lawful son to Patrick Listoun in Over Newlistoun, but 
with declaration anent that part of the lands of Colzeam called Breadbent, 
pertaining to the lands of Colzeam in commonty. 

William Listoun of Easter Colzium was twice married ; firstly to 
Helen Vernour, eldest daughter of Gawin Vemour in Dedridge, to whom he 
gave seisin of the half of his roum and lands of Easter Colzeam in contem- 
plation of the marriage to be solemnised between them, loth June 1658. 
Patrick Listoun, his father, and William Listoun, in Muirend, his uncle, 
are witnesses. His name occurs again at 14th November 1665, when he 
granted an annual rent of £^0 out of his lands of Easter Colzeame to John 
Aikman, elder, in Woodhouse, and John, his son, in liferent and fee ; and 
this charge was redeemed by Jean Cameron, second spouse of William 
Listoun of Easter Colziam, in favour of herself, and of Archibald Listoun, 
her only son, 12th August 1692. Mr John Cameron, minister at 
Kincardine, is a witness to the transaction. William Listoun took part 
on the covenanting side at the battle on Pentland Hills in 1666, in con- 
sequence of which he was proclaimed a rebel, and excepted by name out 
of the King*s pardon and indemnity, ist October 1667. As he could not 
be apprehended, he was sentenced to death in absence, but succeeded in 
evading his persecutors until after the revolution in 1690, when his 
forfeiture was rescinded. He was for several years thereafter an elder of 
Mid-Calder church, and was a very regular attendant in the Session until 
his death, which occurred in August 1698. 

John Listoun, the elder son of the foregoing, and the child of his 
first wife, Helen Vernour, was seized of the lands on a precept of Clare 
Constat to him as lawful and nearest heir of his said father by James, 
Lord Torphichen, dated at the castle of Calder, loth March 1701. An 

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annual rent effeiring to the principal sum of 1000 merks chargeable on 
the lands was held by Archibald Listoun, his half-brother, but was re- 
nounced by him in favour of John Listoun of Easter Colzium, 29th 
August 171 1. This laird married Janet Lawson of the family of Law- 
son of Cairnmuir, and had two sons, James, maltman in Strathaven, and 
William. He died previous to 4th February 1737, when James Listoun, 
the elder son, was retoured heir-general, and his widow was at that time 
married again to Matthew Brown. On 28th November 1723 John 
Listoun, designed " in Three Stones," disponed his lands of Coalzium with 
the teinds thereof in favour of Alexander Aikman of Nether Howden, who 
held the property for rather more than ten years. By him the lands of 
Easter Colzium, with the two commonties of Broadbent and Birkinhill, were 
again conveyed to John Lawson of Cairnmuir, conform to a minute of 
agreement thereanent 22nd June 1734. 

Walter Mitchell of Listonshiells is the next proprietor mentioned. 
He was the eldest son of Mr John Mitchell of Alderston, an extensive 
landowner in the parish, and he died previous to 21st March 1740, when 
there is a precept from Chancery in favour of William Mitchell, chirurgeon- 
apothecary and convener of the Trades of Edinburgh, as heir of his brother 
Walter, of the lands of Listonschiels, Easter Colzium and Bents. By 
William Mitchell the lands were disponed on 31st August 1743 to 

George Dick, writer in Mid-Calder, thereafter of Greenbank, to whom 
they were confirmed by Crown charter of date 12th February 1748. Very 
shortly thereafter Mr Dick conveyed these and other lands in the parish 
to his elder son. Captain George Dick of the Marines, from whom they came 
into the possession of 

Alexander Hepburn, merchant in Edinburgh. This laird obtained 
a charter of resignation under the Great Seal of the lands of Easter Col- 
zeum, with manor place, in the parish of Mid-Calder, in favour of himself 
and Margaret Geddes his wife, in conjunct fee 23rd February 1763 ; and 
two years later he again conveyed the estate to Alexander Geddes, son 
of Robert Geddes, merchant, Maryland, by disposition dated 20th March 

Alexander Geddes of Colzium married Jean Bull, relict of Hugh 
M'Donald, Ensign E. I. Co., to whom he gave seisin of the lands in 1784, 

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and by whom he had a son, Alexander, a lieutenant in the 31st 
Regiment of Foot. He died in the year 1801, and the lands were again 
sold to 

Alexander Grant, W.S., who obtained a charter of the same under 
the Great Seal, dated Sth July 1804. This proprietor was a son of Patrick 
Grant of Nevie, and after serving his apprenticeship to Mr Isaac Grant, 
W.S., of Nether Alderston, he was admitted a writer to the Signet on 
28th June 1787. He died 4th July 1808, and there is a disposition of 
Easter Colzium with the Commonties of Braidbent and Birkinhill belong- 
ing thereto by Peter Grant, in the shipping service of the East India 
Company, with consent of the trustees of the late Alexander Grant, W.S., 
in favour of Mr Michael Linning of Cumberhead, Clerk to the Signet, dated 
2 1st December 18 10. Of 

Michael Linning, W.S., of Colzium, we have already had occa- 
sion to speak (page 1 14) ; he subsequently became possessed of the 
lands of East Cairns and Baadpark, and died on 17th February 1838, after 
which his landed property in this parish was conveyed by his trustees to 
Robert Downie of Appin. 

The lands of Easter Colzium were next acquired by the Edinburgh 
Water Company, an undertaking formed for the construction and main- 
tenance of the Harperrig compensation reservoir, and in whose favour 
there is a conveyance of this property by the Trustees of Robert Downie 
of Appin, and by John Learmonth of Dean, dated 4th November 1844. 
In October 1849, the room and lands of Easter Colzium with the teinds 
thereof and the two commonties of Braidbent and Birkenhill are again 
disponed and assigned by the above named Company to James Hunter of 
the Haugh, NewHston, whose seisin took place on 27th November in that 
year ; and the neighbouring farms of Wester Colzium and Wester Cairns 
were subsequently acquired by Mr Hunter and have since been attached 
to this estate. This laird was succeeded by his son William Bertram 
Hunter, who, on 7th November 1884, disponed the united property of 
Colzium, with manor place, &c., in the parish of Mid-Calder, to the late 
George Watson, then residing at Park House, Grange, Edinburgh. Mr 
Watson was in turn succeeded, in the year 1888, by his nephew, John 
Anderson of Colzium, the present proprietor. 

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The lands of Wester Colzium and Wester Cairns were anciently held by 
the Tennents of Cairns, and the history of their proprietors previous to the 
year 17CX) is the same as that of Easter Cairns. The laird of Wester 
Colzian was charged to appear and give evidence before the Privy Council 
in regard to a conventicle held on the Cairn hills in July 1684 ; and in a 
list of persons whom General Dalzell is recommended to arrest in connec- 
tion with the affair — "convening a sufficient number of His Majesty's 
forces " to that effect — appears the name of David Syres, servant to John 
Hamilton, tenant in Wester Collon. At the same time, Andrew Ker, 
servant to David Ker, tenant in Wester Cairne, having seen several persons 
in arms pass to the said conventicle, yet neglected to give " tymeous infor- 
matioun " with a view to their arrest, is ordered to be apprehended and 
brought in to the Tolbuith of Edinburgh. 

Jonet Alexander died on the 12th April 1584 ; she was first the wife 
of George Tennent in West Colzeane, and afterwards of John 
Gibsoun in Wester Cairnes, and she nominates her son, George 
Tennent, as executor and intromitter. George Tennent in Wester Cairnis 
died 7th May 1608, leaving one half of his effects to Bessie Patersone, his 
relict spouse, and the other half to sundry persons. James Tennent, elder 
of Greenburne, is executor, and John Lowry in Dyk, and Peter Aikman in 
Mortoun are overseers. Bessie Aikman, spouse of David Ker in West 
Cairnes, died in November 1665, mentioning in her will David, John, 
James, Samuel, Andrew, Jean, and Helen Kers, her children. 

On 29th July 1708 the lands of Wester Colzium and Wester Cairns 
were confirmed by Lord Torphichen to Mr John Mitchell of Alderstoun, 
for whom they were disjoined from the barony of Calder and annexed to 
that of Alderstoun by Crown charter dated 9th February 1709. He died 
in July 1730, and these lands were conveyed by his trustees to George 
Dick, writer in Mid-Calder, who paid for West Colzium and West Cairns 
the sum of ;£'i 1,960 Scots, including annual rent from Candlemas 1734 to 
Whitsunday 1736. The same gentleman, as we have already seen, after- 
wards acquired Easter Colzium, so that the three lands, although they were 
destined to be again divided, wer6 at this period associated in one estate as 
at present. In 1755, Captain George Dick of Greenbank gave an annuity 
of £40 sterling out of the lands of West Colzium and West Cairns to 

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Rosamond Pearson, his affianced wife ; and the same lands were confirmed 
under the Great Seal to William Dick of Greenbank, 2nd June 1791 
William Dick died in the following year, and the property was, on isth 
November 1793, conveyed by his trustees to Captain John Inglis of 
Auchindinny. This proprietor was a naval commander, and attained to 
the rank of vice-admiral. He was succeeded by his son, John Inglis 
of Auchindinny, advocate, who was seized on 31st August 181 3. This 
Mr Inglis again conveyed the lands, on ist December 181 8, to the Rev. 
Hugh Laird, D.D., minister of Portmoak, who at the same time acquired 
the neighbouring property of Easter Cairns and Baadpark. The latter he 
sold in 1827 to Mr Michael Linning, W.S., of Easter Colzium, but he 
continued proprietor of West Colzium and West Cairns until his death, 
which occurred on 28th August 1849, in his eighty-sixth year. In West 
Cairns and West Colzium he was ultimately succeeded by his second son, 
Hugh Laird, a writer in Kinross, and procurator-fiscal for that county, by 
whom the lands were again conveyed to James Hunter of East Colzium, 
to which estate they have since been attached. 


A few roods south of the village, and between the roadway and 
Calder wood, formerly stood the house of Greenbank, which was erected 
by Superintendent Spottiswood, the first Reformed minister of Calder, and 
was the birthplace, in 1565, of his son and successor in the charge, who 
subsequently became Archbishop of St Andrews. The property was 
acquired by Lord Torphichen at the close of last century, and the house, 
which had become very dilapidated, has since been demolished ; it con- 
tained a portrait of the Superintendent. After the promotion of the 
younger Mr Spottiswood to the Archbishopric of Glasgow, in 1603, 
Greenbank House continued for about forty years the parsonage of the 
parish clergy, and when they removed to the old manse at Sandilands, the 
superiority of this property still belonged to the church. When no 
longer the residence of the minister, Greenbank became for a period of 
about one hundred and fifty years, the abode of the village lawyer. It 
was first held by the family of Johnstone, the members of which were 

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successively writers and notaries in Mid-Calder, Jhone Jhonstoun, notary 
publict, acting as an elder of the parish in 1607. Johne Johnestoun, 
macer, is designated constable of the parrochine of Calder in an order to 
him to provide certain horses for the use of His Majesty's chariot passing 
through this district on the occasion of his progress through Scotland, in 
the year 16 17. 

There are entries in the Presbytery and other records alluding to 
the erection of the manse of Calder in 1645, and it seems that the 
property of Greenbank was at this time disponed by Mr Kennedy, the 
minister, to Samuel Johnstone, notary in Calder. The latter had a seat 
in the parish church in 1653, and his name occurs in connection with 
various legal transactions in the district about the same period — e.g,y he 
acts in relation to the testament of John Anderson in Skevo, recorded 
22nd July 1661. He had several children, viz., Walter, baptized 28 
April 1653 ; Jeane, b. 1645 \ Katrine, b. 1658 ; and Anna, b. 1668. 
Walter Johnstone, notary, and Bethea Fergusone, his spouse, were 
next seized of the lands upon a charter by Mr Norman M*Kenzie, 
rector of Calder, dated 22nd August 1676, on which occasion the 
property is described as all and whole that mansion-house in Calder, 
built by the late Mr John Spotswood, grandfather of the late Sir John 
Spotswood of Dairsie, Knight, and by the late John, Archbishop of St 
. Andrews, his father, with a piece of bank, etc., and two acres of arable 
land, in the barony of Calder Comitis. Walter Johnstone filled the office 
of Session-clerk to the Presbyterian congregation, both at their temporary 
meeting-place during the occupation of the parish church by the Episcopal 
Incumbents, and also at the church. He died in 1690 or 1691, and on 
13th June 1704, Jean, Anne, Margaret, and Bethia Johnstones, his 
daughters, had a precept of Clare Constat from Mr John Lookup, minister 
at the church of Calder, as heirs of their said father. These four daughters 
were all married : Jean, the eldest, to William Wardrop, writer in Mid- 
Calder; Anne, to Robert Anderson, merchant in Duns; Margaret, to 
Mr John Sandilands, minister at Dolphington ; and Bethia, to Thomas 
Sandilands, writer in Mid-Calder, who died in August 17 16. By these 
co-heiresses the property was conveyed to William Elphinston, after whose 
death it was disponed by John Dewar, merchant, and late bailie of 


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Edinburgh, to George Dick, writer in Mid-Calder, 8th December 1744 
The disposition describes the lands, and embraces the houses lately built 
thereon by the deceased Captain Elphinston, with barns, stables, piece of 
brae, and craig adjacent, with two arable acres towards the south and 
west of the old mansion-house ; also the seat in Mid-Calder church 
pertaining to the said lands. 

George Dick of Greenbank, who thus became proprietor, was only 
son of John Dick, merchant in Mid-Calder, and Elizabeth Jamisone, his 
wife. His name occurs very frequently in the records in connection with 
the exercise of his profession between the years 1723 and 1750. He 
became possessed of many other lands in the parish, including various 
subjects in the village, the lands of Easter Colzium (on disposition by 
William Mitchell, chirurgeon, of date 31st August 1743), West Cairns. 
West Colzium, and others, which were confirmed to him by a charter 
under the Great Seal, 12th February 1748, in which it is narrated that 
the property of Greenbank is held of the rector of Calder, and his successors 
in office. George Dick married in the month of April 1713, Margaret, 
daughter of the deceased John Sandilands of Braidshaw, with whom he 
had two sons, namely, George, born 25 May 1715 ; and William, born 2nd 
February 1726. He was succeeded by the elder son, Captain George Dick, 
of General Cornwalls* regiment of Marines, who in 175 1 acquired also the 
lands of Easter Murieston from Matthew Paterson of Murieston, a merchant 
in Linlithgow. This proprietor married (contract dated 6th March 1754), 
Rosamond Pearson, fourth daughter of Rodger Pearson, in the county of 
Northumberland, and widow of David Clifton, accountant of Excise, Edin- 
burgh ; but he died apparently without issue, about 30 Nov. 1778. Captain 
Dick was in turn succeeded in these various lands by his brother, William 
Dick of Greenbank, officer of Excise at Dumbarton, who had a precept of 
Clare Constat as heir of his said brother from James, Lord Torphichen, on 
8th May 1782, and was retoured heir-general of the late George Dick, 
writer in Mid-Calder, his father, on 7th August in the same year. William 
died in 1792, leaving a son, George, officer of Excise at Elie; and the 
estates were alienated in the following year, Greenbank to Lord Torphichen, 
Easter Murieston to Henry Janiieson, banker in Edinburgh, and West 
Colzium and West Cairns to Captain John Inglis, R.N., of Auchindinny. 

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A portion at least of these lands formed part in ancient times of the 
patrimony of the Knights Templars, and of their successors the Knights 
of St John. At the period of the Reformation, Thomas Cant obtained 
the property from the baron of Calder. His son, also Thomas Cant of 
Herperrig, was laird in 1586, and at ist May 1590, when Thos. Ramage 
was decerned to pay and deliver to Thomas Cant of Harperrig, four 
hoggis and ane zew at xxiiij d. ye piece overheid quhilk war tint to ye 
said Thomas Cant in ye said Thomas Ramage's default This laird was 
succeeded by his nephew, John Cant, in 1602, who had seisin on a 
precept of Clare Constat by James Sandilands of Calder, as heir of 
the deceast Thomas Cant of Herperig, his grandfather. On i6th 
March in the last-mentioned year, John Cant gives seisin of the 
temple lands of Herperig called Templehill to Robert Hamilton of 
Bathgate, on which occasion they are described as being bounded by 
the Water of Lethensem on the north, by the Meredene burn on the 
east, and on the west by the Tempildyck, which extends from the 
south to the foresaid Water of Lethensem. Three years later, Hamilton 
of Bathgate resigned the lands in favour of Mr Laurence Scot, writer, 
to whom they were confirmed by James, lord of Torphichin, with consent 
of James Tennent of Lynhous, and Mr Robert Williamesoune of Murreis- 
toun, 30th May 1605, when it is mentioned that the lands were occupied 
by the late Hugo Dowglas, Robert Lawder, Wm. Deware of that Ilk, 
James Guidled, and Wm. Haswall. Mr Laurence is designed "of 
Bavillaw," and was an extensive proprietor of lands in neighbouring 
parishes; his name occurs frequently in records relating to Calder 
church between 1633 and 1653, and one of his daughters, Agnes Scot, 
married Mr Patrick Kinloch of Alderston in 1622. Mr Lawrence Scot of 
Bavillaw died in November 1669, mention being made in his will of 
Katherine Binning, his relict spouse, Mr Lawrence, his eldest son, 
William, Katherine, Barbara, Agnes, Cristian, and Janet, his younger 
children ; Mr James Binning, advocate, is cautioner. Mr Lawrence Scot, 
the elder son, was served heir of his father of the lands of Harperrig, 

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in the barony of Calder, and of the temple lands of the same, called 
Tempillhill, in the regality of Torphichen, 13th May 1670. He died 
previous to 9th October 1679, when there is a charter under the Great 
Seal to William Scot of Bavillaw erecting many lands in neighbouring 
parishes into the free barony of Bavillaw. William died in the month 
of March 1690, and was succeeded by Charles Scot of Bavillaw, his 

We next find the lands of Harperrig in the possession of Robert 
Thomson, Sheriff-Clerk depute for the county of Edinburgh, He had 
two sons, who each in turn became proprietors of Harperrig, as well as 
Auchinoon and other lands in the locality. The elder son was Dr Robert 
Thomson, a physician in Edinburgh, who granted an annuity of £1000 
Scots out of the estate to Mistress Mary Dickson, his wife, daughter of 
Sir Robert Dickson of Innerask, baronet, conform to their marriage 
contract, which is dated 29th April 17 17. Dr Thomson died within a 
few months, and his widow married secondly to Adam Durham of 
Luffness. He was succeeded in these lands by his brother, Alexander 
Thomson, a merchant and burgess of Edinburgh, who obtained a charter 
under the Great Seal of that part of the barony of Calder called Harper- 
rig, and the temple lands of the same or Templehill in the reality of 
Torphichen, also certain parts of the lands and barony of Kirknewton, 
dated at Edinburgh, 13th February 1721. This laird died before 175 1, 
when Matthew Thomson of Harperrig grants an annual rent furth of the 
lands to Dr George Young, physician in Edinburgh, and Thomas Young, 
surgeon there, his son. 

The property now belongs to the Earl of Morton ; it has long been 
tenanted — for a period of 200 years, it is said — by members of the family 
of Gray. The name is an old one in the parish, the Grays being first 
settled at the Bridgend of Calder. Mr John Gray and Eupham Mosman 
his spouse, had a charter of lands and houses at ye end of the brig of 
Calder, 6th September 1563. He left a son, Alexander Gray, whose name 
appears amongst the vassals of the barony in 1586, and a daughter, 
Katherine; Alexander was deceased in 1602, when Rachael Gray, his 
daughter, had seisin of " that piece of land occupied by her father and 
grandfather, lying beside the Bridgend of Calder, together with the meadow 

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or brae at the south side of the house, and right of pasturage of four beasts 
with the cows of the village of Calder, in the mains thereof." Robert Gray 
is one of the witnesses to the baptism of Andrew Godskirk's child in 
Baadpark, 3rd March 1605 ; and in 1664, John Gray was ordained an 
elder of the parish church. James Gray was tenant in Harperrig in 1775. 

Fig. 21. — View of Howden House from S. 


Howden House is picturesquely situated in a well-wooded park 
which rises gently from the north bank of the Almond. It is a sub- 
stantial rectangular structure of liberal dimensions, with a large wing at 
either end, evidently added at a period subsequent to the erection of 
the main part of the house, the walls dividing them therefrom being not 
far short of 9 feet in thickness. No date appears on any portion of the 
building, but it seems probable that the original structure may have been 
erected about the commencement of last century ; and the whole has been 
restored by the present proprietor, with extensive interior alterations, 
during the past few years. The lands of Howden, "with the principal 
house, office houses, etc.," are mentioned in 1753 ; and on 19th October 
1796, as our parish records -inform us, Dr James Gregory, physician in 
Edinburgh, and Isabella, second daughter of Donald Macleod of Geanies 

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were married at Houdoun House by the Rev. John Sommers, minister of 

The name is of very old application to the lands, and in ancient 
times designated not only the present estate of Howden, but a portion 
also of lands of the Craigs, with a pendicle south of the Almond, 
the connection with which still survives in the names of Howden Toll 
Bar and Howden Smithy. Hence it is that what we now know as 
Howden is denominated in old charters and writs Wester or Over 
Howden, Nether Howden being the name formerly applied to the lower 
portions of the lands and those which have since become incorporated 
in Lord Torphichen's estate of Calder. The small estate of Howden 
Park, extending to some 50 acres, is the property of Mr Robert Auld, 
in whose family it is understood to have descended for several generations. 

In the year 1510, Robert Dalgles (Douglas) in Howdane produced 
the King's remission for resetting, supplying and intercommuning with 
John Davidson, rebel. Robert Douglas in Howdoun is likewise a witness, 
in company with Robert Douglas of Pumfrastoun and others, to a charter 
of the lands of Colzium dated loth October 1539. Johnne Dowglas 
in Howden is next mentioned at 19th March 1566, when, with many others 
in the barony of Calder, he was cited to appear before the King and 
Quenis Majesteis to answer to sic thingis as salbe laid to their charge 
touching the murder of David Riccio. Whether the same individual 
we know not, but there was a John Douglas, "called of Howden," who 
was deceased in 1607, when his brother Alexander was retoured his 
heir, and concerning whom it is said that he served Queen Mary with 
reputation in her wars in Ireland. The following letter of the Council 
was addressed to the Privy Council of Ireland in favour of the above- 
named Alexander, in 1609: 

Edinburgh, 28M September 1609. — After oure very humble commendationis to your 
goode Lordshipis — The beirar heirof, Alexander Douglas, lauchfull bruther and air of 
umquhile Johnne Douglas of Howden, being to repair to that cuntrey for recoverie by the 
ordinarie course of law and justice of the possessionis and goodis of his deceissit bruther, 
who with goode credite and reputatioun served the lait Quene of famous memorie in 
hir wearis in Yrland, made some conqucis of landis and goodis thair, and depairtit this 
lyfTe without ony lauchfull issue of his body now on lyne to succeid unto him, he hes 
requirit of us our letter and recommendatioun unto your goode Lordships, that it may 

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pleis your Lordshipis to grant unto him summar, favourable, and reddy justice. We, 
considdering his reasounable requeist, haif thoght meete to accompany him with this oure 
letter, desiring your Lordshipis effectuuslie to haif a favourable consideratioun of him, 
and to grant unto him suche furtherance and expeditioun in his sute without unnecessarie 
proces of law and with such equitie of justice as is aggreable to your Lordshipis honnour 
and to law, reasoun, and custome of the cuntrey, as we salbe willing and reddy to showe 
the lyke furtherance to ony of the subjectis of that cuntrey who salbe recommendit be 
your Lordshipis unto us. And sua recommending your goode Lordshipis unto Godis 
divyne protectioun, we rest your Lordshipis very assuired goode friendis — A. Cancdlarius, 
Glasgu, Lynlythqu, Perth, Lotheane, Sanquhair, Torphechin, R. Cokbume, Jo. Prestoun. 

In the year 1574 we see it stated that Agnes Halkerstoun, relict of 
umquhile James Douglas in Over Howden had set a tack of her lands of 
Halkerstoun's Croft to James Douglas, son of the late Robert Douglas 
of Pumphrastoun, under " ane yeirlie maill or dewitie," which the tenant 
had failed and now refused to pay; and the tack was accordingly 
annulled by My Lord Regentis Grace, 12th February 1574. 

Robert Douglas of Howden was present at an assize of the Barony of 
Calder met to deliberate as to what good statutes should be made anent 
the keeping of good order in the Barony, on loth February 1583 ; and his 
name likewise appears in the list of tacksmen so often alluded to as bound 
to serve the baron and his tutor in arms at all Wappenschaw displays, 
when lawfully summoned thereto, 19th April 1586. Robert Dowglas of 
Ower Howden was a creditor for xx s. of the estate of the deceased 
William Sandilands in 1590. Then on 21st May 1601 complaint was 
made to the Privy Council by James Hereot of Trabroun, who figures 
as overlord or superior of the lands, making mention that upon 
Thursday the 7th of the said month, William Borthuik, brother of the 
late James, Lord Borthuik, and others, at nine hours of the morning 
came to the complenaris landis of Over Howden and there slew two of 
his horses while ploughing and wounded his ploughmen, so that they 
dared not labour his lands. The accused, not appearing, are ordered 
to be denounced His Highness' rebels. 

From the foregoing notices it would appear that the Douglases, though 
long seated at Howden, were hitherto connected with the property as 
tenants only, but shortly after this period their tenure became heritable. 
Thus on the 4th September 1603 Robert Douglas, of Wester Howden, 

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passed to those his lands of Wester Howden and there gave seisin of a 
part of the same to Isobell Skeldie, his spouse, and certain annual rents 
thereout to his sons and daughters, as follows : — Archibald Douglas, Peter, 
Robert, Johne, Christian, and Janet Douglas, conform to the tenour of 
a charter to be made thereupon. James Douglas in Nether Howden 
is a witness to the sasine. This laird was deceased prior to ist July 1623, 
when there is a renunciation by Isobell Skeldie (who is designed relict 
of Robert Douglas of Over Howden, now spouse to Robert Thomson), 
and Cristine and Margaret Douglas, daughters of the said Robert 
He was succeeded by Hew Douglas, designed portioner of Howden, 
his eldest son, who is witness to an alienation regarding the lands of 
Over Williamston by James Tennent, 3rd September 162 1. Four years 
later there is a charter by the Provost of the Collegiate Church of 
Dalkeith, with the consent of William, Lord Dalkeith, confirming the 
lands of Wester Howden to William Douglas, eldest lawful son of James 
Douglas of Over Gogar, upon which seisin was given 8th November 
1625. James Douglas, portioner of Over Gogar, is designed bailie and * 
chamberlain to ane michfy lord William, Earl of Mortoun, and he died 
in the month of October 1635, nominating the above-named William 
Douglas, his eldest son, his sole executor. William Douglas of Over 
Gogar had a seat allotted to him in Calder church, in right of the lands 
of Howden, in the years 1646 and 1653. He died previous to 29th 
January 1669, on which date his testament is recorded. Mention is made 
therein of Elizabeth Douglas, his daughter, whose contract of marriage 
with Francis Aird, son of John Aird, elder, merchant burgess of Dundee, 
is dated i6th January 1656. 

John Bryce in Pumpherstoun was next seized of the lands, although 
as trustee only for behoof of James Masoun, merchant burgess of 
Edinburgh. He was admitted an elder of the parish church 31st 
December 1663 ; and his daughter, Barbara Bryce, spouse of John Flint 
at Breichmylne, afterwards tenant in Burngrange, had a precept of 
Clare Constat as heir of her father, John Bryce, of the lands of Over 
Howden, 14th July 1675. From James Masoun the estate was apprised 
at the instance of several persons, and in the years 1683 and 1684 the 
various encumbrances affecting the property were acquired by Mr John 

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Inglis, advocate. Against this gentleman a process was raised in the 
Court of Session by Barbara Biyce and others, but the Lords found 
that the disposition of the said lands, granted by William Douglas of 
Gogar to the deceased John Bryce in Pumpherston, was taken in the said 
John Bryce's name allanerly in trust for James Masoun, to whom the 
lands did truly and only belong; and that they did now properly pertain 
to the said Mr John Inglis, as deriving right from him. The decreet 
of reduction is dated 26th February 1691. 

Mr John Inglis had principal seisin of the lands of Wester alias Over 
Howden on 25th March following. He was admitted a member of the 
Faculty of Advocates Sth December 1667, and he died previous to iSth 
February 1701, when John Inglis, his son, was served heir-general; a 
second son, Robert, is designed writer in Edinburgh in 172 1. It would 
appear that the widow and family removed from the district after the 
death of Mr Inglis, as the following entry occurs at this time in our local 
records — 

1702, February Sth — Appoints a testificatin favours of the Lady Ovirhowdin and all 
her familie. 

John Inglis of Howden, the next proprietor, a writer in Edinburgh, had 
a disposition of the lands from James, Lord Torphichen, on Sth August 
1708, and a charter thereof from Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch, as heir of 
the late Mr John Inglis, advocate, his father, dated Sth July 1709. In the 
year 1721 the property was conveyed by the trustees acting under a settle- 
ment by John Inglis, younger, writer to the Signet, to James Scott, also a 
writer in Edinburgh, who had seisin 28th August 1722, and was resident 
proprietor for many years. His wife was Barbara Allan, with whom he had 
two sons, James, W.S., and Robert, both mentioned in the disposition last 
referred to, and a daughter, Jean, married to John Measson, son of George 
Measson of Hassendean, whose daughter, Margaret M., was baptized at 
Howden, nth October 1741. The lands were now again conveyed by 
James Scotts, elder and younger, to 

William Wilson, W.S., conform to a minute of sale dated isth 
March I7S3, on which occasion the property is described as all and haill 
the lands of Wester Howden with the principal house, office-houses, etc., 


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in the parish of Mid-Calder. Mr Wilson was the eldest son of John 
Wilson, Bachelor of Humanity in Edinburgh, and he was admitted to the 
Society of Writers to His Majesty's Signet on isth June 1739. He was 
twice married, firstly, on 3rd January 1732 to Mary Campbell, with whom 
he had three sons, mentioned below ; and secondly on 24th June 1757, to 
Margaret Young, daughter of Thomas Young, merchant, Edinbui^h, and 
he died i8th June 1787, aged seventy-seven years. He made a settlement 
of the property at the time of his second marriage, in favour of himself in 
liferent and of Thomas Wilson, his eldest son, in fee, whom failing, to John 
Wilson, his second son, whom also failing to William Wilson, his youngest 
son, reserving an annuity ol £\QO sterling out of the said lands to Margaret 
Young, now his spouse, dated 12th October 1757. 

Mr Thomas Wilson of Howden, who succeeded, was a member of the 
Faculty of Advocates, and by him, with consent of Margaret Young, relict 
of the late William Wilson, W.S., the property was sold on i6th May 
1794 to Thomas Farquharson, formerly a medical officer in the army, 
surgeon to the 2nd battalion, 42nd Regiment This proprietor resided at 
Howden for a period of about twenty-four years, and in the year 18 18 the 
estate was again sold, Mrs Elizabeth White, relict of John White of Airth, 
being the purchaser. The seisin in her favour is dated 22nd May 1819. Mrs 
White was succeeded in 1834 by her son and daughter, the Rev. James 
White, and Charlotte White, wife of Henry Raebum of St Bernard s. Mr 
Raebum, who was the only surviving son of Sir Henry Raebum, the emi- 
nent artist, subsequently acquired, in the year 1842, the share of his brother- 
in-law, the Rev. James White, and some eighteen years after the date last- 
mentioned, he took up his residence upon his estate of Charlesfield in this 
parish, which he had purchased in 1846, and where he died 23rd July 1863. 
The lands of Howden were sold by him and by the trustees of his wife in 
October 1861 to Captain Robert Alexander Boothby Tod, youngest son 
of Robert Tod of Heathery Haugh, Co. Dumfries, a retired officer of the 
94th Regiment, who resided at Howden for a period of about seventeen 
years. Upon his death, which occurred on 14th February 1879, in the 
forty-ninth year of his age, the property passed to his brother, William 
Tod of Heathery Haugh, near Moffat, by whom it was again sold in the 
year 1890 to James Edward Stoddart of Howden, the present proprietor. 

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Google \ 


Nether Howden. 

Nether Howden, which has ceased to exist as the name of particular 
lands, embraced in ancient times that portion of Mr Stoddart's property 
which lies between the Glasgow road and the river, the lands of Howden 
Park, and a considerable portion of Craigs. The steading was upon the 
last-named lands, in close proximity to the ruin of Nether Craigs, which still 
remains. The lands were divided early in the present century, and it may 
serve to indicate the proportions of the respective proprietors if we say 
that the yearly valued rent of Howden Haugh, which was at that time 
annexed to Mrs White's property of Howden, was £t^ ios. of old 
valuation, — of Howden Park ;f 22, los. ; and of the portion incor- 
porated in Lord Torphichen's estate ;690. The last-mentioned is still 
officially designated as Craigs and Howden, although in common parlance 
it goes under the name of Craigs. John Dowglase of Nether Howdane 
died on the 29th March 1576, leaving by Margaret Hamiltoun, his wife, 
who survived him, a son James, executor of his will, besides other 
children. This James Douglas of Nether Howden appears, in company 
with Robert Douglas of Over Howden, at the inquest of 1583, and his 
name is also included in the list of vassals of the barony of Calder, in 
connection with the military display held in the parish in 1586. 

1587, October 18 — Qlk day the baillie decerns James Craig to pay to James Dowglas 
of Howdon, as assignay lauchfullie constitut be ye tutor of Calder, iij bolls beir and xj 
bolls meill for ye fermes of ye land callit ye Quhin, of ye crop and zeir of God 1 586. 

Six years later he had a charter of the lands of Nether Howdoun from 
Mr David M*Gill of Neisbit, advocate, with consent of the Prebendary of 
Dalkeith College and of William, Earl of Mortoun, patron thereof, dated 
31st March 1593. The charter is to James Douglas of Nether Houdoun 
and Jonet Kinloch his wife, and it narrates that the heritage has been in 
James's family, ultra hominum memorianu In August 1595 a precept 
furth of Chancery is directed to James Douglas of Nether Howden for 
a sasine to be given to Elizabeth Heriot, on her marriage with James, 
Lord Torphichen. He witnesses, in 1603, a sasine to Robert Douglas of 
Wester Howden ; was deputed to attend the Presbytery of Linlithgow in 

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the name of the kirk of Calder, in the following year, in a matter relating 
to the settlement of a new minister in the parish ; and he was still living 
in 1622, when he is mentioned in our parish records as James Douglas, 
elder, sometime of Nether Howdan. About this time the property came 
into the possession of Quintigem Lockhart, son of the deceased Mungo 
Lockhart of Cleghorn, whose brother, Mr Alexander Lockhart of Braid- 
schaw, was retoured his heir in the lands of Nether Howden 9th July 1633. 
This laird married Mary Tennent, and had two sons, Alexander and 
Stephen, and he was deceased at 9th March 1648. At that date 
Alexander Lockhart, now of Braidschaw, had a precept from Francis, Earl 
of Buccleuch, as nearest lawful heir of the late Mr Alexander Lockhart of 
Braidschaw, his father. A third Alexander Lockhart, designed merchant 
burgess of Edinburgh, but whose relationship, if any, to the Braidschaw 
family is not indicated, was next seized of the property. He had a 
charter of Nether Houdoun from Mr Alexander Lockhart of Braidschaw, 
and Alexander, his son, dated 21st August 1644, to hold under James 
Gilmour, son and heir of the deceased Mr Robert Gilmour, minister at 
Calder church, and of the foresaid laird of Braidschaw, in chief This 
Alexander Lockhart, burgess of Edinburgh, was still proprietor in 1653 ; 
and in 1666 Abraham Pargillies of Nether Howden is mentioned. This 
gentleman, in 1653, was " in the Lynhous," and thereafter was for several 
years heritable proprietor of Alderston. He married Agnes Nemo, and 
was father of William Pargillies in Murrays, whose son, Abraham P., 
had a charter of Nether Howden from his grandfather, Abraham Pargillies 
elder, dated at Nether Howdoun 23rd June 1666. His will is dated on 
the 8th July following, and he died in the same year, nominating Agnes 
Nemo, his spouse, only executor and legatee. Abraham Pargillies younger 
gave seisin in liferent of his lands of Nether Howden to Elspeth Gather, 
his spouse, on loth November 1692. He died in August 1701 leaving 
five children, viz.: — Abraham, John, William, Janet, and Elizabeth, all 
named in his will. Elizabeth Calder, his widow, afterwards married again 
to Alexander Aikman,* who subsequently acquired right to the lands. 
Abraham Pargillies, the eldest son, and the third laird of the name in 
succession, had a precept from David, Earl of Northesk, as heir of his 
father of the lands of Nether Howdoun, ist August 1718 ; and he died 

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in the month of February 1720, the inventory of his effects being given up 
by Janet and Elizabeth Pargillies, sisters-german to the deceased. 

The lands of Nether Howden next came into the possession of the 
before-mentioned Alexander Aikman, who also acquired the estate of 
Easter Colzium on disposition by John Listoun of Easter Colzium, dated 
28th November 1723. John Aikman son to Alexander Aikman, and 
Elizabeth Caldcr in Nether Howden, was baptized at Calder church i6th 
December 1709. At a later period Nether Howden was held for some 
time by the Sharps of Houstoun, and still more recently by Cunynghame 
of Livingston, by whom it was conveyed to Lord Torphichen and the 
other portioners. 

The houses of Over Howden and Nether Howden are shewn in 
Blaeu's Atlas, 1662 ; and Nether Howden House was still standing, and is 
marked in Knox's map of the county of Edinburgh, published in 1820. 

Fig. 22. — View of Linhouse from N E. 


This mansion-house certainly affords the most interesting example 
we possess of castellated domestic architecture, whilst in point of 

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antiquity it is second only to Calder House amongst the inhabited build- 
ings of the parish. The original part of the house, which is shewn black 
upon the plan (Fig. 23), bears the date 1589 over the old entrance door 

which is now 
barred up. It con- 
sists of two square 
towers diagonally 
disposed in plan, 
and united by a 
circular tower in 
the angle. The 
similarity between 
this and the castle 

Fig. 23. -Plan of Linhouse. ^^ ^^.^^^^ ^j^.^j^ j^ 

some 150 years earlier, leads to the suggestion that the architect may 
have modelled his plan upon that of Cairns, which is not more than 
two- and-a-half miles distant across the moor. The remarkable manner 

in which the staircase tower is jammed 
in between the two main portions of 
the buildings is a striking feature 
; common to both erections, and one 
which we do not recollect to have 
met with elsewhere. (Compare the 
annexed ground plan with Fig. 16, 
page lis). At Cairns Castle so little 
now remains that the resemblance 
cannot be observed as extending be- 
yond the plan. Here, however, we 
have the round tower corbelled out 
to the square at the top and terminat- 
ing in an embattled bartizan. The 

spiral stair ascends through the three 
Fig. 24.-Angle Turret at Linhouse. ^^^^j^^ ^j- ^j^^ j^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^j^j, 

a circular angle turret contains a small newel stair giving access to the 
flat roof of the tower. The corbel courses which carry this turret are 

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enriched with carving of the cable and chequer pattern, which agrees well 
in character with the date upon the lintel ; and the turret itself terminates, 
not in a slated cone, as is usual in Scottish architecture of the period, 
but in a conical stone roof, with picturesque lucarnes — also an unusual 
feature. "The corbelling at the outer angle of the north-west wing," 
say Messrs Macgibbon and Ross, "is a little inexplicable. Possibly 
some structure which stood here was afterwards removed, and the corbels 
inserted to carry the upper walls. But at the end of the i6th century 
the love of corbelling was so great that it was often employed without 
any apparent object." 

At the eastern end of this double tower, an extensive addition 
has been made in the 17th century, converting the mansion into a 
modified form of the E plan. The east wing contains the present 
entrance door and hall, with the modern and more commodious staircase. 

We incline to regard the obvious derivation of the word " Linhouse " 
as the correct one,— namely the house beside the linn or waterfall which 
is situated at the foot of the garden, presenting perhaps the wildest and 
most romantic scene which the parish can boast. It is, however, a 
remarkable illustration of the corruption of language in popular parlance 
that the name is often written in the i6th century " Lennox," and even 
" Levenax." In Blaeu's Atlas, published in 1662, the house is marked as 
" Lennos." 

At the earliest period to which our history extends, Linhouse was the 
seat of a branch of the powerful family of Tennent, whose scions were 
large landowners in this and neighbouring parishes. We have already 
had occasion to observe that the Tennents were early connected with 
Edinburgh, and one of them, Francis Tennent, was Lord Provost in 1571, 
when, according to Nisbet's Heraldry, he was taken prisoner whilst 
"valiantly fighting for Queen Mary." This connection may perhaps 
account for the motto of the City of Edinburgh — Nisi DOMINUS FRUSTRA 
— being inscribed over the ancient doorway at Linhouse. 

On the 14th November 1537 Thomas Weir of Blackwood and John 
Campbell found caution to underly the law at the next justice-aire of 
Lanark for art and part of the cruel slauchter of Archibald Tennent of 
Leuenax [Linhouse]. 

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James Tennent of Linhouse is the next laird mentioned. He had 
a feu charter of ane half of a third part of the landis of Owir Williamstoun 
from Johnne Sandilandis fear of Calder, with consent of James Sandilands 
of Calder, Knyt, his father, under the seals and subscriptions of the parties, 

Fig. 25.— Carved lintel at Linhouse. 

1st August 1534; which charter was presented by Archibald Tennent, and 
recorded in the books of the Baron Court of Calder, 19th April 1586. 
James Tennent of Lynhouse is a witness in 1558 to a charter of James, 
Lord St John, to David Dundas of Brestmill ; and also, about the same 
period, to a rental in favour of Katherine Spens, relict of umquhile George 
Inglis, and Thomas Inglis, her son, of their kyndlie roum and maling of 
Auldlistoun. He married Margaret Sandilands, who survived him, and 
appears to be a daughter of John Sandilands of Calder; and he died in 
the month of February 1573. His latter will is dated at the Linhous 21st 
February 1573, wherein he constitutes James Cochrane of Barbachlay 
and James Tennent, his son and apparent heir, his executors. Sir James 
Sandelandis is a witness. 

James Tennent of Linhouse, who succeeded his father above- 
named, appears as one of the debtors in the inventory of Patrick 
Tennent, merchant, burgess of Edinburgh, who died on 5th January 
1584-5. He was present upon an inquest of the Barony of Calder held 
loth February 1583, for determining quhat guid statutis suld be made 
anent the keiping of guid ordor ; and two years later an Act of the same 
Court appoints that when there is any fray, ilk man of the baronie salbe 
reddie to follow the fray to the end with the Tutor of Calder, or in his 
absence with the Laird Lennos. Shortly thereafter he was elected bailie 

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of the barony as the following note bears, and in this office he was the 
colleague of John Stevinson of Hirdmanshiels. 

iS^S, May 4 — Quo die Jacobus tenent de Lennos electus est ballivus baronie de 
Calder Comitis ad voluntate tutores, et juratus est. 

On 26 July 1 586, James Tenent of Lennoss, became caution to entir the 
laird of Cragyhall to answer as law will at the next Court ; and his name 
also appears in the list of vassals who were to appear at the Wappenschaw 
held on the hill of Calder in the following month, his qualification being 
a horse worth 100 merks and complete armour. Then, on 22nd May 
1587, James Tennent of Lennox was delaited along with others, for 
contravening our Sovereign Lord's pleasure in abiding from a raid 
appointed to follow the King to Dumfries on 3rd April last bi-past 
He became caution for James Farrar, 5 November 1588, that xxviij merks 
salbe furthcumand to Henry Dowglas, he provand the same to pertein to 
him. It clearly was by this laird that the older portion of the present 
mansion house was erected in 1589; he is mentioned also in the years 
1595 and 1597; and in 1599 he entered, in company with Mr Robert 
Williamson of Murieston, writer, into an agreement with Lord Tor- 
phichen for the acquisition jointly of the greater part of the temple 
lands as they were called, or the possessions in Scotland of. the 
suppressed Order cf St John of Jerusalem. The extent of Linhouse's 
concern in the matter is not clear, but before 1604 he had resigned his 
share in the negotiation, and Williamson became the sole purchaser. 
It is a little difficult always to estimate the precise nature and object of 
transactions from the bare record of them which has reached us. Thus 
we see in' the month of February 1600, the whole lands and barony of 
Calder, with fortalice, manor, woods, mills, etc., were conveyed by the 
Lord Torphichen, for the price of one silver penny, to James Tennend of 
Linhous, who eight days later reconveyed the same subjects to the Hon. 
James Sandilands, master of Torphichen. James Tennent of Lynhous 
was on an assize in 1607 and again in 1609; and he was a frequent 
witness to the charters of his brother-in-law, John, Archbishop of Glasgow, 
between 1607 and 1610. In March 1605 he was amerciat in the pane of 
five hundreth merkis as surety for Johnne Spottiswoid of that Ilk, for 


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failing to enter the said John to underly the law for his slaughter of 
Thomas Quhippo of Leyhoussis, committit in the yeir of God 1 595 zeiris. 
Shortly after this comes a process against himself for debt, into which he 
appears to have been plunged to a large extent as surety for faithless 
friends in all parts of the country. Between 161 2 and 1620 these 
unpleasant reminders become very frequent from numerous creditors, and 
there are many charges to the Captain of the Guard to seize his houses 
and lands to the King's use. Such an order was made by the Privy 
Council on 4th February 1619, in pursuance of a horning obtained against 
him on the 2nd of December preceding at the instance of Mr Robert 
Williamson, Writer to the Signet, for not fulfilling a certain contract and 
not removing from the manor place and mains of Lynhouse, "and the 
pendiclis thairof callit Leddindorie, Leddinfrosk and Blaiklandis," as also 
from that third part of Overwilliamestoun callit the Bentis. The old 
laird seems, however, to have kept them for a long time at bay, and James 
Tennent of Lynhous was chancellor of an assize Sth June 1624. He died 
in July 1630, David Tennent, sometime servitor to the deceased, being 
executor qu4 creditor decerned to him. This laird married Rachel 
Spottiswood, daughter of the Rev. John Spottiswood, rector of Calder 
and Superintendent of Lothian, who is mentioned as his wife in 1600, 
and with her had two daughters, namely Rachel, whose contract of 
marriage is dated 23rd May 1600; and Margaret, who was married 2nd 
January 1606 to Thomas Inglis of East Shiel. 

In the year 1616 James Williamsone of Castel Robert had a charter 
of the lands of Linhouse, Easter and Wester Hairtburne, a third part oi 
Over Williamstone and other lands from James, Lord Torphichen, upon 
which seisin was given 22nd May 1620. From him the property came into 
the possession of the above designed Mr Robert Williamson of Murieston, 
for, four years after the date last-mentioned, James Williamson of Murieston 
had seisin of the lands of Linhous, with the tower, manor place, etc., upon 
a precept granted to him by John, Lord Torphichen, as lawful and 
undoubted heir of the late Mr Robert Williamson, his brother-german. 
Seisin was given 19th January 1624, John Kinloch, brother-german to Mr 
Patrick Kinloch of Alderstoun, being a witness. 

Then in July 163 1 John Muirheid of Wester Inche of Bathgate had 

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seisin of the lands of Lynhouse, Blacklandis, Skevoch, etc., with tower and 
manor place, in the barony of Calder Comitis, upon a charter in his favour 
by John, Lord Torphichen, dated 17th May 1631. This gentleman was 
descended of a family which for several generations had been seated at the 
Inches of Bathgate, and the chief of which was Muirhead of Lachope. 
Richard Muirheid of the West Inch of Bathgait died 20th March 1592-3 ; 
and James Muirheid of the same died in the month of January 1616 — both 
their testaments being confirmed at Edinburgh. 

John Muirhead of Linhouse makes his debut in our parochial 
records in a situation of a highly exemplary nature. 

1634, September 13— Jhone Pottar having spoken injurious words regarding Jhone 
Muirheid of Lynhous appeared at the church as he was injoynit ye sabboth day befor, 
bare heidit, upon his bare kneis, and cravit Jhone Muirheid's forgevines at ye quire 
doore ; and ye said Jone Muirheid forgave and tuik him up be ye hand. 

i6yb^ June 5 — The quhilk day compeirit Johne Muirheid of Lynhous and of his awin 
accord actit himselff to be lyabel to any stint or taxatioun imposit upone ye paroch of 
Calder for poynting, repairing or helping of ye kirk in ony sort, conforme to ye rent of 
his lands ; and the Sessioun grantit him ane Roome for ane sait in any pairt of ye Kirk 
where it might most commodious be fund without tuile to others. 

The following notice gives us incidentally a glimpse at the exercise of 
church discipline at this period : — 

1645, May 24 — Ordainis Mungo Lockhart of Harwood and John Muirheid of 
Lynhous, being at variance, not to cum to the communioun till they be aggreit. 

This laird of Linhouse favoured the Royalist cause during the Civil 
War, and brought himself in consequence into frequent collision with his 
parish minister, who was an active partisan of the triumphant republicans. 
Thus, upon the occurrence in the year 1648 of the " Engagement," as it 
was called, by which the Duke of Hamilton undertook to march into 
England to the support of King Charles, Johne Muirheid of Lynhous 
was called before the Session and " declaired that he never satt in Duik 
Hamilton's Comittie, nor did never vote therein." But his conduct was 
more remarkable when Montrose passed through the parish in 1646, after 
his victory at Kilsyth. Evidence was given on the 13th September in that 
year that Linhouse was seen armed with swords and pistols, and that 

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he bade John and Patrick Kedders render their purses. A fortnight 

1646, September 27— James Meik in Torbainhill deponit that Jone Muirheid of 
Lynhous, at Torbainhill, cam ryding with twa swordis and askit his purse, hot quhidder 
in joke or earnest he knew not. 

One would be inclined to suppose this may have been a ruse to 
cover the fact of his riding in arms with more honourable intent, but 
the next entry can scarcely bear so charitable a construction. 

Eod, die, — Abrahame Pargilleis, swome, deponit that Lynhous, affraying throw 
terror of the Enemy moved him yrby to sell him all his guidis and gicr far within 
the worth. 

Accordingly, on the 31st October, Jone Muirheid is rebuked publictlie 
befoir pulpit for his scandallous behavior quhen Jamis Grahamis airmie 
cam alongst this countrie. Muirheid is mentioned in connection with 
the allocation of seats in the parish church in 1653, and he died in the 
month of January 1664. His wife was Katharine Hamiltoun, with whom 
he had three sons and a daughter, namely, Mr John, of whom below ; 
William, mentioned in 1664 and 1665 ; Alexander, baptized 19th April 
1649, and died before 8th April 1665, when his brother William was 
served his heir ; and Isobel, baptized 24th May 1638. 

Mr John Muirhead of Linhouse, the succeeding laird, was retoured 
heir-general of John Mureheid of Lynhous, his father, isth July 1664, and 
in May 167 1 he was seized on a precept furth of the chancellerie of an 
annual rent of 174 merks out of the lands of Newliston, as lawful and 
nearest heir of the deceased Alexander Muirheid, his brother-german. 
He marrit-d Agnes, daughter of Sir Alexander Murray of Blackbarony, 
•to whom he gave sasine in liferent of the lands of Lynhous, Blaiklandis, 
Lendovy and Skevoucht, with tower and manor place, as also of his lands 
of Nether Alderston, and half of the Inches of Bathgate. The marriage 
contract is dated at Darnhall, 24th September 1664, the said Agnes being 
then promised spouse of Mr John Muirheid of Lynhous. They had two 
sons, Alexander, who succeeded, and John, and four daughters, namely, 
Margaret, born 24th November 1665 ; Katherine, born 7th June 1668 ; 
Jean, born 20th June 1669; and Lilias, bom iSth September 1670. Mr 

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John Muirhead's will is recorded at Edinburgh, 2nd August 1672, Sir 
Archibald Murray of Blackbarony and James Lawsone of Cairnemuire 
being tutors dative given to his minor children ; but the date of the 
testator's demise is not given. 

Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse, son of the foregoing, was born 
in the month of December 1666, and on 4th March 1680 there are two 
precepts in his favour by Walter, Lord Torphichen, as lawful and nearest 
heir of the deceased Mr John Muirhead of Linhouse, his father, of the 
lands of Linhouse, etc., the lands of Nether Alderstoune, and the lands 
of Corsitburne, alias Easter Crosswood, with tower, fortalice, and manor 
place, all in the barony of Calder. George Tennent in Linhouse is a 
witness to the seisin on 9th April in the same year. There is a further 
precept from Chancery to Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse as heir to his 
father i8th June 1697 ; he is a witness in 1708 to the baptism of the Hon. 
Patrick Sandilands, son of Lord Torphichen, and in the following year 
he obtained a charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Lenhouse, 
Blacklands, Lindrovie and Skevoucht, with tower and manor place, as 
also the lands of Crosswoodburn, alias Easter Crosswood, with fortalice 
thereon, which Her Majesty disjoins from the barony of Calder, and 
creates and erects into the free barony of Linhouse. This charter is 
dated at Edinburgh, 13th February 1709. A few years later Alexander 
Muirhead acquired the lands of Berryhill, Blackball, and others, upon a 
disposition by Christian Muir, daughter of Adam Muir of Blackball, and 
spouse of John Dundas, writer in Edinburgh, dated 8th March 1712. 
His name occurs in technical transactions affecting the property in 1717 
and 1719 ; and on 8th October 1720 he had a precept of Clare Constat as 
heir of the deceased John Muirhead of Wester Inch, his grandfather, of 
the lands of Wester Inch of Bathgate. In the same year, he conveyed 
the whole of his landed estates to David Muirhead, his only son then sur- 
viving, upon the occasion of his marriage with a daughter of the house of 
Ancrum. Alexander Muirhead was still living in 1737 ; he married Mary 
Murray, who survived him, and had two sons, John, designed his eldest 
lawful son in 1712, but died before 1720, and David, of whom below. 

David Muirhead, younger of Linhouse, a surgeon and burgess of 
Edinburgh, had a disposition from Alexander Muirhead, his father, of the 

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lands and barony of Linhouse, etc, and the lands of Wester Inch, to him 
and the heirs male descending from him and Mistress Jean Scott, his wife; 
whom failing to the heirs male of the said David in any other lawful 
marriage ; whom also failing to his heirs female, the eldest daughter to 
succeed without division, and to marry a gentleman of the surname of 
Muirhead, or one at least who should assume the same, and carry the 
arms of the house and family of Muirhead of Linhouse, otherwise to lose 
all right He married Jean Scott, third daughter of Sir Patrick Scott of 
Ancrum, baronet, with whom he had two children surviving infancy, 
namely, Alexander and Margaret. The marriage contract is dated at 
Edinburgh, Linhouse, and Ancrum, 29th and 30th April and 5th May^ 
1720, Captain James Muirhead of the 3rd Regiment of Foot being a 
witness. David Muirhead died in Edinburgh in the month of June 1724, 
the summa of his inventory amounting to ;£^i 5,580, 9s. 2d. ; and his widow 
afterwards married again to James Gartshore of Alderston, W.S. 

Alexander Muirhead, the succeeding laird, had a disposition from 
James, Lord Torphichen, of the lands of Camilty and Camilty miln, and 
"the Wellheads of Nether Williamston," dated at Calder House, 29th 
July 1737, wherein he is designed Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse, 
younger, grandchild of Alexander Muirhead, of the same. He obtained 
a charter of the barony under the Great Seal, upon his own resigna- 
tion, 13th February 1744, and had likewise a precept as heir of his 
father, David Muirhead, of the lands of Wester Inch, 24th July 1747. In 
the last-named year, he and Janet Bogle his wife, eldest daughter of the 
deceased John Bogle of Bogleshole, W.S., had seisin of the estate on their 
contract of marriage, under reservation of a liferent annuity of 1000 merks 
out of the lands of Crosswoodburn to Mistress Jean Scot his mother (who 
is now the spouse of James Gartshore, W.S.), and of another annuity of 
locx) merks furth of the lands of Linhouse to Mistress Mary Murray, relict 
of the late Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse, his grandmother. Jaftet, 
his wife, was in 1756 served heir-portioner of her father, and of William 
Bogle of Bogleshole, her brother-german. They had a numerous family, 
namely, Patrick, born 2nd January 1758; Jean, bom 5th April 1748; 
Isobel ; Janet ; Marion, born 17th January 1759 ; Mary, and Wilhelmina. 
These children were all served heirs-portioners of the late Alexander 

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.Muirhead of Linhouse, their father, on ist April 1801, at which date 
Patrick was a planter in Jamaica; Janet was wife of the Rev. Henry 
Stevenson, minister at Blantyre ; and Wilhelmina was the wife of Robert 
Barbour, merchant in Glasgow. 

The barony of Linhouse had in the meantime been sold by Alexander 
Muirhead in the year 1767 to 

Mr Thomas Calderwood of Polton, advocate, son of Sir 
William Calderwood of Polton, one of the Senators of the College 
of Justice. The price paid was ;f96cx), and the destination of the 
title is determined as follows: — To Mr Thomas Calderwood in life- 
rent, and Captain William Calderwood,. his eldest son, in fee, and to 
*the heirs male descending from the said William, whom failing to his 
heirs female, the eldest succeeding without division by secluding her 
sisters throughout the whole course of succession. Failing these, to 
Captain James Calderwood of the 25th Regiment of Foot, second son of 
the said Mr Thomas, and his heirs male or female as above ; then to any 
other heir male of the body of Mr Thomas Calderwood ; whom all failing 
to Mrs Anne Calderwood or Durham, his only daughter, and spouse of 
James Durham of Largo. The disposition is dated i6th November 1767, 
and Andrew Houstoun of Calderhall is a witness. Mr Thomas Calderwood 
of Linhouse died in the year 1773, and Captain James, his second son, 
was deceased at 19th December 1787, when Anne Calderwood or Durham 
was served his heir of provision. The property descended to 

Col. William Calderwood of Polton and Linhouse, who at his 
death was Colonel of the first troop of Horse Guards. He died without 
issue on 2nd July 1787, and the baronies of Polton and Linhouse 
descended, in virtue of the above-mentioned settlement, to his only sister 
Anne Calderwood, wife of James Durham of Largo, who thenceforward 
assumed the style of James Calderwood-Durham. The date of her 
seisin is 12th October 1787, and by her the barony of Linhouse, which 
included Camilty and the Mill lands of the same, was conveyed, in the 
year 1793, to trustees, whom she directed to sell the lands of Linhouse, 
etc., and with the proceeds to pay off certain debts affecting the entailed 
estate of Polton. By these trustees the property was sold 14th January 
1799, for the price of ;^ 10,920, to James Home, clerk to the Signet 

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James Home of Linhouse, W.S., had a charter under the Great 
Seal confirming to him the barony of Linhouse, 4th July 1801. He 
married Catherine Mitchell, who survived him, and had three sons and 
two daughters, namely, James, who succeeded ; David, in the service 
of the Hon. East India Company ; John Belshes Home ; Catherine ; and 
Mary Hepburn Home. The laird died in 18 19, and the title of the 
estate vested in his testamentary trustees until 22nd February 1826, 
when it was conveyed by them to his eldest son, James Home of 
Linhouse. This proprietor seems to have become involved in pecuniary 
embarrassments, and the barony of Linhouse was, on 31st May 1838, sold 
under warrant from the court in a process of Ranking and Sale, at the 
instance of his creditors. The price paid was £i6,$oOy and the lands 
were conveyed to certain trustees who held, under Act of Parliament, 
the proceeds of the sale of the entailed estate of Burnbrae, in the parish 
of Tulliallan, Perthshire. The latter-named lands, we may remark, had 
been long in the family of Primrose, the descendants of Archibald 
Primrose of Burnbrae, anno 1595, from whose younger son the Earl of 
Rosebery's family is derived. An arrangement was at this time made, 
under the sanction of the Courts, by which this property was sold and 
the barony of Linhouse purchased, the name of the latter being changed 
to Burnbrae, and held under a deed of entail executed by Edward 
Primrose in 1770. In furtherance of this arrangement, the estate of 
Linhouse was, on 9th July 1838, conveyed to Mrs Jane Hay Primrose, 
heiress of entail in possession of the late John Primrose of Burnbrae, 
and wife of George Foster Hay Primrose, surgeon in the service of the 
East India Company. The deed of entail of Linhouse provides that 
the family name of Primrose of Burnbrae should be borne by all future 
proprietors of the estate, and the Crown charter which followed on the 
deed contains the clause " nunc et omni tempore futuro terras, baroniam 
et statum de Burnbrae vocand." The estate was disentailed by due 
process of law in the year 1850. Mrs Hay Primrose died on 27th 
December 1858, and was succeeded in the estate by her sister, Miss 
Rachael Primrose, who died within the following two years; and the 
property was in 1874 sold by the trustees acting under the testamentary 
settlements of these ladies, for the sum of ;f 28, no, to the late Mr Thomas 

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Laing, of No 17 Palmerston Road, Grange, Edinburgh. The descrip- 
tion of the estate contained in the conveyance in his favour begins thus : 
"All and whole the lands, barony and estate of Linhouse, thereafter 
Burnbrae, which are now to be held and called by the original name 
of Linhouse in all times coming." Mr Laing died on 31st December 
1882, and the estate of Linhouse, embracing the farms of Skivo, 
Wellheads, Ballgreen, Blackball, and Over WilHamston, was, on 14th 
May 1883, in terms of his bequest, conveyed to the Royal Infirmary of 
Edinburgh, to which Institution it now belongs. 

The dove-cot at Linhouse (Fig. 26) would probably be erected soon 
after the creation of the barony in 1709, as may be supposed from its style 
and appearance. The right of columbis et coluinbariis was looked upon 

Fig. 26, — Ancient dove-cot at Linhouse. 

as an indispensable pertinent of every barony, and we accordingly find dove- 
cots both at Linhouse and at Alderston, which latter was dignified with a 
baronial charter in 1696. But there is no trace nor recollection of such 
having existed at Calder House, the seat of the older and parent barony. 


The property thus designated embraced at one time a considerable 
tract of country, including the lands of Harburn, Harburnhead, Bents and 
others ; and, like Nether Williamston, it has received its name from the 


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Williamsons of that Ilk, who were at one time extensive proprietors in the 
district On nth February 1492 James Sandilands of Caldor, Knycht 
intromits with the third parte of the lands of Williamstoun-schelis, the 
third parte of the lands of Braidschaw, the third parte of four akers of 
land Hand besid ye Camolty Chappell and other lands ; and so late as 
163s, James Williamsoun of Williamstoun was retoured heir of his father, 
James Williamsoun of the same, in a third part of the lands of Over 
Williamstoun called the Bentis, in the barony of Calder. The lands of 
Over Williamston proper had, however, passed in the i6th century into the 
family of Tennent There is a charter by Johnne Sandilandis fear of 
Calder, setting in feu to James Tennent and his airis quhatsumeuir, ane 
half of a third part of the lands of Owir Williamstoun, ist August 
1534; and Archibald Tennent of Williamstoune, in company with my 
Lord Torphechin, is exempted from a charge of abiding from a raid 
at Leith, 22nd November 1571. Jonet Purdie, widow, relict of the de- 
ceased James Tennent in Over Williamstoun, died in the month of January 
1580, the inventory of her affairs being given up by Archibald, James, and 
Katherine Tennent, her sons and daughter. Martene Tennent in Over 
Williamstoun died in May 1581, leaving five sons ; George, William, David, 
John, and Gawine Tennents, executors dative surrogate to him. James 
Tennent, portionar of Ower Williamstoun, is included amongst the vassals 
for the Wappenschaw display in 1586; and, in 1606, James Tennent is 
mentioned. James Tennent elder, of Over Williamstoun, again appears in 
1614, and on 22nd March 1622 he gave* seisin of annual rents out of his 
two parts of the lands of Over Williamstoun in the barony of Calder to his 
younger sons, namely, to John Tennent, his second son, to William, his 
third son, Mungo, his fourth son, and David, his youngest son. The heir 
was James Tennent, who figures somewhat frequently in the register of the 
Kirk-Session as zounger of Over Williamstoun, between 1639 and 1645. 
His failings were drunkenness, absence from church, etc. ; and on sth 
December 1644 it became necessary that he should engage "to do all 
cristiane dewtie to his father, and to subscribe this act" Martha Lightoun 
daughter of the late James Lightoun of Over Williamstoun, had seisin of 
the 2\ merk land of Over Williamstoun, Berriehill and Blackball, June 1682. 
James Fairer in Over Williamstoun was ordained an elder of the parish 

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church, 17th November 1672; and in 1684, Thomas Williamson, son to 
James Williamson in Over Williamston, was proclaimed a fugitive rebel in 
connection with the religious troubles of that period. 


R^arding the lands of Skivo, we observe John Sandelandis in Skivo 
mentioned in the transactions of the Barony Court of Calder in the year 
1588, and again at 2nd June 1596, when he was decerned to receive xix 
merkis money from Jon Uchiltrie, being the price of ane ox bought and 
received from him. There is also a sasine of an annual rent of 50 
merks out of the lands of Skevoche, given by James Tennent of 
Lynhous to Rachell, his daughter, in implement of her contract of 
marriage, which is dated 23rd May 1600. Rachael Spotiswod, spouse of 
the said James, and Beatrix Creychtoun, relict of Mr John Spotiswod, 
rector of Calder, her mother, are parties to the transaction. Johne 
Anderson in Skevo became caution that Thomas Anderson should satisfy 
the kirk for scandal, 2nd October 1640. He died in May 1661, leaving 
free gear amounting to £3792^ 2s. ; Mr Hew Kennedie, minister at Calder, 
is amongst the debtors to his estate, and John Mureheid of Lynehous is 
a creditor. 


On 1st June 1524 the lands of Blackhall in the barony of Calder 
were ceded by Sir James Sandilands of Calder to Margaret Bertoun, 
affianced spouse of John Sandilands, his apparent heir. By the same 
John Sandilands fiar of Calder, the lands of Blackhall lying within the 
territory of Over Williamstoun and barony of Calder, were set in feu to 
George Tennent and the heirs descending from him and Marioun Cuthert- 
soun his spouse, 6th May 1539. The lands were united to this estate in 
the year 17 12, when Alexander Muirhead of Linhouse acquired these and 
other adjacent lands from the heiress of the Muirs of Blackhall. The 
present tenant is Mr James Fleming, whose ancestors, according to Dr 
Sommers'. account of the parish, have been settled at Blackhall ever since 
the year 1518. The name is certainly an old one in the district. David 

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Ffleeming in Ballgreen is mentioned in the year 1695 ; and in 1734 James 
Fleming in Blackball was requested to serve as a kirk elder, but declined. 
At Blackball tbe autbor was shown an old waistcoat of brocaded velvet 
and brown plush breeches, said to have been worn at his wedding in 1721, 
by James Gray of Cairns. The garments afford a choice example of the 
costume of that picturesque period. 

Fig. 27. — View of Murieston House from S E. 


The lands of Murieston are situated about tbe centre of the parish, 
upon tbe banks of the rivulet to which they have given their name, and 
adjacent to what was in olden days denominated tbe West Muir of 
Calder. The East Moor is the name given in old atlases to tbe country 
about Selms, on tbe east of Calder Wood ; whilst the West Moor ex- 
tended from about Murieston and Linhouse to Baads and further west. 
As the name of this property is frequently written in early charters 
Muirboustoun, we have little difficulty in determining the etymology of 
the word, as signifying tbe Toun of tbe bouse in the Moor. The ancient 
seat of the estate was upon tbe lands of Wester Murieston, which are 
now attached to Westfield, and in our remarks regarding that property 
(page 191) some historical notices of Murieston Castle are given, with 

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a pictorial illustration of its remains. The present mansion-house on 
the lands of Easter Murieston consists of a plain rectangular structure 
with extensive offices in the rear, which from their appearance may have 
been erected about the end of last century, and to the east elevation of 
which an addition with a handsome facade of classical design, and a pedi- 
ment over the entrance door, was made by John Learmonth of Murieston 
in 1855. In the garden is an old facet-headed sundial of ingenious 

The property was held in the i6th century by the Williamsouns 
of that Ilk, who were anciently extensive proprietors in the parish, taking 
their designation from the adjacent lands of Williamston. In a trans- 
action of the year 1619, however, mention is made of the fourth part of 
the lands of Muriestoun with tower, fortalice, etc. and the lands of Nether 
alias Easter Muriestoun, " sometime pertenning to Sir James Sandilands 
of Slamanno." 

The following references to tenants in Murieston appear in the 
Proceedings of the Barony Court. 

1585, May 4 — James Gibsoun is decemit to pay x merks for ij zeiris teind of Eister 
Mureistoun, and farder as the rentaU beiris within terme of law. 

1585, December 28 — The quhilk day the baillie decerns Thomas Sandelandis in 
Mureistoun to content and pay to Thomas Baird xxxj sh. iiij d. the pryce of 3 
bollis beir. 

Mr Robert Williamsoun, a burgess of Edinburgh, is the first 
of his race who is designed " of Murieston ; " and he appears to have 
been a younger son of James Williamsoun of Williamstoun. In 1586, 
he was the articled pupil of Mr Robert Scot of Knichtispottie, clerk 
to the Lords of Council and writer to the College of Justice, and a few 
years after that date he himself became a writer in Edinburgh. His 
name figures somewhat conspicuously in the national registers, which 
is chiefly due to the fact of the Temple property having passed through 
his hands. Upon the suppression of the Knights of St John at the 
Reformation, their possessions, which included all the old " temple lands " 
or estates of the Knights Templars, were bestowed upon the house of 
Calder in return for certain services rendered to the Crown. This was 
in the year 1563, and in 1599 Mr Robert Williamson of Murieston 

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and James Tennent of Linhouse united in purchasing from the Lord | 

Torphichen half of all the temple property in Scotland, excepting the 
baronies of Torphichen, Liston, Ballintrodo, and other portions retained 
by his lordship. Linhouse subsequently gave up his share in the con- 
tract, and in 1604 Williamson became possessed of the other half of the I 
property, which was ratified by Act of Parliament in 1606, and afterwards j 
erected into the free tenandry of the temple lands. The whole of these 
estates were gradually conveyed away by him to various persons, and 
there are numerous charters in the register of the Great Seal having 
relation to these transactions between the years 1605 and 1620. In | 
these charters he is designed Mr Robert Williamesoun of Mureistoune, j 
writer, proprietor and superior of all the temple lands in Scotland. Mr . 
Robert dying without issue between August 1620 and July 1622, he 
was succeeded by his brother James Williamsoun, who was seized also 
of the lands of Linhouse upon a precept of Clare Constat by John, | 
Lord Torphichen, as lawful and undoubted heir of the late Mr Robert 
Williamson of Muriestoun, his brother-german, 19th January 1624. 

James Williamson e is designed of Murieston 2nd July 1622, when 
he witnesses a seisin of the lands of Alderstoun to Mr Patrick Kin- 
loch of Alderstoun, and he acts as bailie for the same Mr Patrick in a 
transaction in the following year, having relation to the lands of Howatston. 
He was served heir of his father, James Williamsoun of that Ilk, in the lands 
of Nether alias Easter Muriston, the lands of Nether Williamstoun and a 
third part of the lands of Over Williamstoun called the Bentis,4th Novem- 
ber 1635. On the 19th June 1628 he entered into a contract with William 
Ross of Torphin, disponing the above-named lands of Easter Murieston 
and Nether Williamston to the said William Ross and to Elizabeth Hous- 
ton, his spouse, for the sum of 5000 merks. The disposition is effected by 
James with consent of Marie Pollock his spouse, and of John Hamilton, 
apothecary, burgess of Edinburgh, Mr Alex. Lockhart of Braidschaw, 
Mr Joseph Tennent, persone of Badrewll and David Crichton, writer in 
Edinburgh, at whose instance the foresaid James Williamsoun is inhibited 
from alienation of his lands and heritages ; the witnesses include Mr John 
Sandilands, advocate, and Mr Harie Sandilands, brother-german of Lord 


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William Ross of Torphin, who now became laird of Murieston, was 
the second son of James, 4th Lord Ross of Halkhead, who died in 1581, and 
brother of the Hon. Jean Ross, wife of Sir James Sandilands of Calder. 
There is a charter in his favour of the lands Murieston and Williams- 
ton by James Williamson of Murestoun dated 20th June 1628 ; and on 
the 26th of the same month he was seized of the lands of Easter, Wester 
and Middle Murieston with ten acres of moor called the West Moor of 
Calder, together with the lands of Dreschelrig etc., upon a charter by 
John, Lord Torphichen. In our Session's records there occur various refer- 
ences to a dispute regarding a seat in the parish church, which are in a 
measure pertinent to our inquiry, 

1630, February 7 — James Anderson in Ormistoun was admonished this day not to 
sit in ye seat pertening to umquhile James Williamstoun off Muristoun, till tryell war 
takin to quhom it appertenit, in respect William Ross off Muristoun producit ryt thereto. 

1641 March 10— Fforasmuch as ane contraversie has lately fallen furth betwixt 
Mungo Lockhart and James Anderson in Dubend, annent ye sait quhilk appertayned to 
James Williamsoun of that Ilk, it was thought guid be the Sessioun that Mungo Lockhart 
of Hardwod, being factor and doer to Sir Williame Ross of Murriston, Knight, to quhom 
the said James Williamesoun's lands war disponit, should sett in ye said seat till the con- 
troversie war cleirit and the said James Andersone's wyf should sitt with him, providing 
scho mak no ofTence. 

It appears that James Anderson had married a daughter of the old 
laird of Williamstoun ; the Session however, decided a few months later 
that the possession of the seat passed with the lands, the following disposi- 
tion under the hand of James Williamson having been exhibited to them : 

I, James Williamstoun be thir presents, declairis to ye Sessioners of Calder that I 
have fuUie disponit my seat in Calder Kirk to Sir Williame Ross, and that nan uther hath 
any ryt yrto. And that James Anderson my guid brother hes no Right yrto, becaus I have 
disponit it of Long tyme befor his alledgit ryt to Sir Williame Ross, qlk I declaire to be 
of verity. Be thir presents writtin and subt. with my hand at Paislay this 23 of Junii, 
[ 1 641] sic subscribitur I. Williamesoune. 

William Ross was succeeded by his son 

Sir William Ross of Murieston, who is mentioned in our parish 
records in 1641 and 1646, and he appears as one of the objectors to 
the division of the parish into Mid and West Calder in 1647. He 
was Colonel of Foot in the Ayr and Renfrew Regiment in 1648 ; one 

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of the Committee of Estates 1649, and was fined £^000 sterling under 
Cromweirs " Act of Grace and Pardon," 1654. On the failure of the 
elder line of the family of Halkhead in August 1648, the laird of 
Murieston succeeded to the peerage as loth Lord Ross ; and he was re- 
toured heir male of Robert, the 9th Lord, in the lands, lordship and barony 
of Melville and Halkhead 20th March 1649. He shortly after this seems 
to have left the parish, as upon the allotment of seats in the church in 
1653, "my Lord Torphichen did sett up ane single sait, wher my lord 
Ross his sait was befor." He married Helen, eldest daughter of George, 
Lord Forrester, of Corstorphine, and died in the year 1656. In 1654 
Lady Ross gave ;^30 to be expended upon a new pulpit for Calder Church. 

After this, the lands of Easter Murieston were for some time attached 
to Lord Torphichen's own property in the barony ; and they bore, with 
other lands, the provision of Lady Jean Hume, wife of the 7th Lord, 
in 171 1. Then on 4th April 1732 the lands of Easter and Wester 
Cockrigs, and Easter Muiristoun were disponed by James, Lord Torphichen 
(but with, and under the power and faculty after expressed), to Matthew ( 

Paterson, merchant in Linlithgow. j 

Matthew Paterson of Murieston, who thus became laird, contracted ' 

to pay £$660 Scots for the lands, representing twenty years' purchase of 
the free rental, with agreement that the Lord Torphichen, might redeem | 

the property upon repayment of this sum at any time within six years 1 

from Martimas 173 1, and if not then redeemed, Paterson became bound 
to pay ;^849 more, as further three years* rental, in addition to the twenty 
years* purchase. This provision having been carried into effect, the lands 
were irredeemably renounced in favour of Matthew Paterson, at Calder 
House, nth November 1737. The name of the estate was by this pro- 
prietor altered to "Paterson," but it again reverted to the original 
designation under the succeeding lairds. 

Captain George Dick, late of General Cornwalls' Raiment of 
Marines, elder son of George Dick of Greenbank, writer in Mid-Calder, 
was next seized of Easter and Wester Cockrigs, and Easter Murieston, 
upon a disposition by Matthew Paterson, merchant in Linlithgow, of date 
14th November 175 1. At the same time Captain Dick conveyed an equal | 

half of the lands of Easter Murieston called Cockrigs to James Wylie, 

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dyster in Mid-Calder, and Helen Peebles, his spouse ; and this portion of 
the lands is the present estate of Bankton. Captain Dick succeeded his 
father in the mansion-house of Greenbank, and the lands of West Cairns 
and West Colzium in the highland district of the parish ; he died before 
1779, when these various lands passed to his younger brother 

William Dick of Greenbank, officer of Excise at Dumbarton. This 
proprietor was seized of the lands of Easter Murieston with the teinds 
thereof, on a precept of Clare Constat by James, Lord Torphichen, as 
heir of his brother, Captain George Dick, dated 8th May 1782 ; and he was 
retoured heir-general of the late George Dick, writer in Mid-Calder, his 
father, on the 7th August in the same year. He died in 1792, leaving a 
son, George Dick, officer of Excise at Elie, and the lands of Easter 
Murieston were, in the year following, disponed by his testamentary trustees 
to Henry Jamieson. 

Henry Jamieson of Murieston, banker in Edinburgh, was seized of 
the property on 2nd December 1793, upon a charter in his favour by 
James, Lord Torphichen, dated 21st November preceding. He purchased 
from the Linhouse estate the north park of Wellheads, extending to 
24 acres, 2 roods, and 10 falls of land, of which he had a feu charter 
by Anne Calderwood-Durham of Polton, dated 26th January 1795, and 
which henceforth was attached to this property. Although we may be 
mistaken, we incline to think that the older portion of Murieston House 
was built by Mr Jamieson. He appears to have become involved in 
pecuniary embarrassments, and there is a disposition by him, with consent 
of his creditors, of his lands of Easter Murieston, dated nth November 
1806, in favour of Roger Aytoun, writer to the Signet. 

Roger Aytoun of Murieston, W.S., was the eldest son of William 
Aytoun, W.S., who was the second son of Roger Aytoun of Inchdairnie, 
in Fifeshire. He was admitted to the Society of Writers to the Signet 
8th July 1790, and was Director in Chancery from 1837 until his death, 
which occurred on i6th March 1843, in the seventy-seventh year of his 
age. He married on 9th March 1807 Joan, daughter of James Keir of 
Kinmonth, Perthshire, and sister of the late John Keir of Westfield in this 
parish ; and he was the father of William Edmonstone Aytoun, author of 
the Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers y and other poems and essays. The lands 

2 A 

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of Dressilrig were acquired by this proprietor in 181 2, and the estate was 
by him disponed to trustees, 4th November 1829, by whom it was after- 
wards conveyed to James Maitland Hog, father of the present Thomas 
Alexander Hog of Newliston. By this laird the property was again sold 
in 1854 to John Learmonth of Dean, who, in the year following its acquisi- 
tion, erected the modem portion of the mansion as well as the present 
stables and offices. He was succeeded by his son, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Alexander Learmonth, member of Parliament for Colchester in the 
Parliaments of 1870 and 1874; and in the year 1878 the estate passed 
by purchase to James Steel of Murieston, one of the Magistrates of 
Edinburgh, the present proprietor. 

The armorial shield of the Williamsons of that Ilk was a saltire betwixt 
two mullets in flank, and as many boars' heads in chief and base. Mr 
Laing gives a seal of Mr Robert Williamson of Murieston, 1610, upon which 
appears a thistle stalked and leaved, impaling his paternal coat as above, 
in the same manner as a bishop impales the arms of his See. The thistle 
was the bearing of the old Lords of St John, and must have been adopted 
by Mr Williamson as in a sense representing them. 


The lands so denominated were in ancient times of considerable 
extent, embracing the present farm of Dressilrig, formerly called Back- 
stoneford ; the lands of Sandygate, which included Newpark and a 
portion of Bankton ; and Wester Dressilrig, alias Dyke, which is now 
incorporated in the property of Westfield. 

The lands of Drischelrig and others in the barony of Calder were 
confirmed by James IV. to Sir James Sandilands of Calder, and Marion 
Forrester his wife, 17th June 1512. John Aikman in Dresthelrig, was 
present at an assize of the Barony of Calder, loth February 1583, 
and John is still mentioned as occupier of the lands of Dressalrig 
in 1590; and in 1604, James Aikman in Dreschilrig was protected 
by the Privy Council. The Aikmans seem to have been long tenants 
here. The testament of Margaret Walker, sumtyme spous to Johne 
Aikmane in Drischawrig was confirmed at Edinburgh 15th June 1636; 

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and David Aikman in Dresseridge, was in 1672 nominated to the 
eldership. At a somewhat later period the estate was held by Gavin 
Jamiesone, notary at the Bridgend of Calder, who had a disposi- 
tion thereof from James, Lord Torphichen, with consent of Christian 
Primrose, his mother, dated at Calder House i6th October 1704; 
and he again resigned the property to the same Lord Torphichen 
in the year 1721. After this the lands of Dresselrig, Sandygate, and 
Baxtonfoord were conveyed to Andrew Anderson, surgeon in Long 
Hermiston, by disposition of James, Lord Torphichen, dated loth 
August 1737. This gentleman married the Hon. Magdalen Sandilands, 
daughter of Walter, 6th Lord Torphichen. His testament is dated at 
Hermistoun i6th February 1763, and contains the disposition of his 
lands above-designed to his four children, Andrew, James, Elizabeth, 
and Janet. Andrew was surgeon to the Garrison of the Island of 
Dominica, and James was physician general at Fort St George, India. 
Klizabeth, the elder daughter, married first to Andrew Mitchell, linen 
manufacturer at Livingston, with whom she had David of Mitchil- 
mackinac in the United States, Andrew, physician to the forces at 
Chatham, and Janet; and secondly (contract dated ist December 
1768), to George Bayne, and had Elizabeth, married to Thomas 
Morgan, watchmaker in Edinburgh, and Susan, who became the 
wife of Dr Adam TurnbuU of Sandygate. Janet Anderson, the younger 
daughter, married William Berry, an engraver of some repute of intaglios 
and heraldic seals, and was mother of Dr Andrew Berry, physician at 
Fort St George. 

The lands of Dressilrig were now divided amongst these heirs- 
portioners into four equal shares. Elizabeth Anderson died before ist 
November 1802, when David Mitchell her son was served heir; and by 
arrangement in the family her share of the lands descended to Dr Adam 
Turnbull, the husband of her daughter, Susan Bayne. The remaining 
three-fourths were inherited jointly by David Mitchell and Andrew 
Berry, M.D., before-mentioned, who had seisin thereof as heirs of their 
uncles and of Janet Anderson, 13th February 181 1; and by them the 
property was again disponed to Roger Aytoun, W.S., of Murieston. 

James Bruce of Bankton had a disposition from Roger Aytoun on 

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19th January 1 81 3, of one-fourth of the whole lands, and he subsequently 
acquired from Dr Turnbull one-third of his portion ; so that of the 
original lands of Easter Dressilrig and Sandygate one-half is now attached 
to Murieston, one-third to Bankton, and one-sixth to Newpark. 

Fig. 28. — View of Newpark House from S. 


The house of Newpark is pleasantly situated at a distance of rather 
more than two miles south-west of the village, and in close proximity 
to the station on the Caledonian Railway to which it has given its name. 
It was built by Dr Adam Turnbull, in the year 1806, upon the site of 
the old farm-steading of Sandygate, which is the ancient designation 
of the lands. The original house, although small, is well built, the 
date mentioned being carved above the entrance door ; and an extensive 
addition, with large bay windows, was made to the east side in the year 
1 87 1. 

The lands of Sandygate were formerly attached to Dressilrig, and 
were long tenanted by the Aikmans. William Aikman in Sandiegait, 
in 1585, was decerned to content and pay to Bessie Pottar and John 
Aikman hir spous, xxx lib. j s. money in compleit payment of the pryse 
of twaoxin bought be ye said William fra hir at Mertimes 1583, and of 
the nurtering of ane kow. He is mentioned also in 1586, but was deceased 

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NEW PARK. \77 

at 1590, when Malice Hathowie, his widow, appears in a list of tenants in 
the barony of Calder. Rychard Aikman in Sandygait witnesses a seisin 
in favour of Andrew Aikman in Yellowstruther, his father, 25th May 1607 ; 
and he was in 1622 delaited before the Session for absenting himself from 
church ordinances. William is mentioned in 1645 J John was ordained an 
elder of the parish church 31st December 1663, and John Aikman in 
Sandagate still appears in the records in 1672. 

In the 1 8th century Sandygate belonged to the Andersons (see 
our remarks on Dressilrig at page 175), from the heirs of which 
family Dr Adam Turnbull acquired onehalf of the property in the 
year 1802. At a subsequent period, he disponed a third part of his 
share to James Bruce of Bankton, but although thus proprietor of a 
small proportion only of the lands, he retained the designation Dr 
Turnbull of Sandygate, the other portions being incorporated in the 
estates of Murieston and Bankton. Five acres of the lands of Alderston 
were afterwards added to the property in virtue of a feu disposition 
by William Bruce of Alderston of 20th October 1827. Dr Turnbull 
married Susan Bayne (who appears to have been a daughter of George 
Bayne and Elizabeth Anderson, daughter of Andrew Anderson, M.D., 
of Dressilrig) with whom he had a son, Dr Adam, who was retoured his 
heir 27th February 1827. By this gentleman the lands were conveyed 
on 1st May 1829 to Major William Henry Horsburgh, formerly of the 
2 1 St Regiment of Foot, who altered the name to Newpark; Dr Adam 
Turnbull, younger, and Susan Bajme, his mother, were at the date of the 
disposition residing as Winton, Macquarrie River, Van Dieman's Land. 
Major Horsburgh of Newpark was succeeded by his sister, Miss Margaret 
Horsburgh, who had a charter of adjudication and confirmation of the 
lands from James, Lord Torphichen's Commissioner, 3rd May 1856. She 
died in the year 1866, after which the estate was exposed to public sale 
by order of her testamentary trustees, and was purchased in March 
1868 by Francis Watson, who again conveyed it, i8th May 1869, to 
Mrs Alison Ponton Black or Richardson. Mrs Richardson of Newpark 
was a daughter of Adam Black, M.P. for Edinburgh, founder of the 
eminent firm of publishers, Messrs Adam and Charles Black, and widow 
of James Richardson, merchant in Edinburgh. Her eldest son is 

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Ralph Richardson, writer to the Signet, the property of Newpark hav- 
ing descended by family arrangement to the second son, Adam Black 
Richardson of Newpark, the present proprietor. 


The estate of Pumpherston, though now the centre of a large 
industrial population, was at one time the seat of a knightly and 
baronial residence of considerable strength and proportions. In his 
account of the parish, in 1838, the Rev. Dr Sommers refers to Pum- 
pherston Castle as a work of great antiquity, and says it had long 
been in ruins, and had lately been entirely removed. This erection is 
marked in Blaeu's Atlas, 1662, and formerly stood in a field of about 
15 acres in extent, east of the present farm-steading, which is still sur- 
rounded by a park wall of stone and lime. The south-east corner of this 
field, although now cultivated by the plough alone, has always possessed 
a marked degree of fertility, and is regarded as the garden land of the 
old castle. A dove-cot formerly stood within the same enclosure, in front 
of the farm-house, and an ancient keep or look-out tower occupied a 
situation at the top of the bank rising from the river Almond. The 
northern portion of the lands were brought into cultivation only during 
the last forty-five years, previous to which time they presented to the view 
a wild, yet picturesque tract of country, denominated Pumpherston Moor. 
But the yellow whins which blossomed there so gaily in the early part of 
the present century have given place to oil works, and shale-heaps and 
workmen's cottages ; and the parish has witnessed the growth and estab- 
lishment during the last ten years of a village, possessed of its own 
School-house, Literary Institute, and other organisations, and whose 
inhabitants now out-number those of Mid-Calder itself. The cultivated 
portion of the lands was formerly divided into as many as five different 
holdings, each with its own steading, called respectively the dominical 
lands or Mains of Pumpherston ; Forth of Pumpherston ; Backside of 
Pumpherston ; Muirhouse of Pumpherston ; and the Miln and Miln lands 
of Pumpherston. The remains of these various buildings were observable 
some fifty years ago. On the northern portion of the lands are some large 

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whin-stone boulders, which have received the name of Ballengeich, in 
relation, it is said, to the sobriquet of James V. — *' the gudeman of Ballen- 
geich" — who often visited the spot when hunting in Drumshoreland 
Moor. The word is Celtic, signifying " face to the wind," and it has 
been most appropriately, though perhaps unwittingly, adopted as the 
name of a modern villa, recently erected on the lands of Pumpherston. 
The name of the estate is usually written Pumfrastoun in documents 
of the 15th and i6th centuries, and the designation appears to have 
been derived from one of the surname of Pomfray, who may at one 
time have possessed the lands. A family of that name was certainly 
connected with the locality in olden days, — for John Pomfray, burgess 
of Linlithgow, was allowed custom for his wool in 1405 ; and on 3 July 
1587, Gawin Sandelandis was decerned to permit Jonet Pumphray spous 
of Jon Sandelandis, to have ye pasturage of twa ky on the lands of 
Nayr Craig. 

On 4th July 1489, James Dowglace of Awdestoune had a charter 
from William, Lord Grahame, confirming to him and his heirs and 
assigns the lands of Pumfrastoun in the barony of Caldore, together 
with those of Clyftoun and Clyftounhall in Linlithgowshire, Robert 
Dowglace of Lochlevin being a witness. 

Robert Douglas of Pumfrastoun witnesses at Calder a charter of 
John Sandilands, fiar of Calder, in 1539. The same Robert was on an 
assize 26th February 1534; he is mentioned as joint occupier with Peter 
Hamilton and John Lochcotis, of the church lands of Levingstoun, in a 
charter of the same by Mr Richard Bothuile, Provost of the Collegiate 
Church of Our Lady of Camps, loth April 1 543 ; and twelve days later 
Rob. Douglas de Punfrastoun witnesses a charter of James, Earl of 
Morton. On 29th March 1546 he acted himself caution to the Privy 
Council that John Sandilands, younger of Calder, should enter within the 
Castle of Edinburgh when charged thereto, within the space of twenty- 
four hours. He is stated to have married a lady of the Marjoribanks 
family, and he appears to have had several sons. Thus in 1562 Johne 
Dowglas of Pumpherstoun made complaint to the Assembly of the 
Church, on behalf of the parishioners of Calder, that they are defrauded 
of the preaching of the word by the appointment of their minister to be 

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superintendent of Lothian. Twelve years later, namely in 1574, "James 
Dowglas, sone to umquhile Robert Dowglas of Pumphrastoun," is men- 
tioned in connection with a tack of the lands of Halkerston's Croft ; and in 
IS79> James Dowglas, designed "of Pumphrestoun," is servitor to James, 
Earl of Mortoun, High Admiral of Scotland. In the year following, 

Joseph Douglas of Pumphrastoun witnesses at Aberdour a charter 
of the same Earl, 6th August 1580. This Joseph was laird for many 
years, and was a redoubtable personage withal. He married in 1574, 
Mary, daughter of John Sandilands of Calder (who was still living in the 
year 1628), and he was one of the curators of the minor Lord Torphichen, 
in which capacity he assents to the marriage of his ward in 1595. His 
name appears somewhat frequently in documents to which we have had 
access relating to the closing years of the i6th century. Thus, in 
1590, Eupham M'Calyean, only daughter of Mr Thomas M'Calyean of 
Cliftounhall, Provost of Edinburgh in 1561, was executed for witchcraft, 
part of the indictment against her being that she had consulted with 
Jonett Cwninghame, in the Cannogait, alias callit Lady Bothwell, ane 
auld indytit wich of the fynest stamp, eighteen zeiris syne or thairby, for 
to haif poysonit Joseph Dowglas of Punfrastoune, be ane potioun of 
composit watter in ane chopin stoup. Joseph was caution in ;^iooo for 
Patrick Hume of Aytoun that he should enter before the Privy Council 
on loth November 1591 to answer to a chaise against him touching the 
violent taking of certain teind sheaves of the parsonage of Duns. 

1 591, March 24 — Complaint by Dorothy, Countess of Gowry, against various 
Douglases and others, including John Inglis, servitour to the Laird of Pumpharstoun, 
that they, with convocation of the lieges to the nummer of ane hundreth persons, all 
bodin in feir of weir, had come upon 29th May last to the complainer's lands of 
Leithhead, quhair maliciouslie thay rased fyre and brint and distroyit ane grite quantitie 
of turffis cassin be her servandis upon her saidis landis. The accused persons were 
denounced rebels. 

The laird of Pumpherstoun is included in a list of gentlemen of the 
name of Douglas who bear evil will against Andro, Lord Stewart of 
Uchiltrie, on account of the slaughter of James, Lord Torthorwald ; and 
the Privy Council being determined that "all unlauchfull revenge so 
dishonourable to the natioun and offensive to his Heynes salbe forborne," 

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Pumpherston and Uchiltree are required to enter into reciprocal 
assurances in £1000 to keep the peace towards each other, 2nd March 
1669. Joseph Douglas of Pumpherston was on an assize 20th December 
1616, and in 1636 he witnesses the baptism of his grand-daughter 
Margaret Douglas. His latter will is dated at Cliftounhall 23rd April 
1637, and he died within the same year. He had a son, William, who 
succeeded him ; another son, Mr Hew, who witnesses a deed at Cliftounhall 
31st January 1623 ; a daughter, Jean, married to Mr Robert Dalgleish of 
Lauriston, solicitor to Charles H, whose only child, Margaret, married in 
1662 to Ludovick Craig of Riccarton ; and a second daughter, Margaret, 
who married (contract dated 12th October 1626) George Ker, burgess of 

We observe a George Douglas of Pumpherston, whose position in the 
family tree does not seem to be well defined. He was appointed a 
Commissioner of the Peace for Linlithgowshire 6th November 1610, and 
acts in that capacity in 1615 and 161 6; but although on these occasions 
he is styled " of Pumpharstoun," he appears to have been a younger son 
either of Joseph or the preceding laird. 

William Douglas of Pumpherston, who succeeded his father, 
Joseph, is first, mentioned in 1609. In that year commenced the 
Plantation of Ulster with Scots colonists, an event referred to by Hallam 
as " perhaps on the whole the most important in the constitutional history 
of Ireland, and that from which the present scheme of society in that 
country is chiefly to be deduced." King James declares the northern 
portion of that kingdom " now by his royall airmyis fred and disburdynit 
of the former rebellious and disobedient inhabitants thairof, who in the 
justice of God to their schame and confusioun ar overthrawen." And 
although there be many obedient subjects in England who would gladly 
proceed with their families to that kingdom, " yet hes sacred Majestie out 
of his unspeikable love and tendir affectioun toward his antient and 
native subjectis" has invited applications for grants of land from the 
nobility and gentry of Scotland. Seventy-seven, whose names are all in 
the Privy Council register, were enrolled in June 1609, as the first Scots 
colonists in Ulster, amongst whom William Douglass, son to Joseph 


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Douglass of Pumpharstoun, is entered for 2000 acres. Unlike many who 
proceeded to the north of Ireland at this time, it is evident that the 
young laird of Pumpherston did not settle there. On 14th Jannary 161 4, 
William Dowglas, younger of Pumphrastoun, was on an assize in 
Scotland, and two years later there is a complaint to the Privy Council 
by Johnne Wricht at the Bridgend of Calder, as follows : — 

1616, November 12— On 5th October last, William Douglas of Pomphreston who has 
conceived a deadlie hatred against the pursuer, came with a baton in his hand, to the 
back of complainer's house, and chased him into his house. On 7th October, the said 
defender came armed under cloud of night, to the house at the Bridgend, where the pur- 
suer was sitting before the fire. The said William, who was " disaguysit with a blew 
bonnett on his head, and a cloke about his mouthe," entered before the pursuer was 
aware, and committed a fierce assault upon him with a squared baton. He left pursuer 
for dead, and " trampit his wyfF and bairnis under his feitL" The Lords, finding the 
latter assault proved, order him to pay £^ to the pursuer, a fine of 40 merks to the Crown, 
and to remain in ward until these sums be paid. 

The Laird of Pumpherston was twice married ; first to Mary, daughter 
and heir of Gilbert, 8th Lord Somerville, relict of James, 2nd Lord 
Torphichen, by whom he had a son, Sir Joseph of Pumpherston. Secondly, 
he married Isobel Ewart, daughter of Ewart of Bodspeck, who bore him a 
son, James, who ultimately succeeded, and six daughters, namely, Elizabeth, 
married first to James Tweedie, merchant in Edinburgh, who died before 
1658, and secondly to Mr Patrick Darg, minister of Fordice, and left an 
only child, Elizabeth Darg, heir-general of her mother and of her uncle 
James Douglas of Pomphristoune, 2nd December 1697 ; Isobel, baptized 
9th October 1634, married Patrick Graham, younger, burgess of 
Edinburgh ; Margaret, baptized 12th April 1636, married Mr Andro 
M*Ghie; Janet, baptized 26th December 1637; Jeane, baptized 2nd 
May 164s ; and Helene — which daughters were all living in 1658. 
Isobell Ewart, spous to William Douglas of Pumpherston, was cited to 
appear before the Kirk-Session, 22nd September 1644, for scolding and 
railing against the Session, and was charged also with having said there 
was four hundreth merkis gott in fra the witches, and that the Sessioun 
leived thairupon. This she denied, but said the minister had done many 

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things behind folks backis which he durst not do befoir thair faces. 
She appealed to the Presbytery of Linlithgow. 

Sir Joseph Douglas of Pumpherston, the elder son of the last- 
mentioned, appears to have become possessed of the fee of the estate about 
the period of his father s second marriage, as he is designed " of 
Pumpherstoun" as early as 1644, although his father was still living in 1673. 
On 31st December 1647, he had a precept furth of Chancery under 
testimony of the Great Seal of the lands of Pumpherston, with manor place, 
etc, in the barony of Calder, and on 9th March 1648 he had also a 
charter from Francis, Earl of Buccleuch, of the east half of the lands of 
Ormestoun, with mansion and manor place, the west half of the lands of 
Mortoun and others in that district. There is also an Act of Parliament 
of Charles I. disponing the teinds, personage and viccarage of ye east 
kirke and parochine of Calder, called Caldercleire, to his lovit Sr Joseph 
Douglas of Pumpherstoun, and his heirs, 29th July 1644. He was on a 
Committee of War for Linlithgowshire in 1646 and 1647 \ ^'^is Lieutenant 
Colonel of a Raiment of Foot in 1650 ; and Commissioner of Supply in 
165s, 1656, and 1659. Sir Joseph Douglas was drowned when coming 
down to Scotland from London with the Duke of York in the year 1682 ; 
and as he left no issue, the succession passed to his half-brother 

James Douglas of Pumpherston, the second son of William Douglas 
of the same, before-mentioned. On 21st November 1672 this laird had a 
charter of the kirklands of Levingstoun, called Canieland, in the shire of 
Linlithgow, reserving the liferent thereof to his said father, and to Isobel 
Euart, his mother, and it is worthy of remark that the old laird could not at 
this date have been less than eighty years of age. James had a disposition 
of the lands of Pumpherston, Knightsrig, and Canielands from Walter, 
Lord Torphichen, 7th May 1679, in which he is styled James Douglas of 
Knightsrig (Dechmont Law). He was Commissioner of Supply in the 
year 1686, and Commissioner for the Militia in 1689, and he was still 
living at 12th June 1696, when he gave an annual rent of £160 out of his 
lands of Pumpherston and Knightsrig to Mr James Henrysone of Pittadro, 
W.S. He was deceased before 5th July 1697. 

We thus witness the extinction of the male line of the race of Douglas 

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of Pumpherston, which, for upwards of two centuries at least had kept 
possession of their patrimonial lands. After the death of James Douglas, 
the last laird, the estate passed by purchase to 

Alexander Hamilton, bailie of Strathbrock (now Uphall), who 
acquired the various rights of Isobel, Margaret, and Janet Douglas, and 
Elizabeth Darg, the four heirs-portion ers of the deceased James Douglas 
of Pumpherston, as well as certain other encumbrances affecting the lands, 
between 1698 and 1701. He did not,* however, long enjoy his acquisition, 
but died prior to 30th April 1703, when John Hamilton, his son, was 
retoured his heir. I 

John Hamilton of Pumpherston had a charter of the estate from 
James, Marquis of Montrose, as eldest son of the late Alexander Hamilton, ' 

bailie of Broxburn alias Strathbrock, to him, and to Alexander, his eldest 
son, procreate betwixt him and Elizabeth Oswald, his spouse, in liferent | 

and fee respectively, dated at Edinburgh, 2nd September 1704. He died d 

on nth December 1739, having had several children, namely, Alexander, 
who succeeded him ; Archibald, who pre-deceased his father ; David, to 
whom his brothers and sisters were served heirs-portioners, 26th April 
1744; James, bom 13th January 1708; John; Julian; and Christian, 

Alexander Hamilton of Pumpherston was seized of the estate 
upon his contract of marriage (which is dated 25th February 1727) with 
Margaret Cochran, eldest daughter of the deceased Alexander Cochran of 
Barbachlaw, and sister-german to Alexander Cochran then of Barbachlaw, 
with consent of James Cochran, merchant in Edinburgh, uncle of the 
bride, and her guardian during the absence furth of the realm of the said 
laird of Barbachlaw. Alexander Hamilton, who was then "younger of 
Pumpherston," with consent of his father, binds himself to infeft his future 
spouse in an annuity of 600 merks out of the estate. This was the laird's 
first wife, and the mother of his eldest son, John Hamilton. He subse- 
quently married Jean Houstoun, who had a similar provision of 600 merks 
annually on 24th August 1732, and with whom he had two other children. 
He died in the month of February 1742, Jean Houston, his relict spouse, 
being decerned only executrix to him, and Andrew Houstoun of Calder- 
hall is cautioner in the registration of his testament. 


At a somewhat later period the estate of Pumpherston came into the 
possession of the Hopetoun family. There is a charter under the Great 
Seal, 6th August 1770, in favour of John, Earl of Hopetoun, of the lands 
of Pumpherston, comprehending that small piece of land called Parknuick 
of Pumpherston, the Mains of Pumpherston, Muirhouse, Backside, Mill and 
Mill lands, and Bankhead, etc. This proprietor died in the year 1781, 
when he was succeeded in this and other estates by his eldest son, James, 
3rd Earl of Hopetoun, who, on 2^st May 1803, conveyed the lands of 
Pumpherston to 

Hon. Henry Erskine of Almondell. This gentleman was a younger 
son of Henry David, loth Earl of Buchan, and father of the 12th Earl. He 
was bom ist November 1746, and being called to the Scottish bar in 1768, 
soon attained to the highest eminence as a lawyer. On the accession of 
Rockingham's administration in 1783, he was appointed king's advocate, 
but retired in the same year, on the opposite political party coming into 
power. In 1786 he was elected Dean of the Faculty of Advocates, and 
on the return of the Whig party to office in 1806, he again became Lord 
Advocate, and member of parliament for the Dumfries burghs; and he 
died at Almondell House, 8th October 1817, in the seventy-first year of 
his age. There exists a bust of Mr Erskine from the chisel of Turnerelli, 
and also a portrait by Sir Henry Raebum. After his decease the property 
was disponed by the trustees acting under his testamentary settlement to 
his elder brother, David Steuart, Earl of Buchan, who had seisin thereof 
on a disposition by the executors of the late Henry Erskine of Almondell, 
on loth June 1822. This was the nth Earl, the well-known and 
accomplished patron of literature, and on his death, without issue, in 1829, 
his title descended to his nephew, Henry David Erskine, son of Lord 
Advocate Erskine, the previous proprietor of Pumpherston. The title of 
the Pumpherston estate, however, continued to vest in the trustees of the 
late Earl of Buchan until the year 1842, when the property was sold by 
them to Peter M'Lagan of Calderbank. 

By this proprietor and by his son very extensive agricultural improve- 
ments have been made, the effect of which has been a very large increase 
in the rental of the estate, and in the means of employment for the people. 

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"The lands were about three-fifths cultivated and under cultivation," writes the 
present Mr M^ Lagan, "but in very bad condition, and greatly in want of improvements, 
and two-fifths partially and wholly uncultivated. The improvement of the three-fifths 
was commenced about 1847-8, by draining, liming, manuring and deep-ploughing, the 
effect of which was marked not only by the production of larger crops but by their earlier 
maturity, so that the harvest was about a fortnight earlier than it used to be. A part of 
the two-fifths had been cultivated during the wars of Napoleon, when the price of wheat 
was very high. But when prices fell after that, they were allowed to go out of culti- 
vation and were soon overgrown with furze, broom, heath and rushes ; the other part was 
never under cultivation. By 1862 the whole was planted and converted into arable land 
by drainage and other improvements." 

Peter M'Lagan of Pumpherston, senior, died on the nth April i860, 
and was succeeded by his son, Peter M*Lagan, M.P., of Pumpherston, who 
for eight and twenty years has represented the county of Linlithgow in 

The Arms of Douglas of Pumpherston were : Ermine, on a chief 
azure three mullets, which is cut on a stone at Lauriston Castle, about 
1655, as the coat of Jean, daughter of Joseph Douglas of Pumpherston, 
impaled with that of her husband, Mr Robert Dalgleish of Lauriston; 
and the legend 


The small mansion-house of Westfield is situated in a delightfully 
secluded and well-wooded part of the parish, although it possesses the 
advantage of being within a mile of Newpark railway station. The original 
portion of the structure consists of a rectangular block of unpretending 
dimensions, to the ends of which large wings have at a later period been 
added, with roofs set in the transverse direction to the main-rbof, the gable 
ends of these wings projecting in front of the original elevation. A trellis- 
work verandah has recently been constructed in front of the house, 
enhancing its rustic and picturesque effect. This was an addition made 
by the Rev. William B. Robertson, D.D., long minister at Irvine, a 

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distinguished divine of the United Presbyterian Church, who for about five 
years previous to his death in 1886 had his residence at Westfield House 
under lease from his friend Dr. Young of Kelly. The Reverend Doctor 
describes the place as " my sylvan hermitage, my cell in the forest, my 
Bettws-y-coed or cloister in the woods — to which I have retired from 
the world, only emerging now and then, like a dominican of the Frati 
Predicatori, to preach." 

The present designation of the property is not older than the middle 
of last century, and it appears to have originated with Commissioner West, 

Fig. 29.— View of Westfield House from S W. 

the proprietor at that period, by whom also the original portion of the 
building may have been erected. The ancient name is Dyke, or Wester 
Dressilrig, with which certain other small parcels of ground as Thorn, part 
of Muirhouse of Yellowstruther, and other portions of the barony of Alder- 
ston have been incorporated. The house of " Dykes " is marked in Blaeu*s 
map of the locality, published in 1662, and appears to have occupied the 
same position as the present mansion. 

The lands were held in the i6th century by the Williamsons of 
that Ilk from the baron of Calder. Johnne Aikman in Wester Dryschelrig 
is mentioned in 1586 and 1590; and in 1602 Mr Robert Williamsoun of 
Murestoun, writer, grants an annual rent of sixty merks out of the 40s. 

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land of Dressilrig alias Dyk in the barony of Calder Comitis to Andrew 
Aikman in Zallowstruther and Agnes Williamsoun his spouse, dated at 
Murestoun Castle loth May 1602. The 40s. land of Wester Dreshelrig 
called the Dyik is also embraced in a contract between Mr Robert 
Williamson and John Hamilton, apothecary, burgess of Edinburgh, of date 
1 8th December 1619. At a later period the lands formed part of the 
possessions of the Muirheads of Linhouse; and on 17th December 1701 
Mr John Mitchell of Alderston had a disposition of Dyke alias Wester 
Dressilrig from James, Lord Torphichen, with consent of Christian 
Primrose, his mother and curatrix. For this proprietor the lands were, 
with others, disjoined from the barony of Calder and annexed to that of 
Alderston by Crown charter dated 9th February 1709. James Somervell 
was vassal in 1717 and he altered the name of the estate to "Castle 
Somervell." He was married at Mid-Calder in the month of December 
17 17, to Ann Chapman, daughter of the deceased Mr Thomas Chapman, 
bailie of Dunning, Perthshire. There is a resignation by him dated 4th 
May 1720, in favour of Mr John Mitchell, his immediate lawful superior, 
wherein the property is described as the lands of Castle Somervell, formerly 
called Dyke or Wester Dressilrig, lying in the parish of Mid-Calder and 
barony of Alderston. The lands are mentioned by their original name, 
amongst others conveyed by the Mitchells to John Bell of Alderston 29th 
March 1738 ; and they continued in the possession of the succeeding lairds 
or barons of Alderston until after 1750. 

John West, one of the Commissioners of Customs for Scotland, next 
acquired the estate, to which he gave the name of Westfield, by which 
the property has since been designated. He was deceased in 1772, when 
Captain John West, his eldest son, had a precept of Clare Constat as heir 
of his said father of the lands of Dyke, Muirhouse of Yellowstruther, etc., 
with the mansion-house, "all now called Westfield, in the parish of 
Mid-Calder." The precept is dated at Newington, near Edinburgh, 
24th March 1772, and seisin was given on ist April following, Robert 
Hamilton of Limefield being a witness. By this heir the property was 
sold to Theodore Alexander, who added to the estate the lands of Thorn, 
and three acres of the lands of Yellowstruther, contiguous thereto, which he 

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acquired by disposition from James Gartshore of Alderston, dated 2Sth 
August 1774. The same instrument declares the lands of Westfield 
now free from all multure dues and thirlage to the miln of Alderston, 
called Adinbrae miln. Theodore Alexander of Westfield died at 
Grenada" in the year 1776, having made a settlement of the estate in 
favour of Mrs Katherine Bryce, his spouse, and the children of their 
marriage, if any, failing which to his said spouse absolutely. There being 
no descendants, the property was exposed to public sale by direction 
of Mrs Katherine Bryce, and was purchased by Donald Cameron, 
merchant in Newcastle, whose seisin took place on isth August 1779. 
Donald Cameron of Westfield, on 30th January 1782, set that portion 
of the estate called Muirhouse of Yellowstruther in feu disposition to 
James Bauchope, for the payment of six pennies Scots, and this has 
remained a separate property since that time. In the same year he 
disponed his lands of Westfield to James Murison of Dunbrae in liferent, 
and George Murison, his son, in fee, who were seized on 28th November 
1782. James Murison of Dunbrae and Westfield died 8th June 1803, 
and his widow, Henrietta Guild, died on 7th April 1816, both being 
buried at Mid-Calder parish churchyard. His son and heir. Major George 
Murison of Westfield, was an officer in the 48th Regiment of Foot ; and 
by him the property was in November 1805 conveyed to Captain 
Alexander Forbes, late of the 44th Regiment. Capt. Forbes was laird 
of Westfield for about twenty years, and he again sold the estate in 1825 
to John Keir, proprietor of the adjoining lands of Wester Murieston. Mr 
Keir had seisin of this property on 6th January 1826. He married in 
1830, Elizabeth M. Malcolm, of the family of Malcolm of Portal- 
loch, and his armorial coat, impaling that of his wife, is cut upon 
the gable end of the office buildings, with the date 1839. The Keir 
shield is Argent, a cross engrailed sable cantoned of four roses. This 
laird died without children, and was succeeded in the united estate 
of Westfield and Wester Murieston by his nephew, William Edmonstone 
Aytoun, the distinguished Professor of Rhetoric at Edinburgh University, 
and author of the Lays of tfie Scottish Cavaliers^ etc., by whom the 
property was sold. The purchaser was James Frederick Wilkie, S.S.C., 
a solicitor in practice in Edinburgh, who held the lands until 1864, when 


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Dr James Young of Kelly, the proprietor of the neighbouring property 
of Limefield, bought this estate. 

Certainly no individual during the whole period of our history can 
be said to have exercised so extensive an influence over the future 
destinies and characteristics of the district as Dr Young. Having early 
turned his attention to analytical and experimental chemistry, he was 
consulted, in the year 1847, by the present Lord Playfair (then Dr Lyon 
Playfair) upon the subject of a natural oil which exuded from the workings 
of a coal mine at Alfreton in Derbyshire. This product he found to be 
petroleum, and capable of being rendered by distillation into a useful 
lubricant for machinery ; and under his direction a refinery was started at 
Alfreton, and the work successfully carried on for a time, until the supply 
of oil in the mine was exhausted. Dr Young next commenced researches 
with a view to compelling by process of manufacture that which nature 
had produced in this particular locality ; and the result of his investiga- 
tions was that, on 17th October 1850, he obtained a patent for extracting 
from coal an oil which, in addition to other advantages, should possess a 
high illuminating power. So came into existence the article called paraffine, 
which is now so extensively used all over the world. The first works in 
this country were started at Bathgate in 1850, coal being the mineral 
from which the oil was distilled, and this manufacture was carried on by 
Dr Young, Edward Meldrum, and E. W. Binny, as co-partners, until the 
expiration of the patent in 1 864. It was then found that the extent of 
the seam of Boghead coal at Bathgate was limited, and experiments were 
made upon other oil-yielding materials. The shales in this district having 
been found to give satisfactory results, Dr Young, who had previously 
bought the lands of Addiewell in West Calder parish, erected thereon the 
Addiewell Oil Works, the foundation-stone of which was laid by his 
intimate friend, Dr David Livingstone, 9th August 1864. These works 
he sold to the Young's Parafiin Light and Mineral Oil Company on ist 
January 1866, since which time Addiewell has continued to be the chief 
seat of the Oil Industry in Scotland. 

Dr Young was a Justice of Peace and Deputy Lieutenant for Kincar- 
dineshire. He had the degree of Doctor of Laws conferred upon him 
by the St. Andrews University ; was President of the Andersonian CoU^e 

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in Glasgow ; a Fellow of the Royal Society, and of various other learned 
institutions. He died on 13th May 1883, in the 72nd year of his age, and 
was succeeded in the property of Westfield by his eldest daughter, Mrs 
Mary Ann Young, wife of James Walker. His other children were James 
Young of Kelly, who died unmarried in 1886, and is buried beside his 
father and mother at Inverkip Churchyard ; John Young of Addiewell ; 
Thomas Graham Young ; Annette, second daughter, who married James 
Aitken, now of Torr; Eliza, married to R. Wilson Thom, younger of 
Barremmen ; and Agnes, who became the wife of James Edward Stoddart 
of Howden in this parish, a nephew of the late Edward Meldrum of 

Wester Murieston. 

The lands of Wester Murieston, lying to the south of Westfield, were 
attached to the estate at the commencement of the present century. In 
their early history it is a little difficult to distinguish these lands from those 
of Easter Murieston, as both were held by the same proprietors, and 
Murieston Castle was doubtless the seat of the whole estate. On 27 
February 1559, there is a charter by John Sandilands fear of Calder, 
setting in feu-ferme to James Cochran, his servitor, his airs and assignayis, 
all and sindrie the lands of Breidschall, Annottis-croce and Wester 
Muirestoune, under zeirly payment of xij merks money and doing the 
Laird faythfuU and thankfuU service quhen requirit be auctoritie for 
defens of the realme againis the enemies thairof allanerlie. The lands of 
Easter and Wester Murieston, with tower and fortalice thereon, are com- 
prised in some wadset transactions by Mr Robert Williamson of Murieston 
in the year 1620 ; and in 1628 the lands of Easter, Wester and Middle 
Murieston, with ten acres of moor called the West Moor of Calder, were dis- 
poned by the Williamson family to William Ross of Torphin, thereafter of 
Murieston. On 20th July 1693 there is a disposition of " Muirstoun Dyke- 
neuck and Wester Muirstoun " by Walter, Lord Torphichen, in favour of 
Thomas Clerksone of Cousland and Sibilla Matthiesone, his spouse in life- 
rent, and William and Thomas Clerksone, their sons, equally betwixt them 
in fee, by which proprietors the lands were again conveyed to Andrew 
Marjoribanks of Balbardie, by disposition dated at Livingston kirk, 22nd 

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April 1703. William Clerksoil in MoorhousetOiin was admitted to the 
eldership of the parish in 1699. In 1709 the same lands were in the 
possession of John Weir, merchant, burgess of Edinburgh, who, by his wife 
Isabell M'Ala, had two daughters, namely Elizabeth, married to James 
Donaldson, merchant, burgess of "Edinburgh ; and Jean. Then, on 23rd 
September 1709 John Weir of [Wester] Murieston made a disposition of 
the lands to Alexander Weir, bui^ess of the Canongate, and Janet Weir, 
his spouse, in liferent, and to David Weir, their son, in fee, whom failing to 
Marion Weir, sister of the said Alexander, and her heirs. Alexander died 
before 1721, and in the year following David Weir of [Wester] Muiristoun 
conveyed the lands to James Grahame, indweller in Muiristoun, the date 
of whose seisin is 19th January 1722. The next notice of the property is 
at 29th November 1751, when Agnes Grahame, only daughter of the late 
James Grahame, of Wester Muristoun, and spouse of Thomas Grahame, 
tenant in Seafield of Blackburn, obtained a charter of the lands under the 
Great Seal, upon her own resignation. This proprietor executed a settle- 
ment of the estate in 1753 upon Thomas Graham, her said husband, in 
liferent and James Grahame, her eldest son, in fee, whom failing to Thomas 
her second son, then to other heirs male to be born, failing which to 
Christian or Margaret, her daughters, or other heirs female, the elder 
daughter secluding her younger sisters, and succeeding without division. 
The property descended in virtue of this provision to James Grahame, 
the eldest son, who was laird in 1782, but died previous to 31st March 
1798, when Christian Grahame, his sister, was retoured his heir. She was 
married to James Scott, tenant in Muirhouse of Libberton, and on 2nd 
June 1798 she obtained a Crown charter of Muiristoun, Dykeneuck, and 
Wester Muiristoun. In 1809, Thomas Scott, farmer in Westmains, was 
seized of the lands on a disposition from Christian Grahame of Wester 
Murieston, his mother ; and by him the property was conveyed on 8th 
November 1813 to George Bell of Lasswade Park. He was in turn 
succeeded by William Bell, sometime of the Island of Guernsey, paymaster 
of H. M. 31st Regiment of Foot. 

John Keir of Green Street, Enfield Highway, in the county of 
Middlesex, son of James Keir of • Kinmont, Perthshire, was the next 
proprietor who acquired the estate upon a disposition by William Bell 

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above-designed, dated isth October 18 19, and the lands since 1825 
have been united to the property of Westfield. 

The old Castle of Murieston having become a total ruin, Mr Keir, 
very shortly after his acquisition of the lands, rebuilt a small portion of it, 
as a ruin, which presents an exceedingly picturesque appearance. But 
although a portion of the original stones has been used, the treatment has 
evidently gone far beyond the limits oi bona fide restoration. 


Yellowstruther is the name now given to a small collection of cottages 
lying to the south of the village of Bellsquarry, but it appears in olden tfmes 
to have designated a somewhat larger portion of ground in that district, the 
precise extent or limitations of which cannot now be determined. During 
the whole period of our ascertained history, it has been a point of habita- 
tion, and it was long held by the family of Aikman, the members of which 
figure so largely in the records of the parish. 

Andro Aikman in Zallowstrud was bound to attend the baron of 
Calder at Wappinschaw displays, in 1586, and his name appears in a list 
of tenants in the tierce lands of the barony in 1590. On 17th October 
1610 he had a disposition of the lands of Zallowstruther from James, Lord 
Torphichen, to him and Agnes Williamesone his spouse, and to Richard 
Aikman their son, under reversion of 650 merks. He died in the year 
1612, and Agnes Williamesone, his widow, died iSth December 1613, 
mentioning in her will Richard, George, and John Aikman, her sons, and 
John Auld and Abraham Stevinsone, her sons-in-law. He was succeeded 
by Richard, the eldest son, who married Christian Fairholme, and died on 
loth November 1626, leaving James, Andrew, Thomas, Geoi^e, Isobel 
and Helen Aikmans, sons and daughters. James Aikman in Zallow- 
struther, the eldest son, renounced the disposition above referred to in 
favour of John, Lprd Torphichen, 21st January 1647. At this time 
Christian Fairholme, mother of the said James, was the spouse of David 
Newtoun. David Newtoun in the Yeallow Struther offered caution to 
the Session in 1644 that he should satisfy the kirk in all thingis to be 
injoynit to him. 


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On 9th November 1695 the lands of Yellowstruther, with the 
pendicles of the same called Quarrell and Muirhouse, were disponed by 
Walter, Lord Torphichen to Mr John Mitchell of Alderston, for whom 
they were disjoined by Royal charter from the barony of Calder and 
incorporated in the barony of Alderston at that time created. The 
pendicle called the Muirhouse of Yellowstruther was alienated by James 
Gartshore of Alderston, and was attached to the property of Westfield 
until 1782 when Donald Cameron of Westfield set the lands in feu disposi- 
tion to James Bauchope of Muirhouse. Other portions of Yellowstruther 
have since been set in feu to various persons. 

Fig. 30.— -View of Murieston Castle from N W. 

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The Parish Church. 

HISTORY informs us of the existence of a religious establishment at 
Calder Comitis, in the patronage of the Earls of Fife, as early as the 
middle of the 12th century; and we are probably not wrong in regarding 
our church as originally one of David Vs numerous foundations. Grants 
were made by Duncan, Earl of Fife, and Ela, his countess, for the welfare 
of their souls, of the church of Kaledour with certain lands and pertinents 
to the abbey of Dunfermline, anno 1150-1165. No part of the present 
fabric is of that date, but it seems certain that the erection, which was con- 
structed in the i6th centur>'', has been rebuilt upon the site of the ancient 
church of Kaledour. The latter was probably of larger dimensions than 
the structure which has replaced it, for the foundations of walls have at 
various times been dug up in the burial ground on the west side of the 
church ; and it would seem also that the ancient building was upon a 
lower level, or else that vaults have existed beneath the church, as an iron 
rod, when forced down through the floor in different places, was obstructed 
by some hard and apparently stony substance at a uniform distance of 
from three to four feet below the surface. The re-building was undertaken 
by the Rev. Peter Sandilands, who held the cure of the parish in 1526 and 
until his death, subsequent to 1 546. It is to this ecclesiastic, who was a 
younger son of Sir James Sandilands, the 5th baron, that we owe the 
present church of Mid-Calder. On 30th January 1541, being then an aged 
man, and apprehensive that he might not live to complete the work he 
had commenced, Mr Peter Sandilands entered into a bond with his nephew, 
Sir James Sandilands of Calder, by which the latter, in consideration of the 
sum of 1600 merks paid to him be ane venerabill clerk Maister Peter 

2 E 

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Sandelandis his fader bruder came under obligation to his said uncle ** to 
build and complete the vestry on the east gable of the choir, and the re- 
mainder of the said choir to be ended of the length and wideness as it is 
founded^'' the height to be 32 feet. " And the south three lights [windows] 
in the side wall of the said choir, betwixt four buttresses, to rise as they 
are founded, as high as they may be had." There is a ** turn-egres " or spiral 
stair at the west of the north wall noted to be taken away, from which 
specifications it is apparent that the building then to be erected was to be 
raised upon the foundations of a previous structure. Minute directions are 
embodied in the deed for the entire work, which contemplates an edifice 
much larger and more magnificent than we now possess, — scarcely half 
the design having been carried into execution. The north wall was to 
rise 16 feet in height as it is founded of "rouch werk" with corbells and 
water table or weather moulding on the outer part thereof, for the construc- 
tion of a cloister on the north side of the choir ; and thence upwards, 
corresponding to the height of the choir walls, of dressed stone, the whole 
to be covered in with "croce-brace and rinruif," or groined vaulting 
*' conform to St. Anthonis yle in sanct Gelis Kirk." At the west end, a 
steeple is provided to be raised six feet above the choir with an " orlaje 
hand " and bell, and approached by a commodious turning stair. 

Provision is also made for a nave of four bays, 27 ft. longer and 5 ft 
wider than the choir, the walls of which were to be 26 ft high and 4 ft. in 
thickness, with four buttresses and four square-lintelled windows in the 
south wall, and a large pointed window twelve feet wide in the west gable. 
To this church access was to be obtained by a door and plain porch 
between two of the buttresses on the south wall. The altar in the chancel 
is appointed to be built of ashlar stone, and approached by steps of mason 
work ; with two receptacles for " halie wattir, weill hewin to the said kirk and 
queir." Three years are allowed for the completion of the choir, and 
a further like period for " the big kirk." 

Mr Peter Sandilands died about the year 1547, by which time the 
Reformation had made considerable progress, one necessary result of which 
was a temporary cessation of all ecclesiastical building; and as Mid- 
Calder may claim to have played a somewhat prominent part in the 
changes of this eventful period, so her church stood, a memorial, during 

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three centuries, in a conspicuously incomplete state, just as it was left by 
the advent of the Reformation. 

The work at first, however, progressed according to the directions. 
The " revestrie " was completed at the eastern end of the edifice, and the 
walls of the choir or chancel itself carried up to the full height with the 
windows and buttresses as specified. The north wall corresponds exactly 
with the specification as regards the dressed stone on the upper portion, 
and the rough mason-work below, whilst the corbells which should carry 
the roof of the proposed side-aisle or chantry have been prepared and set 
in position, where they still remain (see F*ig. 35), though this portion of the 
design was never executed. The nave or big kirk was not built, and the 
steeple and belfry, if carried out at all at this time, could scarcely have 
been in accordance with the original intention. The stone vaulting which 
the chancel should possess seems not to have been carried beyond a few 
courses above the carved springing corbells, and a less permanent form of 
roof adopted. The only door of the original work still remains on the 
south side of the structure ; it is circular- 
headed, with two orders of the roll and 
fillet pattern, and a hood moulding con- 
trived in the form of a string course which 
runs along the south elevation, breaking 
around each buttress and forming a cill- 

COUrse to the windows. The adoption of ^'»g- 3 1. -Detail of jambs, circular-headed 

^ door, 

this semi-circular type of arch in a gothic 

building is a peculiarity often noticed, but in Scotland round-headed door- 
ways are found in buildings of all periods ; the door is constructed and 
grouped with the adjoining window in a most natural, unaffected manner. 
The choir is enlightened on the south by three large windows with plain 
jambs of two orders, occupying the three bays between the buttresses, 
and exhibiting elegant specimens of gothic tracery of the unfoliated loop 
type, each window being comprised in a moulded hood with heraldic 
devices carved at the terminations. At the western window the arms of 
Douglas and of Sir James Sandilands uphold the moulding, the three 
stars of Douglas appearing on a fesse, and not on a chief as latterly, 
and the heart uncrowned, as in all ancient delineations. The arms of 

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the Knight of Calder are depicted in an unusual manner, the fesse 
charged with one star being placed in the second quarter and the 
heart occupying the third. On the next window we have on the one side 
a shield exhibiting a fesse chequy with a cross in chief, the armorials of 
Sir Walter Lindsay, Lord St John, the immediate predecessor of Sir 
James Sandilands in the preceptorate of Torphichen, the presence of 
whose arms may indicate his having contributed to the cost of the 
erection* ; and upon the other side of the same window appear the 
arms and initials of Mr Peter Sandilands, namely, — Quarterly, ist and 
4th a bend for Sandilands, 2nd and 3rd a fesse chained with three 
mullets and a heart in base for Douglas. At the extremities of the 
moulded hood of the third window are carved the shields of the two 
sons-in-law of the baron of Calder, who also were signatories of the 
deed of 1541, namely a lion rampant for James Dundas of Dundas, the 
husband of Margaret Sandilands ; and a fesse chequy betwixt three cocks 
for Sir John Cockburn of Ormistoun, who married Alison Sandilands, 
the elder sister of Margaret above-named. The former of these shields 
was described by the late Mr John Riddell as the Royal arms of Scotland ; 
but there is no appearance of the tressure, and looking at all the circum- 
stances, we have no hesitation in assigning this device to Dundas of that 
Ilk. At the eastern end of the choir, above the vestry, two small pointed 
lights were appointed to be constructed, but for this one large window 
has been substituted, which extends from the roof of the vestry upwards 
to the eaves course. Viewed from the interior, therefore, this window 
occupies the upper half only of the eastern elevation, where in ancient 
times it shed its light over the high altar. (See plate facing page 206). 
The arrangement of the tracery is similar to that of the central window 
on the south front, and a shield bearing the pure arms of Douglas supports 
the coping on the right hand side. The four buttresses on the south wall 
are of massive proportions, being 2 feet 6 inches broad by over 5 feet in 
depth, and have evidently been intended to carry the thrust of the stone- 

• Whether connected or not with the erection of Calder church, we find an action before the 
Supreme Civil Court in 1561 at the instance of James [Sandilands], Lord St John, Preceptor of 
Torphican, Knyt, onlie executor on life to umquhile Walter Lindsay, Lord Saint John jrat last 
deceissit, for a legacy left by the latter. 

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^k N. 


I \ 

\p y 




EBATCDeL: Geo.- BaiUy, Zitk 

-•^ Tracery & Arinorlal details .^^"- 

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vaulted roof which it was contemplated to build ; they are divided by 
a series of moulded intakes into four tiers or stages, rising from a con- 
tinuous splayed base, and terminating with sloping heads immediately 
under the eaves. According to the specification these buttresses should 
have terminated in pinnacles, a very characteristic feature in the archi- 
tecture of this period. Such do not, however, appear to have at any 
time existed here, though two pinnacles of a debased type surmount the 
eastern angles of the vestry. Upon that at the southern angle are cut 
the armorial shield and initials of the venerable Sir James Sandilands, 
baron of Calder from 1509 until his death in 1559. The carved ornament 
upon the face is of decided renaissance character, and at the sides appear 
the letters I.H.S. and P.S. for Mr Peter Sandilands, 
rector. The pinnacle at the north-east corner exhibits 
the armorial achievement of Sir James Sandilands, 
Lord St John, 1 543-1 579: the angels as supporters 
are taken from his official insignia as preceptor of the Fig. 32.— Monogram of 
Order of St John of Jerusalem, but the shield presents 
the coats of Sandilands and Douglas only, without the Torphichen quarters, 
from which it is probable that the carving was executed prior to 1563. 
The crest of the Calder family, before their adoption of the eagle crest 

of St John, is a subject upon which 

antiquarian writers have differed, 

Mr Riddell calling it a camel's 

head, whilst others have said the 

head and neck of a horse, and 

according to one authority the 

head of a boar. Nor is the crest 

here delineated sufficiently distinct 

to instruct the point, though it 

clearly is the head of some crea- 
ture, erased at the shoulders. On 

the south face of this pinnacle, 

Fig. 33.-S. Pinnacle. ^^ monogram P.S. in a knot is Fig. 34.-N. Pinnacle. 

repeated, and on the other side appears the invocation Jtt<^lJi^ — the 
symbols of Jesus and Mary thus supporting the two extremities of the 

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vestry. The legend in an escroll below the shield NE CORRUAM is not a 
motto of the family, but rather relates to the pinnacle — LEST i FALL. 
The very unusual position occupied by the vestry at the eastern end of the 
chancel is accounted for by the fact of vaults being constructed beneath it 
for the interment, adjacent to the altar, of the members of the family of 
Calder House. The " revestrie *' is mentioned in our Session's records in 
the year 1630 ; and on 27th December 1698 : — 

The minister reports that my Lady Torphichen allowed the Session to repair the 
vestry for a Session-house, as they desired. The Session appoints the Eleemosynar to 
get money from my Lord's annual rents to repair the same. Concluded with prayer. 

Fig. 35.— The Church from the N E. 

In the course of the following century the building ceased to be used 
for other purposes than as a place of burial, and a plain square building 
was erected for a Session house, beside the entrance gate to the church- 
yard, as shewn in the illustration which forms the frontispiece to the 
present work. At the period of the restoration and extension of the 
church in 1863 this building was demolished, and the upper portion of 

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the old vestry was again adapted for use as a Session house ; we see there- 
fore that this was in reality only going back to the original purpose for 
which the structure was designed. 

The north wall is 5 feet in thickness, and there are no windows on 
this side of the sacred edifice. A very large buttress at the west end meets 
the thrust of the choir arch, and helps to support the weight of the gable 
roof which covers the belfry stair on the north side of the steeple. The 
upper part of the wall, of dressed stone, is strengthened by two shallow 
buttresses, and is divided from the rougher mason-work below by a string 
course or water table which runs along the wall at a height of 16 feet from 
the ground where the roof of the cloister should meet the choir. Indica- 
tions of an arched doorway communicating with the church on this side 
may still be traced at the back of Dr Sommers' monument. The choir 
arch is original work, and is constructed with very massive abutments 9 feet 
in width, to carry the weight of the steeple which is reared immediately over 
it. The present belfry or steeple, aspiring to a height of about 22 feet 
above the roof, was erected in 1863, and reminds us a little in its details of 
the bell gable at Skelton in Yorkshire. The drawing on the following page 
is obligingly furnished by Thomas Ross, Esq., of Messrs Macgibbon & Ross, 
Architects, Edinburgh, Mention is made of the ringing of a kirk bell in 
the year 1617, but no belfry existed prior to 1628, when the walls were 
carried up a few feet, and the tower terminated with a slated wooden cot. 
Access hereto was obtained by means of a newel stair in the northern 
abutment of the choir arch, which still remains. 

1626, Sept. 3— The taxes collectit for ye bell be Mr Patrik Kynloche with ane uther 
Leet be Mr Jhone tennend, person, being this day conform to ye tax-roll, it was fund 
that they had collectit betwix them ;^I42, los. Of this soume yere was gewin to Charls 
hog, caster of ye bell ;£i27, and for ye steking;£i3, 6s. 8d. extending till £,\\o. The 
weight of ye bell was 11 stane sewin pund at I5sh. ye pund weight. 

In the course of the following year several entries occur in the 
Session's records relative to the purchase of " Sklattis to ye steipill " and 
"theiking of ye belhous," and in April 1628 we see: — 

The stepill being now erectit and ye new bell hung yrin, and being faulty, and 
Charles Hogg, caster yrof being desyred to cum and heir ye sound of ye bell and per- 
ceave ye fault yrin, eftir adwyse, persavit the bell to be revin, yrfor according to his 

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Fig. 36.— The l>elfry of the Parish Church. 

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termis quha had promeissit giff ye bell war not sufficient efter tryall takin yroff, he suld 
cast it off new again, aggreit to do ye sam and promissit to have it in reddiness betuixt 
and witsundy next. 

About a hundred years after this the present bell was gifted to the 
church of Calderiy the Lady Jean Hume, wife of James, 7th Lord Tor- 
phichen. It is said to have been brought from Holland by Patrick, Earl 
Marchmont, Lady Torphichen's father, who, having been banished from 
Scotland during the religious troubles, returned in 1688 with the Prince of 
Orange, by whom he was made Chancellor of the kingdom. Upon this 


ROTTERDAMI, A^ 1 663 ; it was recast by order of the heritors in 1876, 
when the above inscription was accurately reproduced around the upper 
part of the bell, and on the top was added RECAST for THE HERITORS 
OF MID-CALDER BY LAIDLAW & SON, 1 876. There was also in former 
times a church clock on the east face of the bell tower facing the street. 
In the Book of Deaconry it is recorded, 21st February 1692, that this day 
Robert Ker, kirk officer, made his complaint to the Session that for the 
space of twa zeir bygane he had gotten no acknowledgment of his pains 
and some chairges he had been at for the knock, upon which the Session 
thought fit to give the said Robert this day's collection, amounting to 
£2 Scots ; and again in 1693 and 1695 Robert Ker is paid for his care 
of the knock. What became of the said knock is not now known, but 
a report was formerly current in the parish that it was sent into Edin- 
burgh to be repaired, and as the Session and heritors objected to pay the 
cost, the person who had repaired it thought it proper to reimburse him- 
self for his trouble by selling the clock to the Magistrates of Peebles. 

The interior of the choir presents little that is of architectural interest, 
much of the original condition of the building having been lost or covered 
up by modern treatment. There remains, however, a series of heavily- 
moulded and carved corbell stones of the original builder's work, forming 
the springers for the groined arches never completed. Upon two of these 
stones in the pentagonal apse behind the altar are depicted plain shields, 
supported, the one by a maiden's head and the other by a skull, indicating 
blossom and decay ; whilst upon the corbells in the western angles of the 
chancel are carved, upon the one a cowled monk, with the Douglas heart 

2 F 

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and star upon his vestments, and the legend PETRUS FECIT — perhaps in 
allusion to Mr Peter Sandilands; and upon the other a shield bearing 
the quartered insignia of Sandilands and Douglas, upheld by a demi- 

!• 'g« 37.— Carved Corbell Stones. 

The Puritanic sentiment which prevailed during the 17th century 
being entirely devoid of interest in architecture or decoration of any 
kind, the church of Calder suffered, in common with many others in 
Scotland, during that sterile period. The love of kirk lofts, which was 
characteristic of the time, made itself felt by the introduction of a large 
gallery running round the east, north, and west walls, and approached by 
an outside stair and a glass door through the south- east window to make 
room for which a part of the moulded jamb was knocked away. The 
church was newly roofed, and a plain flat ceiling constructed in such a 
manner as to cut off from view the tops of the fine gothic windows, and 
an addition was made at.the west end of the fabric in a very inferior style 
of architecture. In this "Wester Kirk" there existed a belfry door, and 
also a trigonal-headed entrance door with roll and fillet moulding to which 
allusion is made in 1647. 

The Sessioun ordain is and gives power to James Flint to agrie with Samuell 
Aikman to repair the wast kirk diiir and with George Wallace for a band and cruik 

The following are some of the earlier notices in the transactions of 
the Kirk-Session having relation to the fabric of the church : — 

1605, May 22 — There was in ye monelh of Marche preceiding ane taxatioun imposit 
upon ye parochiners of 400 merks for repairing of ye kirk. 

1624, /w/y 25 — It was thocht expedient this day that in respect the windows in ye 

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kirk's queir war brokin and decaying in the glas, that the glasier sould be spokin and 
aggrement mad with him both for glassing and wyring off them, with the vestrie twa 
windows ; quhen meitting with him aggreit for his payns and travel to giff him for ye 
glas fourty merkis and for ye wyring xxiiij lib. 

1649, April 19 — All the heritors hes declaired thameselffis content to contribut for 
repairing the kirk, now in hazard of mine, except Andrew Oswald of Lethame. 

There are various minutes regarding the erection of seats in the 
church. In 1629 the Session appoints the seat at the back of Mr Patrick 
Kinloch his desk to appirten to ye elders quha gatheris the almous, and 
al uthers to be debarit tharfrom. But there can be no doubt that the 
seats or " desks " in the body of the church were, in general, the private 
property of those who sat therein ; and the position or " room " where 
each might erect his pew was allotted and assigned from time to time 
at a meeting of the heritors held for that purpose. In August 1645 
William Anderson in Burnheid desyred his seat might be removed to the 
kirk of Caldercleir, but the Session objecting to this, resolved to cause 
some one in this parish to buy the seat from him. These specially 
appropriated sittings all stood at this time on the floor of the building, 
the eastern gallery being alluded to as " the common loft," to distinguish 
it from Lord Torphichen's gallery, which was affixed to the north wall. 
At the west end a smaller gallery is designated in 1782 the "Alderston 
and Linhouse loft" 

In the year 1639 Mr Patrick Kinloch of Alderston, advocate, 
bequeathed by his will 40 merks for repairing the kirk of Calder, pro- 
vided that he, his heir and successor, be restored to a desk and seat within 
the said kirk, which had lately been removed at the instance of Mr James 
Ross, minister of Livingston, and Mr James Scott of Bonyngtoun. In 
1646 the pulpit was placed between the windows of the choir, which 
continued to be its position until 1863; some structural alterations were 
also made at the west end, and a fresh allotment of seats was rendered 
necessary by the division of the parish into Mid and West Calder. 

1646, April 16 — This day being appoyntit for settling of the seats in the church 
y* all y' war interest niyt have y' seats convenientlie, and for decorement of the church 
and uther conveniencies most necessar, my Lord Torphichen and ye reminant Heritors 
and Elders being convenit for y* effect, all in one voyce did refer y"* to Mr Ephraim 
Melvill, Mr Patrik Sheills, James Sandilands, Bailzie, and James Flint all four 

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pcrsonallie present quha did accept and determine as foUowis viz. that the pulpit sould 
be removed eistward under the twa eistmost slittis of the waster windo of the queir. 
S' Wm. Ross his seat to- be nixt the pulpit wpoun the wast syde yrof, S' Josephe 
Dowglas seat to be behind S*^ Wm. Ross seat, on the wast syde yrof wpoun the eist 
syde of the pene q' the pulpit will stand. Andrew Oswald of Lethamis seat to be a 
dowbill seat, att the bak syde of S'' Josephs seat just wnder the pene and to run no 
farder out nor S' Wm Ros seate and Sir Josephs seat. The ministeris seat to be on the 
eist syde of the pulpitt and no other seat to be betwixt the pulpit and the Queir Duire 
bot it onlie. Hirdmanscheillis seat just at the wast syde of the Belhous duire. The 
Bailzeis to stand q' it is now presentlie, the fairsyde yrof tumit to the south. Lynhous 
seat q' Hirdmansheillis seat now stands. Mr Jamis Kynlochis seat nixt-be-east the 
Laird of Lynhous q' Jone Hamiltoun of Grangis seat now stands. Alex' Lochart of 
Braidschallis and James Tenent of Ower Williamstoun y' seats to remain q' they now 
stand. Mr Lowrence Scott seat and Wm. Dowglas of Gogar y' seats to be q' Mungo 
Lockhart of Harwood and umqll Ion Kennowie of Adieweill y' seats now ar. Jamis 
Flintis seat at the bak of the laird of Lethamis seat, and the Laird of Camis seat to 
remain q*" it is, with ane wall of stain and Lyme to be built at the west syd of the west 
Kirk Duire throwghe the breadth of the kirk, the height of the hanging posts w^ twa 
slittis of the waster windo of the queir to be taikin doun and new glassit And the 
expenssis in removeing the pulpit, building the s^ wall and vyr neidfull for decoring the 
s'^ Kirk to be Bestowed and giwen be the foirsd personis quha resaves the benefite of the 
seats as sd is, at the determination of the sd. Mr Ephraim, Mr Patrik, James Sandilands 
and James Flint. Qnnnto all of y" did condiscend and promise to abyde.* 

* Payments were made in the years 1639 and 1644 to the sclaitters for sclaitting ye kirks 
queir, and to Robert Aikman in 1653 for " repairing and building ye kirk Loft." In the same 
year a fresh allocation of seals, *' conform to thair rankis" was agreed upon by the heritors as 
below ; and in 1654 a new pulpit was gifted by Lady Ross. 

1653, Oct. 20. —The Heritors as under being convened to deliberate *' upon repairing of the 
church and concerning the schoolmaister and likwayis concerning a contribution for repairing the 
common Loft," namely, My Lord Torphichen, Hirdmanscheills, Sir Joseph Douglas of 
Pumpherstoun, John Muirheid of Linhous, Mr James Kinloch of Alderstoun, Alexander Ix>ckhart 
of Howden, James Tennent and James Lichtoun of Overwilliamstoun, Samuel Johnstoun, the 
Laird of Cairnes, John Wryght and Ledie Letham. The qlk day the heritores unanimousUe con- 
descended with the Session that the pulpit sould stand wher it is and that the ministers sait sould 
be on the wast syd of the pulpit. The whilk day Mr James Kinloch was contented to retain still 
his antient room, and in lik maner the Laird of Cairnes is contented with his. Also it is appointed 
that all the salts on the south syd of the kirk sould be south and north having their heads to the 
wall. As also the Ledie Letham her sait is appointed to be sett up immediatlie behind the Laird 
of Cairnes his sait, and in lyk maner the I^ird of Herdmansheills is appointed to sett up a double 
saitt wher the Ledie Letham had her sait befor. As also William Douglas his sait is appointed 
behind Overwilliamstounis sait, Alexander Lockhart his sait being befor the said Overwilliamstounes 

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Jas:Ihumjfwnd,R.S.A.J)eiP. GeoBoAUy.Li^^ 

— ^ Interior of the Parish Church, 1860. ^^— 

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The illustration which forms the frontispiece to the present volume 
is taken from a very beautiful drawing of the church made by William 
Penny, an artist and engraver who resided in Mid-Calder in the early part 
of the present century, and the plate upon the opposite page represents 
the condition of the interior immediately before the alterations of 1863. 

In that year it was determined to execute a thorough restoration of 
the church and an extensive enlargement of its dimensions — a work which 
was carried into effect from designs by Maitland Wardrop, Esq., of Messrs 
Brown and Wardrop, architects, 
Edinburgh. The added portion 
consists of north and south tran- 
septs, the interior dimensions of 
which are similar to those of the 
chancel, namely 58 ft. 6 in. x 23 ft, 
so that the area of the building is 
exactly doubled by this addition. 
The vaulted form of roof has been 
adopted throughout, but it is com- 
posed entirely of plaster with wood- 
framing, and the same material has 
unhappily been also employed to 
cover the interior of the ancient 
walls, obscuring in a great measure 
the venerable aspect which the choir 
should present. The transepts are 
flanked by four angle buttresses ter- 
minating in pinnacles, and this part 
of the sacred edifice is enlightened 
by four pointed windows enriched by tracery which well sustains com- 
parison with the old work, and by a small rose- window placed in 

sail. In Lilc maner Mr Lawrence Scot his sait is appointed to be behind William Douglas his 
sait and the Cameltie sait to be behind Mr Lawrence Scot his sait. Likways Bankheid sait is 
appointed to be behind the Laird of Herdinansheilles sait and Samuell Johnstounes sait behind the 
Ledie Lethems sait. The whilk day My Lord Torphichen condescended to selt up ane single sait 
wher my Lord Rots his sait was befor wherunto all the Heritors aggreed. 

Fig 38. —Plan of the Church. 

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the centre of the west wall immediately above the organ. Armorial 
shields have been carved at the terminations of the outer hoods of these 
windows, agreeable to the model upon the old church, the insignia repre- 
sented being those of the heritors at the time of the extension of the 
structure. This has been carried out, however, with less knowledge of 
heraldry than was displayed by the ancient builders, crests occupying the 
place of arms upon the shields in most cases, and the Torphichen quarters 
being omitted from the coat of Lord Torphichen. The armorials and 
initials are those of — 

P. M. Peter M'Lagan of Pumpherston. 

R. S. Robert Sandilands, Lord Torphichen. 

L G. James Gray of Baad-park. 

R. T. Robert Tod of Howden. 

A. L. Alex. Learmonth of Murieston. 

L H. P. Jane Hay Primrose of Burnbrae. 

L M. James Marr of Alderston. 

H. R. Henry Raeburn of Charlesfield. 
The modern wood-work in the interior has been well designed and 
executed, sitting accommodation being provided for 500 worshippers ; the 
upper panels on the pulpit, carved with what is known as the linen- fold 
pattern, are simple and charming. The edifice has also been enriched in 
recent years by three memorial windows. In the south transept the larger 
window, the gift of John Wilson, Esq. of Alderston, was illuminated in 
1 891. The subject chosen for illustration in the first two lights is the visit 
of S.S. Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James to the sepulchre, 
with the text, " He is not here, for He is risen,*' and the last two lights 
represent the Saviour's appearance to S. Mary in the garden, with the 
words " Touch me not for I am not yet ascended ;'' the colouring has been kept 
rich and quiet, suitable to a southern aspect. The other window in this 
transept was dedicated by Thomas Graham Young, Esq., to the memory of 
his parents, and has beneath it this legend : '*In memory of James Young, 
LL.D., F.R.S., of Limefield, died 1883 ; and of his wife Mary Young, died 
1868." The first light shews Moses at Sinai receiving the tables of the 
law, " God sfiall wipe away all tears from their eyes ; " whilst the second light 
depicts Mary sitting at the feet of Jesus, and Martha, "cumbered about 

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much serving/' with the text " Mary hath chosen that good part^ which shall 
not be taken away from lur'' In the north transept the western window had 
been filled by Mr and Mrs Walker of Limefield. It is an illustration of the 
words " Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not for 
of such is the kingdom of Heaven." The window in the gallery has a 
representation in stained glass of the four evangelists, but in an 
indifferent style of art. Other memorial institutions within the church are 
a marble tablet bearing the words: "Sacred to the memory of Anne 
Inglis, Baroness Torphichen, who died May 12th, 1849, aged 87, and was 
laid here beside her Husband, James, 9th Lord Torphichen, who was born 
15th Nov. 1759, died 7th June 1815." Also an heraldic brass with the 
arms of the Hon. Douglas Sandilands, and the following inscription : 
" This tablet is placed by the Right Hon. Lord Torphichen in memory of 
his youngest brother, Douglas Sandilands, born 20th Oct. 1851, died at 
Wagga-Wagga, Australia, 13th Dec. 1882. 

In the minister's pew at the eastern end of the choir is preserved an 

Fig. 39. — Ancient Carved Panel. 

old deal panel, evidently a portion of a wooden seat which formerly stood 
immediately opposite the pulpit Upon it is carved an incorrect illustra- 
tion of the arms of Sandilands, with the initials I. S. and I. L. In another 

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part appears the date 1595, with letters and reh'gious legends as seen in 

Fig. 39- 

The communion cups were procured in 1673, but appear to have been 

manufactured some few years earlier, as 
they bear the Edinburgh Hall and maker's 
mark of William Law, who was admitted 
in 1662 ; and the deacon's punch of James 
Symontoun, deacon 1665-67. On the 
upper rim of these cups is engraved — I 
and around the foot — FOR THE KIRK OF 
CALDER, 1673. In the Session's records, 

Fig. 40.-Communion Cup of Calder ^nd May 1673, appears :- 

Whilk day the Sessioun ordained two Com- 
munion Cups to be bought for the use of the Church of Calder with the mort cloth money 
in Thomas Kennua's hand quhich was fund to be in all ;£204. 13s [Scots], and that if they 
extend to any more, they sail be payed of ye readiest. 

The flagons and patens are of pewter, and were the gift of the Lady 
Torphichen in 172 1. 

1 72 1, February 20th — The min' reports that Lady Jean Hume, Lady Torphichen, 
has gifted to the Session two English pewther fflagons and two English pewther plats and 
two fine serviters utensils for the sacrament, the fflagons and plates have her own name 
on ym and the Serviters has Lord Torphichens arms wrought in ym. The session appoints 
the minister to return her thanks in name of the Session. 

The plates used for collecting the charity of the congregation are also 
of pewter, and bear the inscription " For the Parish Church of Mid-Calder, 


It is somewhat remarkable that so ancient a churchyard should con- 
tain so few tombstones of any special antiquity. There are a few moss- 
grown stones, apparently of great age, but quite illegible ; otherwise the 
earliest inscription is that of Joseph Douglas of Badds, 1636. 

In September 1624 there is an order for ane new beir for carying off 
ye deid to ye kirk -yard — and that all burials sould be properly conveyit 
be ye nychtbors under ye pane off xsh. . . Item that na man sufBrs his 
bestiall, hors, nowt nor shep to pastur in the kirk-yaird. We may suppose 

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that at this time graves were dug indiscriminately by the friends of 
deceased persons, but in 1633 the Session ordained that "nane brek ye 
Kirk-yard for buriall, but only ye beddell off ye Kirk for ye tyme," it being 
explained that the object of this enactment is that " no wrong be done to 
utheris in y' buriall." 

The following are the most interesting of the older tombstones : — 

T. S. I. W. Heir lyth loseph Douglas of Badds who depairted ths 
lyfe the 20 day of Aprile anno dom. 1636. 

This is William Forest stpne in Limefield. Here lyes John Forest 
who died Febervary 17th 1730 aged 59 and also his first wife Janet 
Nisbet. . . . 

Here lyes the dust of John Graham of Wester Causeyend who died 
March 9 1754 aged 64 years also Elizabeth Graham who died Nov. 7th 
1770 aged 7 years. 

Mementi mori 175 1. Here lyes the dust of Charts Edmonstone and 
Elizabeth Morvall his spouse and two of their. . . . 

Erected by John Paton Farmer Upper Williamston to the memory of 
Janet Paton who died nth September 1769 aged 5 years also Michael 
Paton who died 9th April 1770 aged 3 months also John Paton who 
died 15th September 1770 aged 50 years. Also Janet Wilson his spouse 
who died i6th June 1790 aged 58 years also Alex. Paton who died 4 April 
1837 aged 69 years. Also Thomas Paton who died 23 April 1847 aged 
85 years. 

1778. Here lies the dust of Mary Robertson spouse was to Matthew 
Comb tennant in Nether Houden likewise of six of their children viz. 
Archd., Matt., Alex., Eliz., Beatrix and Eliz. Combs who all died before 
her. She died in Feb. 1774 her age 56 years. Maurice Comb died in the 
island of Tobago. To die young said one is the leaving of a superfloues 
feast before the drunken cups are presented. 

1779. Sacred to the memory of James Wylie of Cockridge who died 
21 April 1778 aged 82. Helen Peebles his spouse who died 1 8th July 
1764 aged 73. John and James their children who died in their infancy 
also Jean Dickson his second spouse who died 9th December 1780 in her 
57th year, and William Macfarlahe Wylie grandson of the above who died 
at Edinburgh 28th April 1886 in his 60th year. 


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J.S. This stone is erected by James Smith in memory of Grizel 
Masson his spouse who was born the 23 March 1722 and died the 18 oP 
June 1780. Died the 5 of Decem. 1798 James Smith aged 76. 

1 791. This stone was erected by Will Stark Tenent in Dedridge in 
memory of his two children William and Elizabeth. 

1799. This stone was erected by William Smith tenand in Harrys in 
the Moor said William Smith died on the loth day of January 1800, aged 
72 years. 

1799. Here lyes interred with his wife and 8 of his children the Rev. 
Mr. Wm. M*George late minister of the Associate Congregation of Mid- 
Calder who died July 3 1799 in the 56 year of his age and 34 of his 
ministry much lamented. 

1800. This stone was erected by George and Thomas Williamson. 
1800. This stone is erected by James Tennant in Standing^tone at 

East Whiteburn to the memory of Elizabeth Eddie his spouse died 
January 1794 aged 77 years. Also his relations are intirred here. 

Sacred to the memory of James Murison Esquire of Dunbrae and 
Westfield who died 8th of June 1803 and of Henrietta Guild his wife who 
died 7th of April 18 16. 

To the memory of David Burn. Let candour tell the rest 1808. 

T. G. K. W. 1815. Erected to the memory of Christian Graham who 
died May 14th 1808 aged 72. Also John Graham her husband late 
tennant in West Collium who died Oct. 26th 18 10 aged 79 years. 

In memory of Miss Alison Moubray of Calderbank, eldest daughter 
of the late Henry Moubray Esquire of Calderbank who died on the 27 
December 1842 aged 68 years. Here lies the body of Henry Moubray of 
Calderbank who died 14th June 1803 ^iged 69 years. 

1843. Erected by the parishioners to the memory of the Reverend 
John Sommers D.D. their late Pastor who died xxv day Septr. MDCCCXLII 
in the Lxxviii year of his age and XLVIII of his ministry widely and 
deeply regretted. 

Sacred to the memory of the Rev. William Walker, minister of the 
parish of Mid-Calder, who departed this life on the 2nd November 1882 in 
the 80th year of his age and 40th of his ministry. This monument is 
erected by his parishioners and friends, by whom he was much esteemed 
and is deeply regretted. 

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Ecclesiastical History 

Fig. 41.— Ruins of St Cuthbert's Church. 

OF even greater antiquity than the ecclesiastical structure which has 
engaged our attention in the preceding chapter is the old church, 
the ruins of which still stand by the roadside between the village and 
East Calder. This edifice was built in the 12th century, and was 
dedicated to the Venerable St Cuthbert, whose bones and robes are 
deposited at Durham. 

Where, after many wanderings past. 
He chose his lordly seat at last. 
Where the cathedral, huge and vast. 

Looks down upon the Wear. 
There, deep in Durham's gothic shade. 
His relics are in scarlet laid. 

The church is first mentioned by that Rudolph de Clere who had a 
grant of the manor of East Calder from Malcolm IV. On the accession 


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of William the Lion in 1165, this personage ceded to the monks of Kelso 
the church of Caledour, with all rights belonging thereto, upon the con- 
dition that they allowed him to have within his court a private chapel 
without detriment to their mother Church — an intimation which seems 
to imply that the patronage of the rectory was then with the monks. 
He afterwards granted to the Abbey of Kelso, and to St Cuthbert's 
Church of Calder, for the welfare of his soul, the tenth part of the multure 
of his mill of Calder ; and this and the former grant were confirmed by 
King William and by Richard, Bishop of St Andrews, anno 1165-1173. 
We do not enter in any detail into the history of this venerable edifice, 
which now belongs to the parish of Kirknewton, but we may say that it 
continued with the monks of Kelso until the Reformation, after which 
East Calder was for nearly a century attached to this parish. On 14th 
July 1 641 the inhabitants petitioned the Presbytery to be disjoined from 
Mid-Calder, and Mr John Dunlop, a son of the minister of Ratho, was 
ordained the first regular Presbyterian minister there in October 1642. 
The small parish thus erected was united to Kirknewton by the Com- 
missioners of Teinds, 23rd January 1751. The following report was made 
regarding the building in 1627 : — " The kirk is ruinous, the roof already 

The area of the ecclesiastical parish of Calder Comitis appears to 
have been determined by the bounds of the barony, and its extent 
embraced in ancient times all the country between Calder village and 
the parish of Cambusnethan. The whole of this district was, previous to 
the year 1645, under the jurisdiction of the parish church and minister 
of Mid-Calder. At that epoch this extensive parish was divided by the 
"Commissioners for the plantation of kirks," and the modern parish of 
West Calder was disjoined. 

We need scarcely remark that the now populous township of West 
Calder has attained to its present dimensions entirely within the last 
two hundred and fifty years, and in this respect affords a true illustration 
of a Scottish Kirktown—^z, town, that is, which has grown up around its 
kirk in distinction from those which, like Mid-Calder, have been fostered 
by their feudal castles. The spiritual needs of the western portion of 
this large parish, previous to the erection of West Calder church were 

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met by a chapel which formerly stood beside the banks of the Harwood 
Water, the memory and situation of which are alike preserved in the 
name and site of Chapelton, which still designates the locality. Here, 
since the dawn of the i6th century at least, stood a chapel of ease 
to the parish church of Calder, which remained until after the Revolution. 
It would appear that before the Reformation there existed also a chapel 
in the upland district of the parish at Camilty. In an action tried by the 
Lords of Council, nth February 1492, the lands of Williamstoun and 
Braidschaw are mentioned, as also four akers of land Hand besid ye 
Camolty Chapell ; and in the year 1524, Sir James Sandilands of Calder 
cedes to Margaret Bertoun, affianced spouse of John Sandilands, his 
eldest son, the lands of Blackball and others, "with advocation of the 
Chapel and Chaplainry called Cammyltie Chapell." 

Turning now to the principal charge of the parish, the church of 
Calder Comitis, which was included in the ancient diocese of St Andrews, 
appears to be one of David I.'s numerous ecclesiastical foundations. ^ The 
first distinct reference to it in historical documents which have reached 
us is to be found in a grant of Ela, Countess of Fife, preserved in the 
chartulary of Dunfermline Abbey. This grant is undated, but its date 
is fixed by internal evidence to be between the years 11 50 and 1165; a 
translation is here inserted : — 

To all the sons of the holy mother church, Ela, Countess of Fif, greeting. Be it 
known as well to the future as to the present that I by this my present charter have 
confirmed the grant of Earl Duncan, my lord, of the church of Kaledour with half a 
carucate of land and other pertinents to the monks of Dunfermline in free and perpetual 
alms-gift, for the weal of my soul and the souls of my parents. 

Witness. — Andrew, Bishop of Caithness ; Alfred, Abbot of Stirling ; Earl Duncan ; 
Madian and Albin, chaplains ; Michael and Hugo and Abraham, clerks ; Mahald of St 
Liz ; William of Aubeni ; Alexander of St Martin ; and Adam of Syreis. 

The grants of the Lady Ela and her husband appear to have been 
confirmed by Malcolm IV., and in the year 11 84 there is a general 
confirmation to the monastery by Pope Lucius of all the churches thereto 
belonging which had been granted to the said abbey by Malcolm, 
Alexander, Edgar, David, and Malcolm, sometime Kings of Scots. This 
deed is dated at Verona 14 kalens of November 1184, and the churches 
are particularly specified, including ecclesiam de Wester Caledoure, with 

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all its freedoms and immunities. Similar confirmation to the monastery 
and church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline, of the church of Kaledoure 
" which Earl Duncan granted to them," is made by Hugo, Bishop of St 
Andrews, ii 73-1 187; and the church was also specifically confirmed to 
the monks by a bull of Pope Alexander, dated at Turin vij ides of 
June 1 163. 

By what means or at what precise period the church of Calder was 
given up by the monks we are not informed, but in the 13th century 
it was again an independent parsonage. In a list of churches consecrated 
by Bishop David de Bernham in the " Pontificale " of that ecclesiastic, 
the church of Calledouere Com. appears consecrated 14th March 1241. 
Baimaund de Vicci, the papal envoy to Scotland in 1279, compiled a 
valuation roll of the various benefices, to form the basis of taxation to 
the Holy See for various purposes, in which the church of Caledour is 
valued at 40 merks. 

It is recorded that during the troublous times of Bruce and Balliol, 
when the power of England was paramount, Nicholas de Balmyle, 
persone of Calder Comitis, swore fealty, in company with the Scottish 
nobles and barons, to Edward I. of England, who thereupon commanded 
the Sheriff of Edinburgh to restore to him his property, anno 1296. In 
1491 George Hepburne, rector of Caldor, was appointed Director of 
Chancery by James IV. The next parson of whom we have notice is 

Mr Peter Sandilands, a younger son of Sir James Sandilands, 
Sth baron of Calder, who, on 30th March 1526, witnessed in company 
with James Sandilands of Cruvy a charter of Andrew Oliphant of 
Berredale, wherein he is designed rectore of Caldor. We meet with him 
again as a witness to a charter of Lawrence, Lord Oliphant, 26th April 
1538 — Mr Peter Sandilandis, rectore of Caldour, — and he was similarly 
designed at 9th June 1540, when certain lands in Fife were resigned by 
him in favour of his kinsman, James Sandilands of Cruvy. Previous 
to 1 541 he commenced the work of rebuilding the parish church of 
Calder, the completion of which he committed to his nephew. Sir James 
Sandilands, the 7th baron. On 30th January 1541 John Sandilands, 
fiar of Calder, binds himself to give an annual rent of 20 merkis to ane 
chaiplane to be appointit be Mr Petir Sandilandis, and his successoris. 

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for doing of mess and devyne seruice within the kirk of Caldour, and at the 
hie altar thairof. The last mention we have seen of him is on Sth April 
1546, when Mr Peter Sandelandis, parson of Calder Comitis, and fermarer 
of the kirk and parsonage of Caldercleir brings an action against James 
Kneland of that ilk, for wrongous spoliation, awaytaking and withholding 
from him of the teind sheaves of the crop and year 1545. He was the last 
incumbent belonging to the ancient faith, and was succeeded by Mr John 
Spottiswood, a clergyman of exceptional abilities, who, living as he did at 
a critical period in the Church's history, became one of the most distin- 
guished men the parish has produced. 

Rev. John Spottiswood, A.M., is stated to be the son of William 
Spottiswood of Spottiswood in Merse. This would make him brother of 
David of that Ilk, who, at his death in September 1 570, appoints Mr John 
Spottiswood, parson of Calder, one of his executors. There are reasons 
for supposing, however, that whilst he certainly was connected with the 
heads of the family, the relationship is not quite so close as has been 
alleged. He was entered at the Glasgow University as servus Domini 
Rectoris, 27th June 1534, when at the comparatively late age of four-and- 
twenty, but as he became a Bachelor on the Sth of February in the 
following year, it is probable that he had previously attended some other 
seat of learning. In 1 538 he went to London, where he became acquainted 
with Archbishop Cranmer, to whose encouragement so many of our country- 
men were indebted, and from whose eagerness in the dissemination of en- 
lightened principles the benefit derived by Scotland cannot easily be 
estimated. Having taken holy orders from the hands of Cranmer, he 
returned in 1543 to his native country, accompanied by the Earl of 
Glencairn, through whom he obtained an introduction to Matthew, Earl of 
Lennox, who in the following year employed him on a private mission to 
Henry VIII. Having returned to Scotland, and being known to Sir James 
Sandilands of Calder, as a strong supporter of the principles of the Refor- 
mation, he was, in 1548, prevailed upon by him to accept the parsonage of 
Calder, then vacant ; but as constant residence at his cure was not required, 
he lived for about ten years with Sir James and Lord James Stewart, then 
prior of St Andrews, but afterwards better known as the Regent Murray. 
In the spring of 1556, if not also on other occasions, John Knox visited the 

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parish, and the Holy Sacrament was administered by him at this time at 
Calder House. Mr Spottiswood was present at the marriage of the young 
Queen of Scots with the Dauphin of France in 1558, and happily returned 
in safety from this expedition, so fatal to many of his companions. He was 
one of the six elected for drawing up the Book of Discipline and Confession 
of Faith, and upon the establishment of the Reformation in 1560, he was 
appointed Overseer or Superintendent of the district of Lothian, Merse, 
and Teviotdale. In reality he exercised the functions of a bishop in this 
district, though under a different name, for it was not so much the office as 
the name to which the Reformers felt aversion, and on grounds of expediency 
alone such an administrator was certainly necessary to them at that time for 
distributing the very few ministers who held their sentiments in different 
parts of the country ; in the year 1 568 he had under his superintendence 
the shires of Edinburgh, Haddington, Berwick, Linlithgow, and Stirling, 
on this side of the Forth. In June 1562 complaint was made to the 
Assembly by John Douglas of Pumpherston in name of the kirk of 
Calder, that they are defrauded divers times of the preaching of the word, 
since their minister was elected Superintendent of Lothian, and desiring 
that the said Superintendent should be restored to them again, or some 
qualified minister be provided for them. It was answered that "the 
profite of manie kirks is to be preferred to the profite of one particular, 
and that the kirk of Calder sould either be occupied by the Superintendent 
or some other qualified person during his absence, which could not be 
otherwise helped in this raritie of the ministrie." The minister of Calder 
was at first a favourite with the Queen, and on the birth of her son in 
June 1566 the General Assembly sent him to "testify their gladness for 
the prince's birth, and to desire he might be baptized according to the 
form of the Reformed Church." He took the child in his arms, and falling 
on his knees implored for him the Divine blessing and protection, to which 
the Queen listened with reverent attention, although he did not succeed in 
getting a favourable, nor indeed any, reply to the latter part of his message. 
His sentiments towards Her Majesty seem later to have been entirely 
opposite, for immediately after her escape from Lochleven Castle and 
preparation for hostilities, he addressed a solemn admonition to his flock 
exhorting all those who had " communicated with her odiouse impietys" 

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to consider their defection from God, and by public confession to testify 
their repentance. He signed the articles drawn up by the Synod in 1572, 
which he presented to the Assembly in March of the following year. On 
1 6th December 1580 he obtained a pension for three years of ^1^45, 9s. 6d 
in money, and an allowance of grain for "the thankfull seruice done 
to his hienes and his predecessouris," and this grant was renewed, 26th 
November 1583, for five years, but he did not live to enjoy its full benefit 
He died on the 5th of December 1585, in the seventy-sixth year of his 
age ; his latter will is dated at Calder, 8th October preceding, whereby he 
nominates Beatrix Creychtoun, his spouse, and Mr James Spottiswode, 
his son, his only executors, and leaves twenty merks to the poor of the 
paroch of Calder. "He was a man," writes his son, "well esteemed for 
his piety and wisdom, loving and beloved of all persons, and careful above 
all things to give no man offence." He married Beatrix, daughter of 
Patrick Creychtoun of Lugton and Gilmerton, by whom he had three sons, 
namely, John, who succeeded to the charge of Calder ; James, D.D., 
became Bishop of Clogher, Ireland ; William, alluded to in the following 
minute of the Privy Council ; and a daughter, Rachael, married to James 
Tennent of Linhouse. 

\6oi J June 9 — Complaint by Mr David M*Gill of Cranstoun-riddell, one of the Senators 
of the College of Justice, that upon 28 May last Williame Spotiswod, brother to Mr Johne 
Spotiswod, minister, with others of his name, taking advantage of his absence abroad, 
came to his house of Whinrig armed with hagbuts, swords and other weapons and 
surprized the same, which they still hold "as ane weirhous." The accused were 
denounced rebels. 

Rev. John Spottiswood, A.M., the eldest son of the preceding in- 
cumbent, was born at the house of Greenbank in the parish in 1 565, and when 
only sixteen years of age obtained his degree from the Glasgow University. 
Two years later, namely in 1583, he was appointed assistant and successor 
to his father in the benefice of Calder. In the many disputes which en- 
sued between King James and the majority of the clergy regarding the 
settlement in the Church, he leaned towards the side of the King, conceiving 
a moderate Episcopacy to consist better than Presbytery with monarchical 
government. He made himself conspicuous by persecuting the adherents 
to the ancient faith, and seems also to have shared in no small degree the 

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superstition of his Sovereign in regard to witchcraft. " Most of this winter," 
writes the minister of Calder, of the winter of 1590-1, "was spent in the 
discovery and examination of witches and sorcerers." Some years later 
Elizabeth Hammiltoun in Calder, and her son Patrick Abercrumby of 
Bonnytoun, accused of hearing mass and of resetting Mr Johne Hammil- 
toun, Jesuit, were required to purge themselves before the Presbytery of 
Linlithgow by this oath — " that as they wald ansuar to God and his sone 
Jesus Chryst in that great day of his compeirance that they wes innocent," 
for not giving whereof they were excommunicated by the Presbytery. On 
an appeal to the Privy Council, the Lords " fand thameselfis not juges." 
Other instances might be given of Mr Spottiswood's mistaken zeal in 
dealing with the professors of the Catholic religion, but they do not, so far 
as we have seen, relate to the inhabitants of this parish. 

The following extracts from the Proceedings of the Baron Court 
relate to Mr Spottiswood or to the ecclesiastical discipline during his 
administration : — 

1586, December 20— The qlk day the bailie decerns James Small to pay to Mr John 
Spottiswod, persoun of Calder, as son and air and executor of umqle Mr Jon Spottiswod 
his father, ten punds usuall money of this realme dew of law, quhilk he wes restand 
awand to the said umqle Mr Jon ye tyme of his deceis for his maills of ye Kirklands 
occupiit be ye said James of dyvers zeirs preceiding. 

I SZ7y January 3 — William Dowglas and James Tennent of Ower Williamstoun is 
become actit that George Tennent sail cum and stand at ye pillar of Repentance on 
Sonday nixt in ye Kirk of Calder, and the nixt tua Sondayis thaireftir the tyme of the 
haill sermond without clok or wapin and ask forgivenes of God and ye Kirk for ye 
offence confessed be him on Sonday last in speking to ye minr in pulpit, under ye pane 
of ijxx lib, the ane half to ye tutor ye vther half to ye puir. 

1590, October 13 — Comperit Mr Jon Spottiswod and declairt yt WiUiame Sandilands 
ye tyme of his deceis willit him and James Cochran to tak his geir and pay his dettis, 
and that thair is ane staig of thre zeir auld, iij zoung stottis, fyve firlots aittis sawand 
with James Mar in Smallis Meling, a pair pistoleitis, ane sword, ane Jak, plaitslevis and 
knappskaw. And ordains to geve in ye price yrof nixt court that every ane of ye 
creditors may be payit. 

1590, November 24 — It is statut and ordaint be ye baillie abouewrittin with consent 
of ye Laird, his curators and tennents of his baronie, yt for guid order to be keipit on 
Sonday in tyme of sermon, that na chapman in ye meintyme present his pack to ye 
plaine-trie for selling of ony merchandise. And sic lyk ye baillie with awise foirsaid 
ordains yt na cordonaris, creillmen or cadgeris present yr geir quhidder closit or coverit 
befoir ye sermon. 

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In 1 60 1 the parson of Calder was selected as chaplain to Ludovick, 
Duke of Lennox, on an embassy to the court of Henry IV. of France, and on 
returning through England he had an interview with Queen Elizabeth, then 
in her declining years. He was one of the five untitled clergy selected to 
accompany King James to London in 1603, on his accession to the united 
drowns. On their journey thither. His Majesty received at Burleigh House, 
near Stamford, the news of the death of James Beaton, Roman Catholic 
Archbishop of Gla^ow, who had lived in France since the Reformation, 
upon which Mr Spottiswood was appointed to fill the see thus rendered 
vacant, and was immediately sent back to Scotland ; he was at the same 
time made a privy councillor. Here his connection with Mid-Calder neces- 
sarily ceases, but we may say that he attained to high distinction in the 
Church, being subsequently promoted in 1615 to the Metropolitan See of 
St Andrews, and the chancellorship of Scotland. He was the person who 
placed the crown on the head of King Charles I. at Holyrood House in 
1625, and he died at London in 1639, making in his will a confession of his 
faith in the Apostles' creed, and as touching church government he was 
persuaded that the government Episcopal is the only right and apostolic 
form — parity amongst ministers being a breeder of confusion. He com- 
piled a History of the Church of Scotland from the earliest times to the 
termination of the reign of James VL, which was published with a portrait 
of the author after his death in 1655 ; it is considered to have suffered con- 
siderably at the hands of the editor. His wife was Rachel, daughter of 
David Lindesay, Bishop of Ross, descended of the house of Edzell, with 
whom he had three children — Sir John Spottiswood of Dairsie ; Sir Robert, 
president of the Court of Session, beheaded at St. Andrews for loyalty to 
Charles I. ; and a daughter, Anne, married to Sir William St Clair of 

After his promotion he still, for some years at all events, held the 
benefice of Calder, and was " continued " here in 1608. In our ecclesi- 
astical records 8th April 1604 we read : — 

The qlk day James Douglas of nether howdan w* Mr Jhone Broun wer deput be 
ye seassioun to gang to ye presbitrie of Lynlythqw ye nixt thursday heirefter to concure 
w* Mr Jhone Spottiswod, persone and minister of Calder, in ye suting of Mr Robert 
Gilmure to be coadjutor to ye said Mr Jhone in ye said kirk of Calder. 


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Rev. Robert Gilmure, A.M., a graduate of the University of 
Edinburgh, in pursuance of this request, was admitted as coadjutor to Mr 
Spottiswood on 2nd August 1604, " to serve in the said cure with him." 
The system of pluralities was very general at this period, one individual 
frequently holding as many as four or five livings in various parts of 
the country. Other ecclesiastical preferments existed to which no ad- 
ministrative charge was attached, and one of these was the vicarage of 
Calder-cleir, in the gift of the King. The emoluments of this benefice, 
which had been held previous to 1 596 by the younger Mr Spottiswood, 
were in that year conferred upon the above-mentioned Mr John Broun, 
at whose death in 1610 Mr Gilmure was presented to the vicarage by 
James VI. In the year 1607 we find : — 

The twclft day of Appryle and zere of God forsaid [1607] The minister and 
Seasioun of the kirk of Calder finding it neidfull and expedient that ane Reader sould 
be appointed in ther kirk for reading ye holy Scripturis oppinly in ye Idrk befor 
preaching and uther necessar tymes in absens off ye minister, and for wrything the 
common affairis off ther seassion, nominat Jhone Jhonstoun notar-publict ther ordinar 
dark and Reader (quha had lang befor servit in these offices) to serve in ye said cure, 
quha for his travellis tharin voluntarly all in ane voyce allowit and be this pnt act allowis 
to him zerely Twenty mks money. And ordains ane act to be maid hereupon and 
insert in ther seassioun buik to remane therin ad futurem rei memoriam.* 

1609, October 22 — It was this day statute be my Lord, ye minister and Seassioun off ye 
kirk with advyse off ye heritors, gentihnen and uthers parochiners present that everie 
fewar, mailhnan and fermirar in ye parochin sould pay zerely to ye beddle ij sh., and ye 
cottars viijd., and this to be payit be thame at ye receaving of / tickets. 

The Holy Sacrament was, in 1607, ordained to be celebrated on two 
days, and this continued to be the practice in the parish for many years, 
two successive Sundays being usually chosen ; for instance in 1629 we 
read — "3tio ApprilHs, the Communioun was celebrat for ye first day — 
1 1 App., the Communioun was celebrat ye second day." It is of course 
understood that, as the ordinance was then observed, the communicants 
were seated around one table, according to which system it would not be 
convenient for so many to participate at one time. The next two extracts 
relate to matrimonial customs, and from the former we gather that the 

* Mr Jhonson continued to hold the ofBce of reader for twenty years at least after this period, 
for on 1 2th August 1627 Jhone Jhonson b paid for twa seiris pensioune fourty merks. 

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rite had always to follow the proclamation of banns within a specified 
time : — 

1607, October 4— Bccaus of ane long delay maid be Jhone Lowry in Scheilhill and 
Beatrix Levinstoun dochter to Thomas Levistoun in howatstoun in not performing ye bands 
of matrimony within dew tym conform to ye ordinance of ye kirk, thay war ordanit to 
mary ye nixt sabboth, and to pay to ye use of ye poore for protracting of tym xx sh. 

1616, March 31 — Marion Ffynmerton, servitrix to ye lard off Carnis, requeistit ye 
Sessioun to caus proclame hir bands of mariage with Alex. Lyon, quhilk thay refusit 
becaus it was allegit hir husband was yet livand, quhilk scho denyd, sayand he was 
deid, and tharupoun promisit to report ane testimonial against ye tym off ye manage. 

1615, App, 16 — Comperit Alex. Jameson in Spittilton, quha being accusit that he 
came not to yc zerely examinationis, nor communicat not with ye rest off ye paroch, 
answerit he had communicatit in uther kirks quhilk war narrer hand, as Ratho and 
Kirknewtoun, quhilk the Sessioun wald not admit for ane excuse, and tharfor was ordanit 
to pay X lib. 

1616, September 10 — From this day thair was no meatting anent ony discipline 
becaus off ye harvest. And then tharefter in ye month of November, it pleisitt God 
to call to his mercy Mr Rob. Gilmour, our pastor. 

Mr Gilmure died on 23rd November 1616, aged about thirty-nine ; his 
testament-dative is recorded at Edinburgh, 27th February 161 8, the frie 
geir amounting to ;f 3,876, Walter, Lord Blantyre, and John, Archbishop of 
St Andrews being amongst the debtors. His wife was Marie Cleland, 
whom he married in April 161 3, and with whom he had three sons, James, 
John, and Robert Gilmures. James Gilmour had seisin of the lands of 
Nether Howden on a precept of Clare Constat granted to him by Mr Alex. 
Lockhart of Braidshaw, as lawful and nearest heir of the deceased Mr 
Robert Gilmour, minister at the church of Calder, dated 2nd January 1643. 

The next incumbent, 

Rev. John Tennent, A.M., an Episcopal clergyman, was a younger 
.son of James Tennent of Linhouse. He acquired his degree at the 
Glasgow University in 1606, and having a letter to the Presbytery from 
Archbishop Spottiswood, he was admitted minister 3rd September 1617, 
and presented by James VI. to the vicarages of Calder and Calder-clere 
in the following month. From certain entries in our parish registers it 
appears that the Sabbath was not at this time so strictly observed during 
the whole day as it has been since. 

1617, December 7 — The first seassion off the kirk halden be Mr Jo Tonnent now 

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person of Calder. It is statute be the Seassion off the kirk that na ostler sell aiU oa 
Sondays from the rynging ofT the second bell nor nane buy meitt or drynk nather efter 
that tym ilk ane under the pane of xx sh. and so oft as thai feilzie to doubill the penalty. 
Item that no cordiner or uther merchand present ony merchandise or schone to be 
sould quhill ye preiching be endit, but that they keip all close at ye plane-tre till that 
tym, and quha contravenis to pay xx sh. 

On the other hand, in January following, Jhone Wastoun being fund 
out off ye kirk, was ordanit to pay fyve shillings and to find caution in 
tym to cum to keip ye kirk upon ye Sabboth day ; and George Wryt at 
Calder Bridgend, in April 1619 craved pardon of God and his Kirk for 
harrowing his hemp zaird on the Lord's day. 

i6y>^Jufy i8~It is statute that ye kirk officer quha attendis upon ye affaires of ye 
Seassion sail stand at ye neddermost duir at ye stair of ye revestrie, and not heir ye 
reasoning of Seasion materis, becaus it was thocht thay keip no secreits. 

1635, May 3— Geoi:ge Brady, wright in Calder, confessed that he cuttit t>Tnber in ye 
wod of Calder on ye sabboth days, and actit himselff that if ever he should repeat the 
offence, he should be banished ye paroche. 

1635, December 6.— To Nicoll Tennent for making of ane mortcloth with ane silken 
freinzie about ye edges yroff liiij sh. 

It was during Mr Tennent's administration that the bell tower of the 
church was erected, and a new bell procured. He sat on the Commission 
for Church discipline 21st October 1634, and died 29th June 1638, aged 
about fifty-two years. His librarie was estimat at twa hundreth merkis and 
he was awand to Mr George Barbour ane zeiris maill of his dwelling house in 
Edinburgh and to three women servants ;^8 each. By his wife, Nicholas 
Lamb, whom he married 21st April 16 19, and who is still mentioned in 
our local registers in 1643, he had two sons and three daughters, namely: 
John, Andrew, Margaret, Rachel and Bethia. His grandson, William 
Tennent, became laird of Cairns in 1693. 

Rev. George Dunbar, the next minister of Calder, was a man of pre- 
cisely contrary sentiments to tliose of his predecessor, and a strenuous 
opponent of the royal and episcopal authority. He was formerly minister 
of Ayr, and was twice warded in Dumbarton Castle and elsewhere for 
declining to conform to the articles of the Perth Assembly. He was 
banished to Ireland by the Privy Council 22nd November 1624, when he 
is described as "ane decrepite poore aged man," yet he was for twelve 

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years thereafter a Presbyterian minister at Inver, near Lough Lame^ but 
was deposed by Henry, Bishop of Meath, in 1637. Returning to his native 
country he was admitted here in 1638, and he died in the m(Hith of 
December 1641. His son Samuel succeeded him in the lands of PoUesche, 
and another son George died in 165 1. 

After Mr Dunbar's death some little difficulty was experienced in 
procuring a successor in the ministry. On ist June 1642 there is a pre- 
sentation to Mr William Dunbar, who was however declared by the 
Presbyter)' to be " oncapable because of his not entering on his tryals at 
the tyme appointed." In October of the same year Mr Samuel Rutherfurd, 
Professor of Divinity at St Andrews, was presented to the kirk of Calder. 
He was a person of considerable eminence, and was one of the Commis- 
sioners appointed in 1643 to meet with the Westminster Divines to consult 
regarding the projected union of the Churches of Scotland and England. 
The presentation was sustained, but the University of St Andrews opposing 
his removal, the Synod yielded to their desire and the translation did not 
take place. Many particulars relating to the affair are recorded in the 
register of the Presbytery of St. Andrews, and that of the Synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale. After this 

Rev. Hew Kennedie, A.M., a young man recommended by Samuel 
Rutherfurd, being also of covenanting and republican sentiments, was pre- 
sented to the parish by John, Lord Torphichen, with consent of his 
curators, 8th March 1643. As the charge had been long vacant his trials 
were completed in three weeks, and he was ordained, on the 13th of April 
following his presentation. For the ceremony of institution we read the 
moderator delivered to him the Bible and the keys of the kirk door, and 
possession of the manse and glebe was also delivered by handing him 
"sand and stean." One of the earliest events of his administration was a 
crusade against the Calder witches. Either the same enlightened spirit 
which persecuted the Catholics was now particularly zealous in discovering 
offenders connected with the other world, or else — to adopt the language 
of the period — the devil had really descended upon the parish at this time 
in unusual activity. Not only was the minister engaged in supporting the 
cause of the parliament against their lawful sovereign, but demonology 
and the black arts were exceptionally rife in the district. 

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1644, Feb. II — The sessioun ordainit that Agnes Bischope now in the tolbuith of j 

Lynlythgow quha being of befoir delatit to the Sessioun to be ane commone charmer ] 

was by the presbytrie of Lynlythgow ordainit to be keepit in ward till tryell and cleiring I 

of the samyne, was ordanit be the Sessioun this day to be brought to Calder and de- \ 

tayned in ward for cleiring and tryell to be takin yranent, quhilk was done according to 
the said ordinance, and the said Agnes Bischope after dew tryell and examinatioun was 
both by hir awin confessioun and also relevant probatioun sufficientlie cleirit to be 
ane conunone charmer and ane hynous and notorious witch, and for the samyne be 
the ccivill judge was condemned to be execut according to the law. 

1644, Feb, 28— Agnes Bischope being put in ward and being wnder censur for 
charming and witchcraft the sessioun aggriet with Andrew Fergusoun for attending hir 
ye space of aught dayis nycht and day and allowit to hir 2 sh. in the day for buying of 
meit and drink to hir, and aggriet with him for the s* space ffor aught shillings ilk 24 
houris for his meit and fie. 

16^ July 8— Also compeirit David Aikmane spouse to umquhill Jonet Bruce quha 
was shortlie [lately] execut for witchcraft, and granted to the Sessioun ane hundred I 

merkis money, for defraying of the chains bestowit on hir the time of hir tryellis and i^ 

impresonment, &c. 

1644, Sept, 3.— Being the Sabbath day, Jeane Andersoune made publict satisfactioun 1 

in sackcloth for charming, and the minister made certificatioun to hir gif ever scho sould 
be tryed to use charming hereafter scho sould be halden ane witch. 

It has been supposed that in most cases these unhappy creatures did 
not understand the nature of the crime of which they were accused, and 
mistaking their own fears and apprehensions for sorcery, confessed them- * 

selves witches accordingly. But a lurid light is shed upon the subject by 
a note of Sir George Mackenzie, who examined some of these unhappy 
women in private. " One of them," he says, ** who was a silly creature, 
told me under secrecy that she had not confessed because she was guilty, 
but being a poor creature who wrought for her meat, and being defamed 
for a witch, she knew she would starve, for no person thereafter would 
either give her meat nor lodging, and that all men would beat her and 
hound dogs at her, and that therefore she desired to be out of the world ; 
whereupon she wept most bitterly and upon her knees called God to 
witness the truth of what she said." A sad commentary, truly, on the 
many extorted confessions of witchcraft which encumber and disgrace our 
parochial registers during the period of Mr Kennedy's administration I 

Mr. Kennedy was a great disciplinarian, many of his sessional acts 
being not untinctured with political complexion. During his ministry the 

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parish was divided into four quarters, each being under the inspection of 
two or more of the elders. Thus a tax for church expenses in June 1644 
was appointed to be collected by Jhone Stewinson of Hirdmanshiells 
[Hermand] and James Flint for the mid-quarter ; by James Sandilandis 
bailie, and Gavin Anderson for the eist-quarter : John Ker and John 
Purdie, with Lynhous's advyse for the over-quarter ; and James Douglas 
of Baddis and Abrahame Stewinson for the wast-quarter. During the time 
of public plague or sickness in 1645 and 1646. measures were taken by the 
elders, as we have elsewhere seen, with a view to preventing the infection 
from spreading in this parish. This circumstance accounts for the 
exceptional rigour observed as to entertaining strangers or holding 
communication with the indwellers of other parishes, against which a 
considerable proportion of the acts of discipline exercised in the Session 
at this period were directed, and which might otherwise appear somewhat 
inexplicable. In 1645 Jhone Muirheid of Lynhous, Mr. Jamis Kynloche 
of Alderstoun and Jon Hamiltoun of Grange [Charlesfield] were directed 
to "keip the thrie kirk duiris the next sabboth and ilk preaching day and 
sabboth day yreftir during the remainder of the visitatioun, yt no 
strangeris cum within the kirk/' 

Mr. Kennedy was a member of Commission of Assembly in 1648, and 
was a very zealous partizan in the dissensions which at this time divided 
the Church as well as the State. In the year 165 1 occurred the division of 
the Church into Resolutioners and Protestors, and the minister of Calder 
joined with Messrs Melvill of Linlithgow, Keith of Ecclesmachan, Row of 
Abercom, Kynneir of Calderdere and Wishart of Kinneil, who formed them- 
selves into the Protesting Presbytery, 6th August 1651. Attempts were 
made to heal the breach by the Resolutioners, who were in the majority, 
but this party found " that they cannot unite because of the reasons con- 
tained in their protestation," so they continued separate until 12th February 
i6S9> when they united. The minister's efforts, as was the case with many 
of the Covenanting clergy, appear to have been directed rather to politics 
than to religion. His occupation too with the various public concerns of 
the times deprived the parish to some extent of his constant attention to 
his duties here, and we observe that the Rev. Patrick Shiels, the late 
minister of Livingston, and who was afterwards the first incumbent of the 

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newly-erected charge of West Calder, officiated here for several months in 
1646 and 1647. On the loth December 1648 the Book of Deaconry 
informs us that thirteen shillings and fourpence are expended for ye printit 
covenant and vther twa printit paperis ; and seven days later — 

1648, Dec, 17 — This day the paroche of Calder being frequentlie convenit and being 
the Sabbath day the Covenant was renewed be subscryving over again of the whoUe 

The entries. of acts of discipline exercised in the Session continue 
until August 1649, after which the record is blank for exactly two years. 
The following minutes may be considered of interest. 

1 65 1, August lo—After a long intermission of Session be reason of the troubles of 
the lande, the said day the minister and elders conveined efter prayer. 

1652, November 7 — Thomas Elphinston of Calderhall, younger, cited for scandalous 
carriage in tyme of public worship by going out of the kirk and uttering expressions 
scandelizing the doctrin and the minister, who was preaching freely against the sins of 
the t3rme ; whereby he did exceedingly scandeliz the people of God, interrupting the 
minister by his abrupt out-going and by saying '* he could not sit and hear a man so rail 
against Kirk and State." 

1653, August 25 — This day, week dayis preaching is delayed quhill the harvest be 

1656, May I — A list of 86 parishioners including "all Linhouse's familie except the 
lard and the lady " convicted of ignorance of the knowledge of God, and 46 more 
specified by name — " all thes forsaids persones compeired before the sessione and being 
convicted some off them for the wanting of the worship of God set up in ther familie, as 
also others of them for not frequenting examinatione, and in lyk maner others for not 
having testimoniales from the places from whence they came, as in lyk maner others for 
not educating ther childrene at schooles was convicted as befor and appointed to btf 
debarred from the table of the Lord till they amended. 

1648, Mar ^— Ordanis to give up Jone Stevinsoune in Bridgend's name to the 
minister the nixt Lord's day for excommimication, for disobedience both to kirk and 

We cannot help remarking — and surely it may be permissible, even in 
a work deVoted to the record of plain historical fact, to notice some of the 
more obvious lessons which the facts of history have for us — ^that thci 
Puritan time in our parish, which is usually supposed to have been a period 
of superior sanctity, is marked, less by a desire on the part of the Church 
for the spiritual improvement of the people, than by a strenuous effort to* 

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establish an ecclesiastical dominion over their lives and consciences. The 
sessional acts of discipline during Mr Kennedy's ministry are fully four 
times as numerous as in any other like period of our history ; and the 
measures resorted to for the detection of offenders strike us as being of 
a very questionable nature. But let that pass. It is the mode of dealing 
with delinquencies that reveals the spirit by which the ecclesiastical 
authorities were actuated. It is surely the part of the Church to aim at 
reformatory rather than merely punitive discipline, and to compass this by 
working upon that better nature and finer feelings of which the most 
degraded are never wholly destitute. But we search in vain for the 
slightest evidence of any such thought. A case having been ferreted out, 
it is disposed of as a matter of business, the culprit being ordered to the 
stocks, or, as the case may be, to stand in sack-cloth while his enormities 
are thrown in his face before the whole congregation — a system which 
must have hardened hundreds in iniquity who were half inclined to good ; 
and which never, we are bold to say, checked one man bent upon evil. 
In short, the one object seems to have been to establish and exercise an 
administrative power which should vie with that of the civil courts. The 
distinction we should like to have seen observed is this : that the civil 
power should exist for the protection of society against crime, whilst the 
arm of the Church should be stretched out in the interest of the criminal 
himself, to reclaim him from the error and folly of his ways. 

On the establishment of the Restoration Mr Kennedy was deposed 7th 
December 1660, for "guilt in those things which concerns his Majestic in 
the defens of the Kingdome." He returned on the Toleration being 
granted, and was again minister of Calder at 6th July 1687, but he was in 
the same year translated to the Trinity College Church, Edinburgh, where 
he survived the Revolution, and died 2Sth April i692,aged about seventy-one 
years. His children as under, were baptized at Mid-Calder viz. : John 
baptized i8th March 1649; Hew, 25 th November 1652; Thomas, 
18th Nov. 1654; Margaret, isth Feb, 1657; and William, 7th March 

Rev. John Colvill, A.M., of Episcopal principles, was next presented 
to the benefice of Mid-Calder. He had been a regent at the old College 
of St Andrews, and he was admitted here by the Rev. James Ramsay, 


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moderator of the Presbytery, 9th Februar}'^ 1663. This was the period 
when t/ie Persecution^ as it is emphatically called, commenced to rage over 
the country. We remark that Mid-Calder suffered but slightly by com- 
parison during the troubled years which followed, unless it be in 1684, 
when the parish engaged the attention of the authorities to some extent, 
as we have already seen. Patrick Listoun in Calder, and his son, William, 
of Easter Colzium, took part on the side of the Covenanters in the fight 
at Rullion Green in November 1666, for which they were sentenced to 
death in the month of August following, though this sentence was never 
executed. The said William Listoun was further decerned a rebel on 
26th July 1670 for holding conventicles; he survived the Revolution and 
was for many years an elder in the parish, until 28th August 1698, when the 
following note occurs — 

William Listoun is removed by death. J 

The entries in our local registers during the period of Mr Colvill's 1 

incumbency, do not present much that is of especial interest | 

i666^Ffrom March 15 to 10 off June y' was no session be reason off ye minister's 

1667, Oct. 23— This day Mabel Johnstone delated for having some persons drinking 
' in her hous ye last Lords day in the tyme of sermon declared y' were some persons she 

knew not together wt ye Laird of Cairns and John Watsone. ^ 

1668, Aug. 30— This day Eupham Williamsoune was put in the jogs and afterwards 
rebuked in ye face of ye congregation for her reflecting on Samuel Ker ane elder. 

167 1, March 5 — The qlk day being the Sabbath after Mr John Colvil was buried, ^ 

the collection was ;^i, 14s. 

Mr Colvil married, 24th November 1665, Mary, daughter of Sir George 
Prestoune of Valleyfield, and died in February 167 1, aged about forty-one 
years, leaving several children. His will is dated at Calder ist March 
1670, and contains the nomination of Sir George Prestoune of Valefield, 
his father-in-law, and William Prestoune, younger of Valefield, as tutors 
and curators to George, Marjorie and Anna, his younger children. His 
library was estimat at 2,500 merkis, and Mr Robert Prestoune of that Ilk 
is cautioner. Alexander, his eldest son, was baptized 2nd October 1666 ; 
Marjorie, 2nd July 1668; George, 24th December 1669; and Anna, 25th 
December 1670. After his death 

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Rev. John Somervell, A.M., also an Episcopalian clergyman, a 
graduate of Edinburgh in 1642, and a descendant in the fifth generation 
from the laird of Cambusnethan, was received and instituted to this parish 
by the Rev. John Mowbray, minister of Uphall, i6th May 1672. He 
seems to have taken special measures for restraining drunkenness, and 
also " the frequent and hainous sins of backbyting, revylling, flyting and 
slandering of one anoy' ; " and it was during his brief incumbency that 
the present communion cups of the church were bought by the Session. 
He ministered here only two years, being translated to Cramond in 1674. 
He was a man of jacobitical tendencies and was deprived of his benefice 
by the Committee of Estates in 1689, for having "acknowledged that he 
has not read the proclamation nor prayed for King William and Queen 
Mary as is appointed therein, and that he would not undertake to give 
obedience." He died in poverty in London in 1691. 

Rev. Norman Mackenzie, A.M., was the next minister of Mid- 
Calder. He was a graduate of Glasgow University in 1656, and previous 
to his induction here in 1675, he was successively parson of the parishes of 
Carsphaim and Whithorn in Galloway. We see little of interest in the events 
of his ministry until the year 1684, when a conventicle attended by about 
two hundred persons, some of them being in arms, was held on Sunday, ist 
June, at Cairn-hill, and another at Caldstane Slap on the eighth of the same 
month. Rigorous but unsuccessful measures to apprehend the delinquents 
were put into execution by Thomas Kennoway of the King's Life Guards, 
in resentment of which and of other acts of oppression this gentleman 
was murdered by the Covenanters in the parish of Livingston on the 20th 
of November in the same year. The Rev. Mr Mackenzie continued to 
hold the cure until the Revolution, when, having prayed in the church of 
Mid-Calder for King William and Queen Mary, he was threatened by 
armed men and warned to desist, in consequence of which he applied to 
the Committee of Estates for protection, which was granted 8th May 1689. 
Notwithstanding this, he deserted his charge and became a brewer in 
Edinburgh, where he died 13th June 1701, aged about sixty-five. His wife 
was Mary Lundie, by whom he had a daughter, Anna. 

On the Act of Toleration being published in Edinburgh, 5th July 1687, 
a general meeting of Presbyterians was held on the day following, at which 

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Mr Hew Kennedie, the deposed minister of Mid-Calder, was present, and 
choice was made of 

Rev. William Burnett, who was ordained minister of the parish 
by a committee of Synod on the 4th of November 1687, although it would 
appear that the Episcopal incumbent continued to hold the cure until 1689. 
No regular records of our church relating to this unsettled time were kept 
until November 1691, when Mr Burnett was acting and settled minister. 
In May following it is said that the late Walter Johnstoun in Calder 
having been Session Clerk for a considerable time both at the meeting-house 
and in this Kirk, and had not gotten anything for his pains, the Session 
thought fit to give to his relict ;f 22, 4s. 8d. Scots. In various other entries 
at the same time allusion is made to the building and demolishing of the 
meeting-house in this parish, which appears to have been a chapel for the 
accommodation of the indulged Presbyterians, during the first two years of 
Mr Burnett's ministry, and perhaps also at an earlier period. John Pollock 
in Elderstoun was paid £2^ los. for his service at ye building of ye meeting- 
house, and a bond of 100 merks was delivered to David Lindsay by John 
Telfer, servitor to my Lord Torphichen, " expressly for helping to build the 
sd. meeting-house, or failing of that to be imployed for the use of the poor 
of this paroch." Then, in 1694, several entries occur relating to the dis- 
posal of money that was gotten for the timber of the meeting-house in this 
paroch. There is no indication of the exact position occupied by this 
sanctuary, but it may have been that the old chapel at Chapelton was put 
into repair at this time for the conduct of divine worship, because it appears 
from the following minute that action in this matter was taken jointly with 
the ecclesiastical authorities of West-Calder. 

1695,/rw 13 — Collected ^3, 13s. 4d., whereof given to Richard Hamilton, mason in 
West-Calder, ;^3, los. as that which was agreed upon betwixt this Session and the Session 
of West-Calder, to be given to him in contentation for his work at the meeting-house. 

On the establishment of Presbytery at the Revolution there was much 
difficulty in providing all the parish churches with r^ular ministers from 
the small number of Presbyterian clergymen available ; and it appears that 
there was seldom service at Mid-Calder at this time oftener than once a 
fortnight, Mr Burnett being called to other places on the alternate 
Sundays. Occasionally his absence was of longer duration, as 

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1693, ^^^* 19.— The minister having intimated to the Session that he was appointed by 
the late General Assembly to go to Aberdeine in order to preach ther for the space of 
sixe weeks, earnestly exhorted them that they would be mindful of the poor of this 
paroch in supplying them until it should please God that he returned. 

A controversy which strikes us as rather trivial, but which was 
regarded as a very serious matter at the time, engaged the attention of the 
minister and elders for many months in 1695 and 1696. This was 
the aspersion not only in this, but in other neighbouring parishes, of a 
"scandalous and calumnious ryme made upon the members of this 
Sessioun," first found in the house of David Ffleeming in Balgreen, and 
whereof several got copies. Strict inquiry by the Session and Presbytery 
failed to elicit the authorship of the lines until in the latter-named year the 
said David Ffleeming presented his child for baptism, which the minister 
refused to grant until he should first make confession of all he knew in 
reference to " that ryme." Thus pressed David declared that to the best of 
his belief the verses were written by John Purdie, son of James Purdie of 
Hartbumhead. The following additional extracts from the records are 
illustrative of the manners and sentiments of this age. 

1692, /«/k 31 — The minister intimated from the pulpit that he was called to be at 
the West Kirk of Edinburgh, next Lord*s Day, and exhorted them that they would be 
very careful of the Sabbath and repair to other adjacent kirks. 

1694, September 30 — This day the minister advertised from the pulpit all heads of 
families within this paroch that they would not fee any servants without testimonials of 
their good behaviour from the several places whence they cam, and if they did that such 
servants should be disowned as parochiners and denyed church priviledges. As also 
exhorted them all that they would behave soberly in time of Calder faire, abstaining from 
revelling and drunkeness which has been and is still the sin of this town and many 

1694, November 4 — This day a proclamation was read for observing a day of thanks- 
giving for his Majesties safe return from Fflanders. 

1695, June 16— James Smith, an elder, having been directed to commune with 
Robert Grahame in Linhouse Muire, who hitherto never countenanced publict ordinances 
notwithstanding all the faire means used to gain him, reports that though what arguments 
he hath for defending his practice be very weak, unsufficient and unsolid, yet that he 
could gain no ground of him. 

1698, March 21, — William Laurey and John Aikman, paupers, got nothing this day 
because it is reported that they keep not ye church. 

1699, October 8 — This day 15 ounces of English uncurrent clypt money was sold by 
the Session for £^s Scots. 

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Mr Burnett ministered here for about nine years, being translated to 
Falkirk in 1696, and he died i8th December 1714. On 30th June 1696, 
he exhorted the elders of the Kirk of Calder that, seeing he is about to 
remove from this congregation, they would therefor be very careful! about 
the poor, and all other things incumbent to them in their stations ; after this 
he (as he was wont to do) closed ye work by prayer. After his removal, 
the parish remained for rather more than a year without a regular minister, 

Rev. John Lookup, A.M., was appointed, a clergyman oi dis- 
tinguished classical ability and with no inconsiderable share of literary 
attainments. He studied and was laureated at Edinburgh, 9th July 1694, 
and being recommended by the Principal of his University was ordained 
minister of Mid-Calder 26th January 1698. He is described as being of 
very diminutive stature, upon which subject he was sensitive. He had, how- j 

ever, a great idea of his own importance, and on all occasions set himself ^ 

in opposition to the popular voice. The story is told that when a young 
man, he was introduced by Principal Carstares to Anne, Duchess of 
Hamilton, then residing at Holyrood House, with a view to his appoint- 
ment as chaplain. The Duchess made some disparaging remarks about 
his appearance, which wer? accidentally overheard by Mr Lookup, and on 
its appearing that the remuneration proposed did not amount to more than 
£^ a year with bed, board, and washing, he immediately took his hat, and 
with more spirit than prudence, said to Her Grace that if such were her 
terms she must look for a lesser person even than him to fill the situation. 
On another occasion, his feelings were wounded by the wit of one of his 
brethren, also named John, and who, being a man of bulky proportions, was 
in the habit of remarking the difference between little John who " looked 
up " and big John who looked down ! This drew from Mr Lookup the 
following rather sharp and sarcastic reply. 

Ego, Johannes Lukupeus, 
Quamvis parvus non pigmaeus ; 
Orationem banc concludo 
Virtus non est raagnitudo. 

The records relating to the period of Mr Lookup's ministry are well 
and regularly kept, being annotated by the minister himself. We gather 

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therefrom that the rein of ecclesiastical discipline, particularly as regards 
the Sabbath, still held the people with no feeble hand. In May 1698 
two of the elders were appointed to go through the village after sermons 
and see that folk kept their own houses and wandered not on the Lord's 
day through the fields. Katherin Hamilton, a serving-maid, was punished 
in the year 1701 for drawing water for her master to drink between 
sermons, and James Garner, accused of boiling vegetables on a fast day, 
which he denied, was " exhorted to look better to his family, and see that 
nothing be done, either on Sabbath days or on other days set apart for 
solemn worship." About the same time John Aitken and his wife 
Sussana Kenedy having danced at their wedding, contrary to the minister's 
express orders, Mr Lookup preached a sermon on the subject, and an 
act was passed "discharging every one within this paroch to dance 
promiscuously at peny weddings or to sit tippling in aill-houses." 
It is mentioned that on the i8th of October 17 19 the collection was 
given towards the building of Livingston church, then in course of 

1706, May 23, being a day appointed for a national fast on ye account of ye Treaty 
for an union betwixt Scotland and England, was observed by prayer and preaching. 

It was during the ministry of Mr Lookup that the instance of 
unaccountable delusion already referred to occurred in the parish in 1720. 
The "Calder Witches" had again 
begun to trouble the neighbour- 
hood, and as the family of Calder 
House had not escaped their 

malicious proceedings, the baron Fig. 42.-Signature of Rev. John Lookup. 

united with the minister in an attempt to extirpate them from the parish. 
Many unfortunate creatures in the village were arrested and thrown 
into prison, sei-eral of whom were brought to acknowledge their guilt, 
and that "they had done a great many mischiefs to several persons 
in Calder and the neighbouring parishes ! *' One of this unholy sister- 
hood, by name Ellen Fogo, and who is described as brutishly ignorant — 
" knowing scarce anything but her witchcraft " — acknowledged to having 
practised upon Lord Torphichen's son by her nefarious arts, and a 
solemn fast day was ordained to be kept in the parish on Thursday, 


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14th January 1720. On the day preceding, the following minute occurs 
in the proceedings of the Presbytery of Linlithgow : — 

The moderator, Mr John Lookup of Mid-Calder, represented that for some time 
bygone a most respectable family in his parish hath been infested with witchcraft ; 
that Mr P. their son has been sadly tormented, and that already a woman has confessed 
her sin of witchcraft, and that she has been active in tormenting the said child. The 
said family desires the help of the brethren's prayers both in public and private, and 
that a committee be appointed to meet at Mid-Calder for prayer and consultation on 
that head. Then the brethren entertaining a tender sympathy for the said family, the 
Presbytery appoints Masters John Brand, John Kinnaird, James Houston, John Brown, 
John Wilkie, and Robert Hunter to meet at Mid-Calder to-morrow with the moderator 
for that end ; and recommends to each of the brethren to put up their serious prayers to 
God both in public and in private in behalf of the said family and child, and that each of 
the brethren attend the said family as they shall be called. 

To complete the assemblage of sages, William Mitchel, who is styled 
the " Tincklarian Doctor," sallied forth from his shop at the West Bow of 
Edinburgh, in order to exorcise the evil spirits at Calder. From his 
broadside Strange and Wonderful Discourse concerning the Witches and 
Warlocks in West Calder^ we learn that " this horrible slave of Satan " had 
a son who died, and *' when she was examined about the corpse of her 
child, she said the corpse were buried ; but the wright that made the 
coffin declared she put nothing but clouts therein. Yet at length she 
confessed that she gave the corpse as well as the soul to the devil, which 
he said he was to make a roast of" The superstitious Wodrow also made 
inquiries regarding the matter, and in a letter addressed to him by the 
Rev. John Williamson, minister at Musselburgh, the writer says, " The 
matter is not over ; many are still delated by the child. But some who 
have been of very intire fame being named, its suspected it may be one 
of Satan's stratagems to bring some innocent persons into suspicion 
among the guilty." This letter is dated 19th February 1720. 

The sermon on the fast day was preached by the Rev. John Wilkie, 
Minister of Uphall, and was afterwards published. The text was " Submit 
yourselves therefore to God — resist the devil and he will flee from you ; " 
and the address, although tinctured in places with the prevailing credulity, 
is in the main a sensible discourse directed against superstitious influences 
and beliefs. 

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Mr Lookup died on the ist November 1758, aged about eighty-four, 
having during the long period of sixty years ministered in the parish in 
holy things. He left in M.S., Memorabiles temporuni circumstantioSy ac 
accidentia, quosdam notanday A Johanne Lukup notata. In these notes 
are recorded many remarks on the great public events that occurred from 
the time of Charles II., 1684, until the Rebellion of 1715, together with 
observations on the seasons, etc. ; the Latin is purely classical, and the 
writing exhibits a beautiful specimen of the penmanship of that age. 
His only published work was Balm for the wounded spirit, which made 
its appearance in the year 17 19. 

By his wife, Jean Huison, he had issue — ^John, born 17 10; Andrew, 
bom 1716; Margaret, born 1709; Isobel, born 171 2, and Grisel, born 

Upon his death 

Rev. James Watson was presented by Walter, Lord Torphichen, 
and admitted to the charge i8th October 1759. He was translated to 
this parish from the parish of Torphichen, where the strongest opposition 
had been raised by the people to his ordination, the settlement having 
been finally made upon an order of the Assembly by a riding Committee, 
under the protection of a military force. It appears that the parishioners 
" had nothing to object against the life, conversation, or doctrine, but that 
Mr Watson had not a voice equal to their congregation." The authority 
of the church courts having been thus vindicated, he was very shortly 
thereafter removed to Mid-Calder, where he ministered for thirteen years, 
without leaving behind him any evidence of unpopularity. He died 12th 
November 1772, in his fiftieth year. 

Rev. James Dobie, D.D., was next presented to the parish by James, 
Lord Torphichen, and was ordained 27th July 1773. He was twice 
married, firstly to Isabella Stoddart, whose son, James Dobie, was baptized 
in this parish, iSth April 1779 ; and secondly, he espoused Jeanna Henry, 
and had Henry, born 1783'; William, born 1785 ; James, born 1786; and 
George Stoddart, born 1788, who died in the year 1864. The. Rev. Mr 
Dobie was translated in 1792 to Linlithgow, where he continued until 
his death, loth J^ovember 1826, in his eighty-first year. He published a 
sermon, preached after the death of Lord President Blair and Viscount 

2 L 

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Melville. On his removal to Linlithgow, he was succeeded in the parish 
of Mid-Calder by 

Rev. James Wilson, A.M., D.D., a native of Lanarkshire, but who 
had had a Presbyterian congregation at Stafford and at Stockport, and 
who was settled here on James, Lord Torphichen's presentation 20th 
December 1792. He was little more than a year in this parish, having 
been translated to Falkirk in April 1794. He contributed to Sir John 
Sinclair's work " Statistical Accounts of the Parishes of Mid-Calder and 
Falkirk," and was the author of several works, the most important of 
which is T/te History of Egypt, 3 vols. 1805 ; his publications, however, 
were all subsequent to the period of his removal from Mid-Calder. He 
died in 1829, leaving an only son, the Rev. Dr Wilson of Stirling. 

Rev. John Sommers, D.D., was the next incumbent, and was 
minister of the parish for upwards of forty-seven years. Licensed by the 
Presbytery of Dumbarton, 2 1 St March 1791, he was presented by James, 
Lord Torphichen, in October 1794, and ordained on the i6th April follow- 
ing. He was possessed of considerable literary abilities, and was a man of 
extensive antiquarian research. He was proprietor of the Encyclopedia 
EdinensiSy and edited the last three volumes, many of the articles through- 
out the work issuing from his pen. His Account of the Parish of Mid-Calder 
is quite the best, and indeed the only work devoted to the subject ; it was 
originally written to form part of the New Statistical Account of Scotland 
published in 1845, ^^t owing to the long delay in the completion of 
that work, and the additional matter which in the meantime had 
gathered round the little parish history, causing it to exceed the prescribed 
limitations, Dr Sommers had a small number of copies printed for private 
distribution in the year 1838. The work is now scarce — only five copies are 
at the present time known to exist in the parish. The degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon the Rev. Mr Sommers by the 
Glasgow University isth May 181 8, and he died 2Sth September 1842, in 
the seventy-eighth year of his age. He married i6th September 181 1, 
Isabella Euphemia Hamilton, second daughter of Charles Donaldson, 
Esq., of Calcutta, who died 13th May 1821, leaving several children. Dr 
Sommers was succeeded in the ministry of the parish by 

Rev. William Walker, who was presented by James, Lord Tor- 

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phichen, in November 1843, and inducted to the charge before 31st March 
following. It was during Mr Walker's administration that the fabric of 
the church was restored and enlarged by the heritors of the parish, in the 
year 1863. On 29th December 1852 he married Anne, daughter of George 
Campbell of Prospect House, Newton- Stewart, by whom he has three 
sons, Thomas Charles, a physician in Liverpool ; George Alexander, mer- 
chant in Buenos Ayres, and the Rev. William, missionary at Chacuba, 
Punjab, India ; and he died on the 2nd of November 1882, in the eightieth 
year of his age, and the fortieth of his ministry, esteemed and regretted by 
a wide circle of parishioners and friends. 

Rev. Matthew Gardner, the succeeding clergyman, was ordained to 
the charge 24th April 1883, and after ministering here for rather more than 
ten years was translated to the parish of Peebles in the month of 
September 1 893, when he was succeeded in the charge by the Rev. David 
John Porteous, the present incumbent 

In a schedule of churches attached to the abbey of Dunfermline in the 
13th century the church of Caledour is taxed 40 merks; and the rectory 
of Calder Comitis is valued at ;^io, 13s. 4d. in the Tax Roll of the Arch- 
bishop, anno 1547. At the epoch of presbyteries, the parish was united to 
the Presbytery of Linlithgow and Synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; but 
in the year 1884, upon the initiative of the late minister, in conjunction 
with the minister of West Calder, these two parishes were disjoined from 
the jurisdiction of the presbytery of Linlithgow and united to that of Edin- 
burgh — a step rendered highly convenient by the increased facility of com- 
munication with the metropolis since the days of railways. 

Mr Spottiswood, the first minister of Calder of the Reformed Church, 
received as stipend for Calder Comitis in 1570, ;^68, 8s Sd, two bolls bear 
and ten bolls oats, with eleven merks for Calder Clere. The house of 
Greenbank, to which allusion has already been made, was erected by him 
and by his son and successor John, Archbishop of St. Andrews ; and it 
served the clergy as their official residence in the parish until about the 
year 1640. At that period a regular manse was erected nearly opposite 
the church, upon the bank between the roadway and Murieston Water, 
where a collection of some ten or a dozen houses, denominated Sandilands, 

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stood beside the old ford which gave access to Calderwood. Some 
accounts relating to the building of the old manse are preserved in the 
Session's records, which also shew that Mr Hew Kennedie, minister in 
April, 1645, suited for ;^4S7 Scots debursit be him upon the building and 
repairing of the manse hous, due to the minister and his successoris, and 
that over and above the sum of sewin hundreth merkis bestowit yrupoun 
of befoir. The little hamlet of Sandilands, if it may be dignified by the 
name, was demolished together with the manse in 1806, when the new 
avenue to Calder House was constructed; and the glebe, which extended to 
eight acres of very excellent land, was at this time exchanged for 43 acres i 
rood of land of a quality proportionately inferior, situated about a mile 
west of the village, upon which the present manse and offices were erected in 
1807. An extension of the premises was executed by the heritors in 1863. 
On the erection of the parish of West Calder in 1647 the teinds were 
allocated, 1250 merks being assigned to Mid-Calder and 850 merks to the 
new parish. The local stipend and provision of the kirk of Calder 
Comitis was declared at this time to be 1200 merks with 50 merks for 
communion elements, and a tack-duty payable by Lord Torphichen oi £20 
Scots, four kyne and a horse's grass in the wood of Calder, together with 
the manse and glebe. 

The patronage of the church belonged of old to the lords of the 
manor and was transferred by Duncan, Earl of Fife, to the monks of 
Dunfermline about the year 1160. In 1552 John Sandilands, fiar of 
Calder, cedes to James Sandilands, his apparent heir, the lands and barony 
of Calder, with advocation of the churches and chapels therein, which was 
confirmed by James VI. in 1567. Twenty years later all ecclesiastical 
advocation and superiority was assumed by the King, and, although in a 
charter to James Sandilands, 4th March 1600, "patronage of the parish 
church" is specially included, yet it appears that the advowson was 
exercised by His Majesty in this parish until the year 1617. In 1637, John, 
Lord Torphichen, was ser\'ed heir of his father in the barony and patronage 
of Calder church, since which time the right of presentation has been 
unifonnly exercised by his lordship's representatives. James, Lord 
Torphichen, had a charter under the Great Seal of the lands and barony 
of Calder, with advocation, donation and right of patronage of the kirk 

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and parish of Calder 2nd June 18 17. Upon the division of the parish in 
1647 Lord Torphichen continued patron of both charges until 5th March 
1692, when he transferred the advowson of West Calder, along with many 
lands in that parish, to Thomas Marjoribanks of Balbardie. And on 14th 
April 1785, James, Earl of Lauderdale, was seized of the patronage of the 
church and parish of West Calder, upon a disposition of the same by 
Alexander Marjoribanks of Marjoribanks. 

United Presbyterian Church. 

The history of this body in the parish dates from the year 1761, when 
a number of the inhabitants of the district, whose custom it had been to 
attend the ordinances of the General Associate Church at Craigmailen, 
Linlithgow, and at Nicolson St., Edinburgh, petitioned the Presbytery to be 
erected into a separate congregation, with a place of worship at Mid- 
Calder. In the Presbytery record, ist June, 1761, we see it appointed "that 
Mr David Robertson, instead of preaching at Eastbarns next Lord's day, 
do supply for Mr Cunningham that day at Calder ;" and in the baptismal 
register of the church, i8th January 1763, *' all these children were baptized at 
Bridgend,^' which seems from the first to have been the place of meeting of 
the Seceders. During these years it is probable that Divine worship 
was conducted in the open air, but, upon their being organised into a 
separate congregation, the adherents applied themselves to the work of 
erecting a meeting-house ; and accordingly we find a disposition dated 7th 
February 1763 of "all and haill that part of the lands of Pumpherstoun 
called the Bridge-haugh with the brae at the west end thereof, and the little 
haugh at the foot of Powie's path," which makes mention of the 
meeting-house intended to be built at the North Bridge, on the foresaid 
land. The work of building seems to have been in progress in 1763 and 
1764, and the structure was apparently completed and opened for public 
worship in 1765, — that being the date which was inscribed upon the sole 
of one of the windows. 

On 31st December in the last-mentioned year Mr William 
M'George, probationer, was called to be the first regular minister of the 
congregation ; he had formerly belonged to the parish of Urr, in the 

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Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and entered in 1761 the Divinity Hall of the 
General Associate Synod and was duly ordained to this charge on the i ith 
June 1766. He was much esteemed as a preacher both by his own 
congregation and generally in the locality, and was the consistent advocate 
of civil and religious liberty ; he died 3rd July 1799 in the fifty-sixth year of 
his age and the thirty-fourth of his ministry. By his wife, Margaret 
Beverly, he had the following children — Elizabeth, born 1782; Alexander 
born 1784; Beverly, born 1787; Jane, born 1789; Ebenezer, born 1795; and 
Margaret, born 1798. 

The Rev. Alexander Duncan, D.D., who had previously been con- 
nected with the Anti-burgher church at Nicolson Street, succeeded Mr 
M'George in the pastorate. He studied four sessions at Edinburgh 
University, and at the close of the third proceeded, in 1795, to the 
Divinity Hall of the Anti-Burgher Synod, and after receiving license from 
the Presbytery, was unanimously called to Mid-Calder on the 24th 
December 1799, and ordained minister 8th April following. For the long 
period of forty-four years Dr. Duncan exercised his sacred calling in the 
parish, and was highly esteemed both as a pastor and preacher, whilst he 
also took a somewhat prominent part in the various questions affecting 
the welfare of the Secession Church at large. Most important amongst 
these was the re-uniting of the two main branches of the body, which had its 
birth in the parish of Mid-Calder, having originated, as we are informed, 
with William Matthewson, one of the elders of the congregation at 
Bridgend. This union was carried into effect in the autumn of the year 
1820, and so came into existence at that time the United Secession 
Church. Upon that occasion Mr. Duncan was entrusted by the Synod 
with the preparation of a statement or "Testimony** of the principles of 
their church in a doctrinal point of view, the task of producing an 
historical outline being assigned to the Rev. Dr. Stark of Dennyloanhead. 
On the extension of the Theological Faculty in 1834 Mr. Duncan was 
elected Professor of Systematic Theology, but exchanged this chair for 
that of Pastoral Theology, which he occupied during nine years. He was 
author of a Disquisition on the Lord's Supper^ an Essay on tlu Being 
of God, and several other works, and was an extensive contributor to the 
denominational Magazines, and to the Encyclopcedia Edinensis. He was 

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also a man of distinguished classical attainment, and was engaged during 
a considerable period in revising a translation of the New Testament 
Scriptures into Hebrew for the London Society for the Conversion of the 
Jews ; his literary talents received suitable recognition by the University 
of St Andrews, which conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity in November 1842. He died on the loth November 1844, in 
the sixty-seventh year of his age, and the forty-fifth of his ministry. His 
wife was Elizabeth Hogg Morison, a daughter of Mr David Morison, minister 
of the Gospel at Morebattle, whom he married 9th July 1801, and with 
whom he had a family of six sons, who all became ministers. 

The third pastor of the Secession Church was the Rev. Andrew 
Duncan, fifth surviving son of the preceding incumbent, who was called 
in July and ordained September 1842, as colleague and successor of his 
father; and he died in the month of January 1894, having for a period of 
upwards of half a century been officially eonnected with the congregation^. 
In the year 1847, in common with their co-religionists throughout Scotland, 
the congregation at Mid-Calder adopted the new title of United Presby- 
terian Church, upon the completion of the union of the United Secession 
and the Relief Churches. Up to this time the original building, erected 
in 1765, though somewhat modified and altered internally at various periods, 
and provided in 1816 with galleries, continued to serve the congregation 
as a meeting-house. In the spring of 1854, however, the structure being 
considered insecure, it was taken down, and the foundation stone of the 
present erection was laid on the 12th of May in that year. During the 
rebuilding, the worshippers were accommodated in the parochial schoolroom 
belonging to the Established church — an obligation which they returned 
some ten years later, when the parish church was undergoing alterations, 
by placing their meeting-house at the disposal of the Established congre- 
gation at a certain hour on Sundays. The new building was opened on 
the 29th October 1854, and the present U. P. manse, on the south side of 
the Almond, was completed in the summer of 1865 ; the original house, 
which was occupied by the Secession ministers for one hundred years, 
though it has ceased to be the manse, is still standing in close proximity 
to the church. In January 1874 the Rev. WILLIAM DUNCAN, a nephew of 
Mr Duncan, was unanimously called to be his colleague and successor, and 

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was ordained on 17th March; he was translated in November 1882 to 
Maryhill Church, Glasgow, and was succeeded in the collegiate charge by 
the Rev. George Crawford, previously of Govan, who was junior 
minister here for three years. Mr Crawford having resigned in 1885, he 
was in turn succeeded by the Rev. R. L. Browning, A.M., a graduate of 
the University of Glasgow, the present minister of the United Presbyterian 

Fig* 43.— Communion Tokens, U. P. Church. 

Two old communion tokens of the Associate church of Mid-Calder 
are here engraved, one of them bearing the initials of Mr William 
M'George, the first regular pastor, and tlie date 1767. 

Free Church. 

There is no Free Church in Mid-Calder, those of the inhabitants who 
belong to that persuasion attending the ordinances at Livingston or 


Fig. 44. — Communion Token of Mid-Calder Parish Church, 1809. 

Ecclesiastical Records. 

The registers relating exclusively to this parish are those of births, 
marriages, and deaths, — or, more properly, baptisms, marriage proclama- 
tions, and funerals, — ^which are now in the possession of the Registrar- 
General in Edinburgh ; and the record of other transactions of the Kirk- 
Session, in the custody of the Session-Clerk at Mid-Calder. 

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The register of baptisms commences in the year 1604, and, with the 
exceptions here indicated, it is complete until the present time ; the 
mothers* names are not recorded in the entries until after 1707. The 
roister is blank from July 1649 till August 1651 ; also from February 
1661 until 1663 ; and from May 1674 until October 1707. 

The marriage proclamations are intermixed with the baptisms from 
1604 till 1674, after which a separate register has been kept. The breaks 
in the continuity of the record are from July 1649 to November 1659, 
which is blank ; and from May 1674 till October 1691. The record is also 
defective between 1720 and 1783, although entries relating to proclamations 
have been transcribed from the Books of Deaconry for the period 1720- 
1760, and likewise notices of irregular marriages, 1789- 18 19. 

Deaths — entries of mortcloth dues and funeral expenses have been 
transcribed from the Books of Deaconry between 1734 and 18 19. The 
proper register of deaths commences only in 1783, and is continued until 
1837, after which it is blank until 1855, when compulsory registration of 
all births, marriages, and deaths became law. 

The Books of Discipline, containing a record of all acts of Church 
discipline exercised in the Session, notices concerning the appointment 
of Ministers, the election of Elders, Acts relating to parish affairs, Testificats 
received and granted, as well as sundry accounts of penalties, collections, 
and disbursements, are preserved from January 1604 until the present day, 
with the following exceptions : — the register is blank from August 1649 
to August 1651 ; from September 1656 till February 1663 ; also between 
June 1673 and November 1691 ; and from May 1706 until 17 14. 

The Books of Deaconry consist of accounts of sums received from 
collections, baptismal and proclamation fees, mortcloth and bell dues, with 
disbursements for behoof of the poor, and other charges. The record 
commences in 1691, and is consecutively preserved since that time. The 
distinction between this and the preceding register is not, however, 
very strictly observed, acts of discipline being occasionally entered here, 
whilst details of receipts and expenditure frequently appear in the Books 
of Discipline. 

The leaves of several of the earliest volumes have suffered from damp, 
and are partially decayed. The registers are most copiously and regularly 

2 M 

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kept during the period 164049, when Allan Tennent was Session-Clerk- 
The following extracts may be of interest ; the first explains the de- 
ficiency which occurs throughout the whole series between 1649-51 : — 

1653, March 3— This day Mr Samuel Wright compeared befor the Session, who 
declared, after thair demanding the minuts of the Session during his seruice from him, 
that they wer left in a tronck in Samuel Johnston's [house] and were lost wpon the 
English comin, wherefor the Session was exceedinglie displeased. 

1698, October 9 — Reported that Mr Robert Henry, sometime schoolmaster, has still 
refused to give up the records of the Session. Therefor recommends it to John Dick to 
cause cite the said Mr Robert before ye sharrive for that effect. The volumes were re- 
stored on the 23rd of the same month. 

1699, September 3 — The Session considering that the bell is toled to every one's 
buriall without any emolument either to ye poor or to ye officer, ordains that each shall 
pay to ye poors box an half merk, and to Robert Ker our officer, fourty pennies, who 
causes tole the bell to their friends burialL Closed with prayer. 

The following is a list of the Elders of the parish in the 17th century, 
whose names appear in the registers — 

1604. Mr Jhone Broun, bailie of Calder. 

1604. James Douglas of Nedder Houdun. 

1607. Jhone Jhonstoun, notary publict 

161 2. Jhon Douglas, collector. 

161 8. Jhone Inglis. 

1 62 1. Abraham Stevinson, ordained 12 Aug. 

162 1. Joseph Douglas of Baddis, ordaified 12 Aug. 

1621. John Sandilands in Dedrig, ordained 12 Aug. 

1621. James Flint in Nether Alderston, ordained \\ Aug. 

1626. Mr Patrick Kynloche of Alderstoun. 

1635. John, 4th Lord Torphichen. 

1635. The laird of Herdmanschiels [Hermand]. 

1635. William Douglas of Pumpherstoun. 

1635. The laird of Selmes. 

1635. Sir Wm. Ross of Murieston. 

1635. Mungo Lockhart of Harwood. 

1640. Mr Wm. Sandilands, Tutor of Torphichen, 

1644. Gavin Anderson. 

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1644. John Ker. 

1644. John Stevenson of Herdmanshiels. 

1644. John Purdie in Hairtburnhead. 

1644^ James Wallas in Cleutheid, ordained 24 Aug. 

1645. John Hamilton of Grange. 

1645. Mr James Kynloche of Alderstoun. 

1645. Gawaine Vernor [in Dedridge]. 

1648. John, sth Lord Torphichen. 

1648. Samuel Johnstone, notary. 

1652. John Welsche. 

1652. James Aikman. 

1652. John Anderson [in Skivo]. 

1652. Thomas Livingston [in Howatstoun]. 

1652. William Ramsay. 

1652, John Cranston. 

1652. Alexander Gowans. 

1653. Samuel Ker. 

1663. Walter Lord Torphichen, ordained 24 Dec. 

1663. James Smith in Nether Alderstoun, ordained 24 Dec. 

1663. James Gilbert in the Craig, ordained 24 Dec. 

1663. John Bryce in Over Howdane ordained ^i Dec. 

1664. John Gray, ordained 3 March. 

1665. John Mickle, ordained 30 July. 

1672. David Ker in West Kairns, ordained 17 Nov. 

1672. James Fairer in Over Williamstoun, ordaitud 17 Nov. 

1672. William Line in Pumpherstoune, ordained 17 Nov. 

1672. John Rule in Aldirstoune, ordained 17 Nov. 

1672. David Aikman in Dresseridge, ordained 17 Nov. 

1672. Thomas Hamilton in Herperrige, ordained 17 Nov. 

1672. John Lowrie in WiUiamsoune, ordained 17 Nov. 

1672. John Aikman in Sandagait, ordained 17 Nov. 

1691, William Listoun [of E. Colzium]. 

1691. James Inglis. 

1 69 1. Walter Johnston, writer. Session Clerk. 

169 1. John Aikman. 

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1 69 1. Robert Aitkin. 

1 69 1. \Vm. Ffiniston in Binnarflatt 

1 69 1. Wm. Auld. 

1 69 1. John Dick, treasurer. 

1691. James Masson. 

1 69 1. William Ffulton. 

1 69 1. Thomas Livingston in Houatston. 

1699. Mr John Mitchell of Alderstoun, ordained 29 Jan. 

1699. Hendry Loch in Houetston, ordained 2^ Jan. 

1699. Henry Jameson, in Walkmyln, ordained 29 Jan. 

1699. William Clerkson in Wester Mooriston, ordained 29 Jan. 

1699. Robert Murray in Balgreen, ordained 5 March. 

1699. William Aikman in the Wodhouse 

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The Religious House of Torphichen, 

THE establishment of which we are here to give some brief account 
was situated, not in the parish of Mid-Calder, but at a distance of 
about seven miles therefrom in the upland district between Bathgate and 
Linlithgow. Any connection which we can claim with the religious 
foundation at Torphichen resides merely in the fact that the noble family 
of this parish is the successor in title of the old ecclesiastical Lords St. 
John of Torphichen. But, however slightly connected with the immediate 
object of the preceding chapters, the attractiveness of the subject in itself, 
and the small share of attention which seems to have been bestowed upon 
it as regards Scotland, perhaps afford an excuse for the following contribu- 
tion, detached and incomplete though it be, towards a history of the Holy 
Order of Military Ecclesiastics, who had their chief seat at Torphichen. 

The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, or Knights Hospitallers, as 
they are generally termed, formed one of those powerful orders of religious 
knighthood arising out of the Crusades which came to exercise a far- 
reaching influence over the history of all Europe. The story of their 
origin is that they came into existence as a charitable confraternity 
during the latter part of the nth century, when certain pious merchants 
of Amalfi, in the kingdom of Naples, having been permitted to sojourn at 
Jerusalem, built there a house for the reception of travellers and pilgrims, 
to which they added a chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. Near to 
this they subsequently erected two hospitals for the accommodation of the 
sick and poor, with a chapel attached to each, dedicated respectively to S. 
John, the charitable patriarch of Alexandria, and to S. Mary of Magdala. 
At the siege of Jerusalem, in 1099, the Hospitallers rendered valuable aid 
and so procured the countenance and favour of Godfrey. Their ranks 

2 N 

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were swelled by the crusader knights, and their revenues by large grants 
of lands and other privileges. Under Raymond de Puy they were 
instituted a military order, without, however, relinquishing the charitable 
duties which they had previously undertaken ; and this was confirmed by 
Pope Pascal II. in 1113. The knights were tonsured, and their habit 
consisted of a long black tabard, worn over armour, with a white cross on 
the left side. To the three-fold vow of religion, namely to poverty, 
chastity, and obedience, they united the practice of other heroic virtues of a 
warlike kind, and played a prominent and most useful part in the times in 
which they lived. Pope Boniface confirmed the rules of the order, and 
granted the brethren permission to bear the title of Knights Hospitallers 
of St. John of Jerusalem. 

In the year 1312 it came about that the Knights Templars — a rival 
Order, having however much the same ends in view as the Hospitallers — 
fell under the displeasure of Philip of France, who invoked the aid of Pope 
Clement to suppress the Society, and the Templar Knights were for many 
years thereafter persecuted all over Christendom. 

Upon the re-occupation of Syria by the Saracens the Hospitallers 
took possession of the island of Rhodes, whence the title at one time 
applied to them, " Knights of Rhodes." Being expelled from that island by 
the Turks in 1522, they received an asylum at Malta, which was granted 
to them by Charles V., and here the Grand Master of the Order had his 
residence until by the reformation of religion in the i6th century their 
history as regards our own country necessarily ceases. 

The brethren were established in Scotland very shortly after the 
foundation of the Order, and Torphichen seems to have been from the first 
their principal seat. We have no doubt that the settlement was originally 
patronised by David I., and General Porter in his elaborate work on the 
Knights of Malta tells us that this monarch established the Preceptory at 
Torphichen shortly after his accession to the throne in the year 11 24. He 
looked indeed with such favour on this institution, as well as on that of 
the Temple, that the author of the Book of Cupar has recorded that 
Sanctus David de praeclara militia Templi Hierosolomitani optimos fratres 
secum retinens eos diebus et noctibus morum suorum fecit custodes. By 
him and his successors various possessions and privileges were bestowed 

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upon the brethren, who, moreover, were freed from most of the imposts 
levied upon the laity. The earliest charter we have been able to find is one 
of four charters narrated in a confirmation by James IV., and it appears to 
have been granted in the first year of Malcolm IV.'s reign — namely the 
year 1153. 

This charter is dated at Brechin in the episcopate of Bishop Sonsan, 
and by it Malcolm concedes to God and the Hospital of Jerusalem, for the 
salvation and welfare of his ancestors and for his own welfare, unum 
plenarium toftum in quolibet burgo totius terre sue, to be held by the 
brethren as well and freely as they already held their eleemosynary grants. 
The second charter is by Alexander IL, and confirms to the friars all gifts 
of lands, men, tenants and alms previously made to them, as well in 
churches as in other privileges and worldly possessions, with jurisdiction of 
sok and sac, thole and theme, infangtheif and bludewitis, and all other free 
customs, quit of toll and secular service.* Dated at the Castle of the 
Maidens (Edinburgh Castle) 30th June in the i^th year of the King's 
reign, being the year 1231. The third charter is also by Alexander IL, 
dated at Strivelin, 12th July 1236. By it the King grants to the Blessed 
Mary and to the brethren foresaid, for the love of God and the soul of 
David King of Scots, as also for King William's soul, father of the said 
Alexander, all gifts, etc., granted by him and his predecessors in times past, 
with liberty of sok and sac, thole and theme, infangtheif and outfangtheif, 
girthbrekin and bludewite, fiemgirthe and murthure, in all times past and 
to come. By Alexander III. new benefactions were also made, and he 

* These obsolete terms of villenage have never perhaps been explained in a manner which can 
be regarded as altogether satisfactory. Liberty of socca and sacca in a charier is supposed to confer 
upon the grantee the right of judging in litigious disputes, within his barony. TAck is a Toll — a 
right to exact customary duties upon goods passing through one's lands ; and Thenu is explained as 
warranty, a 'word which has a great variety of meanings in connection with old forms of process. 
Power of Infangtheif \& understood to imply the right to condemn and execute a thief, when taken 
only, as we say red-handed, that is with the theft actually in his grasp — in his fang ; outfangtheif 
infers a wider jurisdiction extending to the condemnation of the thief, upon evidence adduced, after 
he have parted with or disposed of the subject stolen. Bludewite means assault and battery to the 
eflfusion of blood ; and the word girthbrekin^ which occurs a little later in the text, seems to imply 
the offence of breaking through the girth or ring which encircled the sanctuary ground adjacent to 
the knights' establishment — hence violating the protection which the Church had power to afford 
to fugitives. 

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commands that the friars shall have and hold all possessions and almsgifts 
as freely and quietly as they were granted to them by his illustrious father 
King Alexander, and further cedes to S. John and the brethren all fines 
and amerciaments imposed within their jurisdiction by the King or his 
bailies, declaring that if any friar should himself be fined by civil authority 
he shall be quit for one ell of his scarlet alb or cassock. This is dated at 
Scone, 17th January 1283-4. The four charters above specified were con- 
firmed by James II. at Stirling, 7th May 1448 ; also by James III. at 
Edinburgh, 21st February 1482 ; and lastly by James IV., as a singular and 
special favour to his knight and counsellor William KnoUis, preceptor of 
the said house of Torfichen, his treasurer, 19th October 1488. 

Archibaldus, Magister de Torphichen, is a witness to a charter of 
Alexander, Great Steward of Scotland in 1252 ; and in 1264 there appears 
an entry in the Exchequer Rolls remitting a fine due by the Master of 
Torphechin. During the troubled time which succeeded in Scotland, when 
the power of England was paramount. Sir William Wallace had his 
residence at the preceptory for some time previous to the battle of 
Falkirk, as an existing charter shews dated apud Torpheichyn xxix. die 
Martii, anno gratiae millesimo ducentesimo nonagesimo octavo [1298]. Sir 
Alexander de Welles, Prior of Torphichen, swore fealty to Edward I. in 
company with the greater part of the Scottish nobles and barons in 1296, 
his name occurring in the Ragman Roll as * Gardeyn de THospital de 
Seint Jehan de Jerusalem en Ecoce ; ' and he fell at the battle of Falkirk, 
fighting on the English side, in the month of July 1298. We have seen it 
stated that Edward I. had also at one time his lodging within the walls of 
Torphichen Preceptory, and, from precepts which he issued to the sheriffs 
to restore the property of the Order, the knights appear to have consider- 
ably extended their original possessions, so that even at this early period 
they had estates in almost every county in Scotland, excepting Argyll, 
Bute and Orkney. 

1296, September 3— The Sheriff of Stirling is commanded to give to the Master of the 
House of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem of Torphichen three oaks fit for timber in 
the forest of Kilroy. 

In the year 1304 there is a petition to King Edward I. by the Prior 
and brethren of the hospital, "that their English brethren in Scotland 

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may be received when necessary in the castle of Linlithgow, only two 
leagues from Torphichen ; " and five years later Friar Henry de 
Peremort, Hospitaller, Master of Torphichen, had an order for the pay- 
ment of 44s., the value of victuals bought from him for the pele of 

The suppression of the Knights Templars in 131 2 tended greatly to 
augment the power and influence of the Knights of St John. By a canon 
of the Council of Vienne and a bull of Pope Clement, the whole lands and 
possessions of the Templars in Scotland were conferred upon the rival 
order of Knights Hospitallers ; and the ranks of the latter were swelled 
by the Templars, who thus found an asylum from the persecution to which 
they had been subjected. Not only also did these new territorial acquisi- 
tions retain their former designation of temple lands, but the same name 
came in time to be applied to the original possessions of the Hospitallers 
— a circumstance which has caused considerable confusion in attempts to 
discriminate between the lands of the two orders. The knights, thus 
augmented and consolidated, rendered good service to their country at 
the battle of Bannockburn, and Radulph de Lindesay is mentioned as Pre- 
ceptor of Torphichen under Robert Bruce. 

William de la More is said to have been Prior of Torphichen in the 
reign of David H. ; and in the archives of the Order preserved at Malta 
Edward de Brenne is named principal and Receiver-general of Scotland in 
a bull of the Grand Master, dated at Rhodes sth June 1386, granting to 
Richard de Cornel a lease of the lands of Torphichen, vacant by the death 
of David de Marr. A similar bull of Philibert de Naillac, the succeeding 
Grand Master, at Rhodes 24th July 14 10, grants the bailliage of Scotland 
for five years to John de Bynnynge, he being bound to pay certain 
specified responsions. Sir Alexander de Lichtoun, knight, prior of the 
house of Torfychyne, witnesses a charter of Sir William Douglas, Earl of 
Angus at Aberdeen 28th May 1422; and Friar Andrew Meldrum is 
mentioned as Master of Torphichen in 1438 and 1443. Contemporary 
chroniclers and later historians have alike left untold the fact that the heart 
of James I., like that of his great ancestor the Bruce, was removed from his 
body before interment and carried on a pilgrimage to the East. But the 
Exchequer rolls inform us of the arrival in Scotland about 1443 of a 

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Knight of St John, bearing from Rhodes the heart of King James, which 
was presented and exhibited to the Carthusian monks of Perth, no 
mention however, being made of its final place of deposit. To the 
military knight who came on this errand £go were paid from the 
customs of Edinburgh, and £i towards his expenses from the customs 
of Perth. 

Andrew Meldrum appears to have been succeeded in the office by 
William Meldrum, who was summoned to Rhodes 9th January 1452-3 to 
account for his mal-administration. In another bull of date 24th November 
1454, he is styled Preceptor of Torphichen. 

Sir Henry Livingstone was Preceptor of the Order under James II. 
He is stated to have been of the family of Kilsyth, and he died in 1463. 
He was succeeded by Sir William Knollis, who was nominated Prior 
of Scotland by the Grand Master Orsini 22nd December 1466. At this 
time Patrick Scougall, administrator of the Preceptory since the death 
of Sir Henry Livingstone petitioned the Council to be preferred to the 
dignity, asserting that Knollis had been unjustly appointed in his 

The Council decided against him, but granted him an indemnity dated at 
Rhodes 3rd September 1473. Sir William Knollis filled the important office 
of treasurer to James III. in 1468-70, but he ultimately joined the party who 
hunted down that monarch to his unhappy end. On the accession of the 
new King he was appointed to collect the royal revenues in Linlithgow- 
shire; was made keeper of Blackness Castle and of the Palace of 
Linlithgow; and again held the office of treasurer from 1488 until 1492, 
when he was succeeded by the Abbot of Cambuskenneth. In the year 
1489 he is first styled William, Lord St. John, a dignity conferred upon 
him and his successors in the preceptorate of Torphichen by James IV., 
by whom he was much employed in the public transactions of the period. 
His nephew, Patrick Knollis, was his coadjutor in 1500, it being declared 
that his uncle was incapacitated by age and infirmities from the discharge 
of his duties ; and on the death of Patrick, Robert Stuart D'Aubigny, a 
nephew of Lord Bernard D'Aubigny, was nominated to be coadjutor by 
bull dated at Rhodes 17th March 1501-2. Sir William Knollis resigned 
the preceptorate in favour of Sir George Dundas in 1 504, and although he 

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is usually stated to have fallen at Flodden, the records of the Order shew 
that he was deceased before the 24th June 15 10. 

Of his successor, Sir George Dundas, it is said that he was the fellow- 
student at Paris of the celebrated Hector Boethius, and that he was 
distinguished for his learning. He was appointed preceptor ist July 1504, 
and there are many notices of him in the Acts of the Lords of Council and 
Session, in June 15 15, when Alexander Stewart, postulate of Inchiffray 
had intruded himself in the Preceptory of Torphichen, notwithstanding 
that Sir George Dundas is lawfully promoted to the same ; and the curse 
of Rome was accordingly launched against the said Alexander, and 
against Patrick, Abbot of Cambuskenneth, who had supported him. In 
15 17 George, Lord of St. John, pursued Mr. Patrick KnoUis, son of the 
deceased William, Lord of St. John, for wrongous detention of forty oxen 
upon the lands of Fallowis, belonging to the knights ; and on 7th October 
in the same year he signs and seals a treaty with England. About 1521 
the Lord of St. John had a remission of customs of 8 lasts of salmon, 
extending to £\% 4s., exported yearly by him from Aberdeen "on the 
account of grand master at Rhodes." George, Lord of St. John, is still 
mentioned in 1531, and he died before 6th -March, 1532-3 when Sir Walter 
Lyndsay was nominated Preceptor of Torphichen. This was the Sth son of 
John Lyndsay, justiciar of the north of Scotland, a descendant of the noble 
house of Crawfurd and Lindsay. He is referred to by Sir David Lindsay 
of the Mount in his " Testament of Squyer Meldrum " in the following 
laudatory terms : — 

The wise Sir Walter Lindsay, they him call, 
Lord of St. John and Knight of Torphichen 
By sea and land a valiant capitane. 

He was received into the Order by Turcopolier William Weston, 31st 
December 1525, and was afterwards appointed Grand Prior or Preceptor of 
the Hospital of St John, and as such granted several charters between 1533 
and 1 540 to which Friar Phillip de Villers Lisleadam, Master of the said 
Hospital, assents ; we are therefore to suppose that the terms preceptor and 
master were not synonymous, but signified different offices. Sir Walter 
Lindsay was one of the Lords of Council in 1540, and attained to the 
distinction of being Justice General of Scotland; he died between 1543 

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and 1547. The following example of his signature is taken from a 
Tack of the lands of Auldlistoune in favour of George Inglis, dated 
26th January 1533, and preserved in the Alderston charter chest A 

Fig. 45. Signature of Sir Walter Lyndsay, Lord St. John. 

seal IS appended to this document exhibiting what appears to be a 
knight in armour, with a legend which is, however, quite illegible. It has 
usually been said that this Preceptor died in 1538, and that date certainly 
appears upon a fragment of his sepulchre which is preserved in the ruins 
of the preceptory (Fig. 46). This inscription however, if really carved at 
that date, must clearly have been executed during his lifetime. We have 
seen an original charter signed by him and dated at Torphichen 20th 
September 1540; and in his work Cunning/tame Topographized Mr. Pont 
mentions several charters of tenements in the burgh of Irvine, granted 
by Walter, Lord St John, and dated at Edinburgh in the year 1543. On 
the other hand, James Lindesay, son natural of the late Walter, Lord St 
John had letters of legitimation from the Queen, 20th January 1546-7. 

Sir James Sandilands, the succeeding preceptor, was the second son 
of James Sandilands of Calder, and we have already had occasion to 
notice the principal events of his career (see page 66). He was con- 
stituted Prior of the Order of St John in Scotland by a bull of the Grand 
Master d'Omedes, dated at Malta 2nd April 1547; embraced the 
Protestant faith at the Reformation, when the Society over which he pre- 
sided was suppressed in this country in common with all similar religious 
institutions. The temporal possessions of the House were bestowed upon 
Sir James Sandilands, Lord St John, who agreed to pay to the Crown 
10,000 crowns of the Sun therefor, and a yearly rent of 500 merks for ever. 
By his successors they were all gradually alienated, excepting the lands 
lying immediately adjacent to the ruins at Torphichen, which have 
descended regularly in the family of Sandilands, and to which the title of 
Lord Torphichen adheres. The baronies which belonged to the institution 
at the time of its suppression were those of Torphichen, Listoun, Balin- 

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trodo, Thankertoun, Denny, Maryculter, Stanehoip and Galtua, with 
ecclesiastical patronage of Torphichen, Temple, Inchmachen, Maryculter, 
Tulloch, Aboyne and Kilbartha. In addition to the above there were 
many other lands and tenements which were sold by James, the 2nd Lord 
Torphichen of the name of Sandilands, in 1599, to Robert Williamson 
of Murieston and James Tennent of Linhouse. In 1604 Williamson 
became the sole proprietor and afterwards sold the major portion of the 
estates to Sir Thomas Hamilton, subsequently Earl of Melrose and 
Haddington, for whom these lands were erected into the barony of Drem 
by an Act of Parliament dated 16 14. This barony was disentailed about 
the middle of the i8th century, and having passed through the hands of 
several proprietors has now become dormant if not extinct. The barony 
of Balintrodo, which included the whole of the present estate of Arniston 
at least, was conveyed by James, Lord Torphichen, to Sir James Dundas, 
the founder of the distinguished house of Arniston in the year 1609. 

Of the Preceptory itself, sufficient remains to indicate its former 
position if not its entire dimensions, and a better example of the inter- 
mingling of ecclesiastical and domestic architecture could scarcely be found. 
" The first sight of the great massive tower," says Mr Macgibbon, " would 
lead one to suppose it to be the remains of some old baronial keep, and it 
is only when the traceried windows and the surrounding churchyard come 
into view that one perceives the true character of the building. Its design 
is thus so far appropriate as the church of a great military society, and has 
altogether the stern aspect one would expect, knowing who its builders 
were." The structure is said to have consisted of a nave about 112 feet 
long, transepts and choir, but it has suffered so much from time and more 
ruthless destroyers that the central tower and the north and south transepts 
are all that now remain. In the position of the nave, a plain modern 
• erection of about the size and appearance of an ordinary barn serves the 
purposes of a parish church ; but there are indications on the ancient 
building shewing where the roofs of both nave and chancel have met the 
central tower, as also of an aisle on the south side of the nave. From 
these appearances it is evident that the transepts were higher, externally, 
than the main portions of the building, and they contained an upper floor 
which was devoted to living apartments. So recently as the year 1760 there 

2 o 

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existed also a building of considerable dimensions and unknown antiquity, 
adjacent to the north transept, with which it communicated by means of a 
doorway which is now walled up. This building is traditionally reported 
to have afforded accommodation for the knights when their numbers had 
increased beyond what the church itself could contain. The oldest work 
now existing in the structure is a circular arch with its shaft and hood 
mouldings, which occupies a position in the wall vail, dividing the transepts 
from the nave. These details are transitional in character and probably 
belong to the latter part of the 12th century; it is evident however that, 
like the carved stones which are to be seen in the same wall, this arch is 
not in its original position, but has been built into the wall at some period. 
The transepts are of isth century work, and the two traceried windows are 
of pure gothic design. The roof is vaulted, composed of three bays, and 
in the central dome the key of the vault itself consists of an horizontal 
circle of masonry, held in its position at a height of thirty feet above the 
floor by the mutual pressure of the vaulting, the effect being rather 
strikmg. The four piers which support the central tower also exhibit a 
certain amount of architectural grace, and at the north-west angle of this 
tower a spiral stair gives access to the chambers above. The stair is com- 
prised in a round turret situated in the angle formed by the nave and the 
north transept— round, that is to say, on the inside, but the turret is 
polygonal exteriorly. An ancient baptismal font or receptacle for holy 
water remains in the south transept, and, beneath the sole of the window 
there is a canopied recess in which tradition asserts the dead were laid 
during the funeral mass. It has however been pointed out that the length 

Fig. 46. Portion of Monument of Walter, Lord St. John, 1538. 

of this recess is only 5 ft. 11 in. which would be too short for a man 
stretched out in death ; it is therefore probable that it may have been used 
or intended for the effigy of some person buried within the church. 
Within the circular arch already alluded to, two horizontal slabs have been 
built into the wall, which have evidently once formed part of the tomb of 

Digitized by 



Sir Walter Lindsay. The lower slab represents a human skeleton en- 
twined with serpents and hair flowing from the skull, whilst a fish crosses 
one foot and passes beneath the other. The inscription round the carving 
is embarrassed by several abbreviations ; it may with difficulty, and perhaps 
also some uncertainty, be read thus Walterus Lyndesay Justi- 


The other slab has at one end what appears to be a skull with 
formal flowing locks, then a stem with leaves, two crossed objects like 
weavers* shuttles, a heart-shaped figure with leaves, two swords and a 
battle axe crossed and two intwined fish with beaked mouths. 

Fig. 47. Another carved panel. 

The whole fabric of the church seems to have been built upon oak 
piles driven into the marshy soil to form a foundation. Portions of these 
piles, rendered impenetrably hard by the antiseptic qualities of the morass, 
have from time to time been dug up in excavating for graves. The vault- 
ing is still in good order, especially in the north transept, where it is 
remarkably clean and sharp. That in the south transept, is in a less 
satisfactory condition, particularly at the south-east corner, where the 
angle buttress is evidently too slight for the thnist. The foundation 
appears also to have subsided, so that the walls are considerably out of the 
perpendicular, and but for the iron tie-rod above, this portion of the 
edifice would doubtless have been in ruins. 

Like many other ecclesiastical buildings, the Preceptory of Torphichen 
possessed the right of sanctuary. In the churchyard is a small square 
stone resembling a common milestone with a St. John's cross carved in the 
top, and similar stones are found at the distance of a Scots mile therefrom 
as nearly as possible in the direction of the four cardinal points of the 
compass, namely at Lochcote, Westfield, Craiginartin and Couston. 
Within the limits thus enclosed a temporary protection at least was 
afforded to fugitives from justice or private resentment. But from the 

Digitized by 



following notice it may be questioned whether these refuge-grounds really 
afforded such extensive privileges as has been supposed : — 

1 53 1, March 28 — Robert Manderstoune, James Mechell and William Hutoune, accused 
of the murder of James, Abbot of Culross, were acquitted— ^*^ wherefore they were restored 
to the privilege of the sanctuary of Torphiching by the Justice General, and judicially 
delivered to George, Lord St. John, Master of the said sanctuary. " Others found guilty 
of the crime were executed. 

A writer on the subject, in referring to the closing episode in the 
history of the Knights of St John, remarks — "At the same time, the same 
fate befell the Teutonic Knights ; but instead of giving birth to a Torphichen 
family as in Scotland, the successors of the Templars in Germany founded 
the Prussian Kingdom," and laterly the German empire. In conclusion it 
may be added that the Order was suppressed in England by Henry VIII., 
whose pious zeal was so conspicuous in that direction. It was restored by 
Mary in ISS7, and finally suppressed by Elizabeth in I5S9- And thus 
ended a very gallant Order of vowed and consecrated warriors, many of • 
whose exploits shed a lustre upon the darkness of the middle ages like the 
path of a meteor through a midnight sky. 

Fig. 48.— Signature of Sir James Sandilands, Lord St. John, the last Preceptor 
of Torphichen, 6th May 1554. 

Digitized by 


Fig. 49. — Ruins of Torphichen Priory, from SE. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



THE following is the Text of an " Obligation" to build and complete 
the Parish Kirk of 'Calder, as it is recorded in the Transactions of the 
Lords of Council and Session, 13th February 1541-2. (Acta. Dom. Cone. 
etSes. XVIir; fo. 24.) 

Obligation by James Sandelandis of Calder, Knight, and John 
Sandielands fear of Calder his son and apparent heir in consideration of 
the sum of i6co merks having been paid to them by " ane venerabill Clerk 
Maister Petir Sandelandis " uncle to the said James and parson of Calder, 
" to big and compleit the revestre of the paroche Kirk of Calder with ane 
watter tabitl at the heich that it is now under the thak Inlikwise with ane 
wther watter table abone the thak on the est gavill of the queir weill 
pendit in half round to the said queir vnder the said tabill inlikewise weill 
thekit with thak stane and sail rais abone the said tabill in the eist gavill 
of the queir and abone the turnegres and the tabill thairof tua lichtis als 
fair as thai may be had efferand to the heicht of the queir and abone the 
watter tabill abon the thak of the revestre and thre penis thairof to ryse 
cunteranis of buttreis vpoun the said eist gavill and thre penis thairof and 
the remanent of the said queir to be endit of the lenth and widenes as it 
is foundit and in heicht fra the sollis of the said queir duris to the vnder 
pairt of the watter tabill vnder the thak thairof xxxij futtis and the south 
thre lychtis in the sydevall of the said queir be'tuix the foure buttreis to 
ryse as thai ar foundit als heich as thai may be had in the pend of the said 
queir efferand to the heich foirsaid And the saidis buttreis to be compleit 
& endit as thai ar now foundit And the north turnegres in the west pairt of 
the north sydevall thairof to be tane avay and the said north wall to ryse 
xvj futtis of heicht as it is foundit roucht werk with corbellis and watter 
tabill on the vthir pairt thairof for ane closter and fra thine vp efferand to 
the heicht of the said queir aislar werk and the said queir to be compleitlie 
pendit with croce brace and rinruif conforme to Sanct Anthonis yle in 

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Sanct Gelis Kirk And at the west end of the said queir forgane the south 
west buttreis to rais ane substantious wall roucht werk sevin fut of breid 
from Ilk sydewall with ane brace to be raisit thairein als heich as it may 
be had To serve the west gavil of the queir with hewin aggernis and abonc 
the said brace in the forsaid west gavill sailzies to be laid and ane stepil to 
be riciisit quhareupoun viii futis of breid and lenth or vj futis braid and xij 
futis lenth within the sidwallis of the said stepil quhilk sidwallis salbe of vj 
futis of heich abone the queir thak at all partys with lychtis at all partis for 
the sound of the bellis in the said stepill to be persit for the orlage hand and 
bell in place maist ganand and convenient thairto And in the north angell 
betuix the foresaid wall vnder the grete brace and north wall of the Kirk 
syd to rais ane commodious turngreis to serue the end loft of the said kirk 
and stepil foresaid als esaly as it may be had Item to big ane Kirk on the 
west part of the said queir nixt the said brace contenand in lenth iiij" of 
futis and xxviij futis braid within the wallis respective of rouch werk and the 
wallis thairof to be four futis thik and xxvj futis heicht fra the sole of the 
durris to the vnir part of the wattertabill of the syd wallis with four buttreis 
on ilk syd of the said Kirk eslar werk efferand to the queir and four lychts to 
be biggit in the southsyd wall of the said Kirk of x futis of wydnes and als 
heich as thai may be had squair lintalit efferand to the said heicht and in 
the south wall of the said Kirk betuix the twa buttreis to be biggit ane honest 
dur with ane plain proch with sege stabill on ilk syd thikyt with thak stane 
and ane honest dur in the west gavill of the said Kirk with ane lycht abone 
the samen in myd gavill xij futis of breid rysand of heicht in poyntcast als 
heich as it may be had efferand to the heicht of the gavill with sufficient 
mygallis in all the lychtis of the said Kirk and queir with plane substantious 
cornettis of stane or irn quhilk salbe thocht maist ganand in the lychtis raisit 
of poyntcast And to put in ilk lycht of the wyndois grete lokartis of Irne for 
binding of glas thairto And inlikwis to put grete crukis in the said Kirk 
durrys as efferis and the said haill kirk to be pendyt and weill thekyt with 
thak stane and the watter tabill of the sid wallis of the said Kirk and queir 
to be larger of sailze betuix buttreis and buttereis and in ane caisment hevin 
for leid to be lad thairin to schout the watter by the wyndowis of the said 
Kirk and queir to the angellis nixt the buttreis and ilk buttrice of the foirsaid 
Kirk and queir to haif ane honest fiall and the alter of the queir to be biggit 

Digitized by 




of aslar werk and the haill queir to be weill pavit with greis befoir the said 
alter and vtherwayis as efferis with tua halie watter fattis weill hewin to 
the said Kirk and queir and the foirsaidis Kirk and queir to be biggit and 
completit in maner foirsaid That is to say the said queir within the 
space of thre zeris nixt after the dait heirof and the said Kirk within the 
space of vthair thre zeris nixt and immediatlie thairafter." And the said 
John Sandelandis binds himself to pay an annualrent of 20 merks to a 
chaplain to be named by him for doing of mass and divine service within 
the said Kirk to be taken by them out of the whole lands and barony of 
Calder and mylnis thereof. Dated at Edinburgh 30th January 1541. The 
witnesses are : Mr Robert Galbraith, parson of Spot ; Mr John Skrymgeour 
of the Myris ; Friar Andrew Carnys, warden of the Grey Friars of Edin- 
burgh ; and Patrick Dischintoun, son and apparent heir to William 
Dischintoun of Ardros; and others. James Dundas of that Ilk, and John 
Cokburne are sureties. The Obligation is presented for registration by 
the said James Sandelands, John Sandelandis, James Dundas and John 

Abstract of a Valuation Roll of the Parish, Compiled in the 

Year 1726. 




early valued lent. 
Scots Money. 

Lord Torphichen 

for the Barony of Calder 
Divided thus — 


. 2847 18 6 

Calder, Williamston, Contentibus, &c. 




Craigs .... 




Dedridge .... 



Camilty .... 




Easter Murieston and Cockrig 








Dressilrig and Sandygate . . , 



Wester Murieston . . . . 


Haymains .... 




Powbeath .... 




Langside .... 



Camilty Mill and Mill Lands 




2 P 

Digitized by 






Yearly valued rent. 
Scots Money, 

Alex. Muirhead 

for the Barony of Linhouse 
Divided thus — 


. ;£6l5 II 


Linhouse, Skivo and Ballgreen 

jf324 13 


Over Williamston and Blackhall . 

128 II 


Nether Alderston . . . . 

102 6 


Dyck, or Wester Dressilrig (Wcstfield) . 
for the Barony of Alderstoun 


. 613 

Mr John Mitchell 

Divided thus — 

Alderston, Crofthcad, Brucefield, &c. 


Easter Cairns . . . . 

85 10 


Wester Cairns and Wester Colzium 


Easter Colzium . . . . 


Wester Causeyend 
for Pumpherston . 

29 10 

John Hamilton 

. 406 13 


Jas. Oswald 

for Letham .... 

. 285 

Mr Alex. Dalgleish for Houatston 


Abr. Pargillies 

for Nether Howden 


Alex. Thomson 

for Ingliston-Bevelaw (Harpcrrig) 


James Scott 

for Howden .... 


Wm. Elphinston 

for Greenbank 

32 13 


il^Y> 16 



Page 67, line li, for "about 15 17," read "before 15 10." 

Digitized by 



Adambrae, 95. 
Addiewell, icx>. 
Advocates, Faculty of, 79, 89, 94, 140, 143, 

149, 151, 163, 185. 
Aikman Family, 16, 17, 19. 23, 25, 32, 84, 99, 

137, 152, 153, i74-5> 176, 177, 187, 188, 

193, 226, 247. 
Aitken of Torr, 191. 
Alderston, 47, 85, 86, 102. 

Barony of, S7, 91, 133, 139, 165, 188. 

Mill of, 41, 87, 93. 

(Nether) 8, 95-8, 87, 134, 161. 

Alexander of Westficld, 189. 

Allan, Robert, 129. 

Almond River, 7, 8, 41, 43, 121, 178. 

Ancnim Moor, 62. 

Anderson of Colzium, T38. 

of Dressilrig, 175, 177. 

Andrew, Sir Wm., 122, 130. 
Angus, Geo., Earl of, 46, 57. 
Antiquaries, Society of, 9, 11. 
Auld of Howden Park, 146. 
Aytoun, Roger, W.S., 100, 173-4, 175. 
Professor, 173, 189. 


Bailies of Calder, 18, 23, 25, 26, 28, 157. 

Bailie of Manorhall, 1 10. 

Balfour of Balbimy, 98. 

Ballengeich, 179. 

Bankton, 98, 174, 176, 177. 

Baron Court of Calder, 15, 23, 24, 25, 40, 
88, 103, 105, 124, 132, 147, 151, 156, 
169, 220. 

Baronies. See Alderston, Calder, and Lin- 

Barrows, 8. 

Barton, Sir Robert, 65. 

Bell (Church), 89, 201, 203, 224. 

Bell, John, of Alderston, 93, 188. 

of W. Murieston, 192. 

Bellsquarry, 41. 

Bemham, Bishop, 216. 

Berry, Wm., 175. 

Bewgo in Howatston, 16, 123, 131, 132, 133. 

Bisset, Wm., Kt, 13. 

Black, Adam and Charles, 99, 177. 

Blackball, 161, 167. 

Blackness Castle, 71, 102, 254. 

Bloodshed, 24, 251. See Violence. 

Bogle of Bogleshole, 162. 

Borthwick of Borthwick, 102, 147. 

of Falahill, 92. 

Boswell of Balmuto, 126. 

Bothwell, Earl of, 17, 48, 64, 71, 107. 

Bradshaw, Laird of, 16, 17, 26, 142, 152. See 

Bridgehaugh, 120, 241. 
Bridges, 142. 
Bronze age, 9. 
Browning, Rev. R. L., 244. 
Brotherton, 87, 102, 107. 
Bruce of Alderston, 95. 

of Bankton, 99, 100, 175, 177. 

of Kinnaird, 95. 

Robert, 12, 63, 95. 

Brunstoun, Laird of, 62, 64. 
Buchan, Earl of, 185. 
Burnbrae, 164. See Linhouse. 
Burnett, Rev. Wm., 232-4. 

Cairns Castle, loi, 115-6, 154. 

hills, 7, 1 10. 

lands of, 8, 9, 17, 87, 92, loi, 105. 

Caithness, Earl of, 87. 
Calder, derivation of, 8. 

Commonty, 23, 145. 

House, 14, 43, 136, 175. 

Fair. See Fairs. 

Moor, 17, 18, 168, 191. 

Wood, 8, 12, 23, 24, 25, 168, 224. 

Calderbank, 11 8-21. 
Calderhall, Laird of, 18, 228. 
Calderwood of Polton, 163. 
Caldstane slap, 21, 231. 
Cameron of Westfield, 189, 194. 
Camilty, 8, 22, 136, 163, 166, 215. 

Digitized by 




Camp, ancient, lo. 

Cant of Harperrig, i6, 143. 

Castle Greg, 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Causewayend, 10$, 109, 117. 

Chapel ton, 215, 232. 

Charlesfield, 17, 90, 121-34. 

Chepman, Mr John, 87. 

Clock (Church), 203. 

Clere, Rudolph de, 12, 213. 

Church of Calder, 21, 34, 152, 159, 195-212, 

215, 239, 263-5. 
Seats in, 108, 141, 142, 148, 160, 171, 

205-6, 209. 
Cochrane of Alderston, 93. 

of Barbachlaw, 156, 184. 

of Bradshaw, 16, 191. 

of Harbum, 11, 12. 

Cockbum of Ormiston, 60, 62, 64, 65, 198, 

Cockrig (Bankton), 99, 172. 
Coffins, stone, 8, 9. 
Colvill, Rev. John, 229-30. 
Colq^uhon of Alderston, 95. 
Colzium, 87, 92, 114, 117, 124, 134-40. 
Communion tokens, 244. 

vessels, 210, 231. 

Conventicles, 7, 21, no, 135, 139, 231. 
Covenant, The, 228. 
Craig of Riccarton, 181. 
Craigs, 16, 81-2, 146, 151. 
Cranmer, Archbishop, 217. 
Crawford of Kerse, 66, 73. 
Creichtoun of Cairns, 87, 100-3. 

of Ruthven, loi. 

Crofthead, 87, 95. 

Cross of Calder, 37. 

" Cunnigar," 8. 

Cunynghame of Livingston, 1 53. 

Curfew, 34. 

Curlers of Calder, 38. 

Dalgleish, Mr Alex., 133, 266, 

of Lauriston, 181, 186. 

Darg, Mr Patrick, 182. 

David II., 53, 54. 

Dick of Greenbank, 99, 137, 139, 140, 142, 

172, 173- 
Dickson of Logiegreen, 95. 
Dobie, Rev. Jas., 237. 
Douglases, The, 14, 56, 57. 

Armorials of, 81-2, 186, 197. 

Earl of, 14, 46, 53, 56. 

of Badds, 16, 227, 246. 

Douglas of Howden, 16, 23, 146-8, 206. 
of Nether Howden, 16, 23, 88, 151, 221, 

of Pumpherston, 16, 17, 18, 32, 66, 76 

146, 147, 179-83, 186, 206, 218, 246. 
Dove-cots, 87, 165, 178. 
Downie of Appin, 114, 138. 
Dressilrig, 119, 174-6: 

Wester. See Westficld. 

Dnimmond, Mr Jas., 6j, 62, 64. 
Drunkenness, 108, 132, 230, 233. 
Dunbar, Rev. Geo., 224-5. 
Duncan, Rev. Alex., 242. 

Rev. Andrew, 243. 

Dundas of Dundas, 58, ^^^ 91, 198, 265. 

Sir George, 67, 255. 

Dunfermline Abbey, 12, 215, 216, 239. 
Dunn of Alderston, 94. 
Durham of Largo, 163. 
Dyke. See Wester Dressilrig. 

East Calder, Church of, 213. 
Ecclesiastical History, 213-244. 
Ecclesmachen, 127. 
Edinburgh, Street riot in, 72. 

Tolbooth, 139. 

Tron, 133. 

Water Co., 114, 138. 

Elders, 89, 92, 97, 136, i45, 168, 175, 245, 

Elphinstone, Lord, ^^, 
Errol, Earl of, 59. 
Erskine, Lord Advocate, 185. 
Ewart of Bodspeck, 182. 
Excommunication, 228. 


Fairs and Markets, 36, 37, 233. 

Families, old in Parish. See Aikman, Auld, 

Bewgo, Fleming, Graham, Loch, Sandi- 

lands, Tennent. 
Farquharson of Howden, 189. 
Feudal tenure, 23, 24, 25, 40, 81, 191. 
Feuds, 72, 73, 74. 

Fife, Earls of, 12, 13, 14, 46, 195, 215. 
Fleming, Lord, 66. 

in Blackball, 167. 

Flint, Jas., in N. Alderston, 96, 246. 
Forbes of Westfield, 189. 
Forrester of Corstorphine, 60, 64, 172. 
Foxhall, 91. 
Free Church, 244. 

Digitized by 





Gardner, Rev. Matthew, 239. 
Garthshorc of Alderston, 93, 94, 97, 98, 162, 

189, 194. 
Gateway, ancient, 51. 
Gavieside, 88, 90. 
Geddes of Colzium, 137. 
Gilmure, Rev Robt.,221, 222-3. 
Glasgow, Bishop of, 13. 

Earl of, 94. 

University, 217, 223, 238, 244. 

Glenorchy, Lady, 51. 
Gordon, John, W.S., 94, 98. 
Graham of Causewayend, 1 1 7-8, 211. 

of W. Murieston, 192. 

Jean, no, 117. 

Grahame, Mr Jas., 72. 

Grange of Breich, 38, 89, 121-30. 

Grant, Alex., W.S., 137. 

Isaac, W.S., 98, 138. 

Gray, Family of, 16, 33, 144-5, 208. 

of Cairns, 1 1 1-3, 168. 

Greenbank, 140-2, 173, 239. 
Guthrie, Alex., W.S., 126. 


Hallyards, 69, 72, 74, 75. 
Hamiltons, Proscription of, 123. 

of Bathgate, 143. 

of Cairns, 114. 

of Grange, 16, 39, 122-6, 206, 227, 247. 

of Pumpherston, 1 84, 266. 

Rev G., 97. 

Hardy of Charlesfield, 122, 128-30. 
Harperrig, 8, 143-5. 

Reservoir, 114, 138. 

Hay. See Bruce. 
Henrysone of Pittadro, W.S., 183. 
Hepburn of Colzium, 137. 
Heriot of Trabroun, 76, 147. 
Highlanders, 22, 27. 
Hog of Newliston, 174. 
Home of Linhouse, 164. 
Hopetoun, Earl of, 185. 
Horsburgh of Newpark, 177. 
Hospitaller Knights. See St John. 
Houstoun of Calderhall, 163, 184. 

of Houstoun, 87, 89, 90. 

Howatson, 88, 90, 92, 121, 130-4. 
Howden, 17, 145-50* '53- 
Howden (Nether), 151-53. 
Howden Park, 146, 151. 
Hume of N. Berwick, 123. 

Lady Jane, 45, 49, 79, 172, 203, 210, 

Hunter of Colzium, 138, 140. 


Infirmary, Royal, 165. 
Inglis of Auchindinny, 140, 142. 

of Auldlistoun, 73, 81, 156, 256. 

of Cramond, 80. 

of Howden, 149. 

James I., 57, 253. 
James VI. at Calder, 47. 
Jamieson of Murieston, 142, 173. 

ofWalkmill, 108, 1 19-21. 

Joggs. See Stocks. 

Johnstone, Samuel, of Greenbank, 141, 206, 

Walter, session clerk, 26, no, 141, 

232, 247. 
Justice, Administration of, 22, 23, 24, 75. 


Keir of Westfield, 173, 192. 

Kelso Abbey, 214. 

Kennedy, Mr Hew, 18, 86, 141, 167, 225-9, 

232, 240. 
Kennoway, Thomas, 20, 21, 22, 231. 
Ker of Aldtounburn, 59. 

of Colzium, 16, 135-36. 

Killandean Water, 121, 134. 

Kinloch of Alderston, 15, 18, 23, 25, 85, 87, 

89, 124, 133, 143, 158, 170, 201, 205, 

206, 227, 246, 247. 

of Cruvie, 59. 

Kinneir, Mr Andrew, 89. 
Kirkpatrick of Closebum, 'j'j, 
Kirk-Session, 26, 27, 28, 108, no, 132, 182, 

200, 204-5. 
Knollys, Sir Wm., 67, 254. 
Knox, John, 14, 47, 48, 52, 63, 217-8. 


Laing of Linhouse, 165. 
Laird, Rev. Hugh, 11 2-4, 140. 
Lawson of Cairnmuire, 105, 106, 137, 161. 
Learmonth of Craig, 16, 40, 82. 

of Dean, 138, 169, 174, 208. 

Leith, Water of, 7, 143. 
Letham, 83. 

Well at, 38. 

Lewis, Isle of, 74. 
Lindsay, Lord, 68, 74. 

of Edzell, 78. 

Sir Walter, 67, 103, 198, 255-6, 259. 

Linhouse, 153-65, 

Digitized by 




Linhouse, Barony of, i6i, 163, 165. 

Water, 7. 

Laird of, 90. See Tennent and Muir- 

Linning, Mr Michael, W.S., 41, 114, 138, 

Liquor Traffic, 24, 25, 26. 
Liston, Patrick, of Langton, 19, 20, 136, 230. 
Wm., of Colzium, 20, no, 136, 153, 

230, 247. 
Listonschiels, 103, 106, 107, 137. 
Livingston of that ilk, 131. 
in Howatston, 16, 132, 133, 223, 247, 


Minister of, 205, 227, 235. 

Loch in Howatston, 16, 131, 132, 248. 
Lockhart of Bradshaw, 26, 152, 170, 223. 
Lynton of Newyearfield, 82. 


Mackenzie, Rev. Norman, 231. 
Macleod of Geanies, 145. 
Malcolm IV., 12, 13, 215, 251. 

of Portalloch, 189. 

Manse, The, 239-40. 

Marjoribanks of that ilk, T]^ 92, 179, 191, 

Marriage laws and usages, 28, 29, no, 117, 

M*Calyean of Cliftounhall, 180. 
M'George, Rev. Wm., 212, 241, 244. 
M*Kenzie, Rev. Norman, 141, 231. 
M^Lagan, Peter, of Pumpherston, 121, 185-6, 

Meldrum of Dechmont, 190, 191. 
Melville of Melville, 81. 
Mills and Multure, 29, 40, 118. 
Ministers of Calder, 216-39. 
Mitchell, Mr John, of Alderston, 88, 91, 93, 

III, 117, 120, 133, 139, 188,194,248, 


Walter, of Listonscheils, 92, 137. 

William, surgeon, 92, in, 117, 137. 

Montrose, Earl of, 72. 

Marquis of, 90, 159, 184. 

Moody Mortification, 35, 36, 127. 
Morton, Earls of, 12, 69, 104, 144, 148, 180. 
Moubray of Calderbank, 1 20-1, 212. 
Muirhead of Lachope, 95, 96, 98, 159. 
of Linhouse, 18, 19, 26, 91, 94, 96, 97, 

159-63, 188, 227, 266. 

of N. Alderston, 1 5, 23, 96, 

Murieston, 99, 168-74, 177. 

Castle, 188, 191, 193, 194. 

Wester, 191 -3. 

Murison, of Westfield, 189. 
Murray of Blackbarony, 160. 

of Polmaise, 71, 75. 

Regent, 15,65,217. 

Newpark, 174, 176-8. 


Oil Works, 39, 40, 19a 

Oliphant, Chas., 89. 

Ormestoun, Andrew of, 5 3, 54. See Cockbum. 

Jas. Anderson in, 171. 

Oswald of Letham, 26, 83, 205, 206, 266. 
Over-Williamston, 165-6, 170. 

Pargillies, Abraham, 90, 152, 160, 266. 
Parish, dimensions of, 7. 
Parliaments, Acts of, 22, 37, 39, 106. 
Paterson, Matthew, of Murieston, 142, 172. 

James, of Bankton, 98. 

Patronage, Ecclesiastical, 240-1. 
Peebles, 203, 239. 
Peerage of Torphichen, 67, 68. 
Pentland Hills, Battle of, 20, 136, 230. 
Persecution, religious, 20, 21, no, 132, 135, 

136, 139, 167, 220, 230, 231. 
Pilgrimages, 55, 60. 
Plague, 26, 125, 227. 
Pomphray Family, 179. 
Population of Parish, 39. 
Portraits, Family, 49. 
Preston of Valleyfield, 230. 
Prices of commodities, 24, 25, 105, 106, 143, 

167, 169, 176, 

of lands, 93, 162, 163, 164, 172. 

Primrose of Bumbrae, 164, 208. 

of Dalmeny, 78. 

Pumpherston, 176-86. 
Oil works, 39, 40. 

Quarries, 41. 

" Quernis " or mill-stones, 40. 


Raeburn, Henry, of Howden, 130, 150, 208. 

Railways, 42. 

"Rebellion" of I745i 22, 78. 

Records, local, 244-^. 

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Reformation, The, 48, 63, 193. 
Reid of Rathobank, 1 12. 
Revolution, The, 50, 77y 78. 
Riccio, murder of, 69, 82, 146. 
Richardson of Newpark, 177-8. 
Roads, 41, 117. 
Robert II. at Calder, 46, 55. 
Robertson, Dr W.B., 186. 
Roman coins, 11, 12. 

remains, 9, 10, 117. 

Rosebank, 95. 

Rosebery, Earl of, 78, 95, 164. 

Ross, Jean, 47, 107. 

Lord, 21, 70, 171. 

Wm. of Torphin, 171. 

Sir Wm. of Murieston, 39, 171, 206, 


Thos, architect, 44, 155, 201. 

Rutherfurd, Rev. Sam., 225. 

Sabbath, observance and breach of, 26, 28, 
30, 37, 108, 166, 220, 224, 230, 233, 235. 

Sadleyr, Sir Ralph, 61, 62. 

St Cuthbert, Church of, 213, 214. 

St John, Jas. Lord, 66-9, 198, 199, 256, 260. 

Knights of, 52, 67, 249-50. 

-^ — Lords, 67, 143, 157, 169, 174, 249, 
254-6. See Dundas, Knoylls, Lindsay. 

Seals of, 81. 

Sandilands, Family of, 14, 43-81. 

Armorials of, 80-81, 197, 199. 

Sir Jas. of Calder, 60-4, 195. 

of Couston, 77, 

ofCraigs, 73, 82. 

of Hildcrston, 76, 77. 

of St Monans, 76. 

of Slamannan, 16, 66, 70-4, 76, 169. 

Rev. Peter, 59, 195, 196, 198, 199, 204, 

216-7, 263. 

Wm., tutor of Calder, 18, 19, 32, 76. 

School of Calder, 34, 35, 36. 

Scot of Ancrum, 94, 1 62. 

of Bavillaw, 143-4. 

of Branxholm, 105. 

of Harperrig, 18, 19, 89, 90, 143, 206. 

of Knichtispottie, 88, 169. 

Selms, Laird of, 18, 29, 108, 246. 

Sharp of Houstoun, 153. 

Skivo, 167. 

Skrymgeour of Dudhope, 59, 60. 

Smith, Jas., in N. Alderston, 97, 247. 

Somervell of Castle Somervell, 188. 

Lord, 76, 106, 109, 119, 182. 

Rev. John, 231. 

Sommers, Rev. John, 45, 102, 117, 146, 167, 

178, 200, 212, 238. 
Spottiswood, Archbp., 25, 71, 107, 140, 141, 

219-21, 223, 239. 

Mr James, 25, 73, 219. 

John, advocate, 94. 

Superintendent, 140, 141, 158, 167, 180, 

217-9, 239. 
Stevenson of Hirdmanschiels, 15, 23, 25, 

206, 227, 246, 247. 
Stewart of Cragyhall, 23, 47, 70, 107. 
Stipend, 239, 240. 
Stirling of Kippendavie, 80. 
Stocks, 28, 30, 31. 

Stoddart, J. E., of Howden, 150, 191. 
Sundials, ancient, 52, 99, 169. 
Surgeons in Calder, 38, 92, 161. 

Templar Knights, 169, 250, 253. 
Tennent of Cairns, 16, 17, 21, 103-11, 119, 
224, 230. 

arms of, 1 16. 

pedigree of, 109. 

- of Linhouse, 15, 23, 24, 25, 65, 75, 107, 
143, 155-8, 167, 170, 219, 223, 257. 
arms of, 1 16. 

of Over-Williamston, 16, 23, 26, 148, 

165-6, 206, 220. 

Rev. John, 201, 223-4. 

Rev. Joseph, 106, 107. 

Thom of Barremmen, 191. 

Thomson of Harperrig, 144. 

Tiends, 132, 137, 169, 183, 214. 

Tod of Howden, 150, 208. 

Tod, Thos., W.S., 94. 

Todshaugh, 91. 

Toll gates, 42. 

Tombstones, 210-2. 

Torphichen, Lords, 70-80, 246, 247. See 


Priory, 66, 68, 76, 257-60. 

Religious house of, 249-60. 

Tree of Calder, The, 14, 30. 
Tumbull, Dr Adam, 175, 176, 177. 


United Presbyterians, 34, 241-4. 
Uphall, Minister of, 127. 

Valuation roll, 265-6. 
Villenage, terms of, 251. 

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Violence, deeds of, 17, 24, 96, 71-3, 75, 105, 
124, i3'» 135, 147, 180, 182. 


Walker of Limefield, 191, 209. 

Rev. Wm., 212, 238-9. 

Wappenschaws, 15, 88, 123, 135, 157, 193. 

War, Civil, 18, 19, 86, 159. 

Warlike equipments, 16, 17, 106, 132, 159. 

Watson, Rev. Jas., 237. 

Wauchope of Niddry, 71. 

Waulkmiln, The, 118. See Calderbank. 

Well at Calder House, 45. 

Well, Sulphurous, 38. 

West Calder Parish, Erection of, 39, 125, 
171, 214, 228, 240. 

West, John, 187, 188. 

Wester Dressilrig, 87, 91, 174, 187. • 

Westfield, 17^ 186-91. See also Wester Dres- 

Whythead, Mr Jas., 126. 

Wilkie of Grange, 122, 127, 134, 236. 

Wilkie of Westfield. 189. 

Williamson of Williamston, 16, 83, 169, 171. 

Mr Robert, 75, 88, 107, 143, 157, 1581 

169-70, 174, 187, 191, 257. 

Arms of, 174. 

Williamston, Nether, 83-4. 

Wilson, Rev. Jas., 238. 

John of Alderston, 95. 

of Howden, 149-50. 

Witchcraft, 31, 32, 33, 78, 127, 180, 182, 
225-6, 235-6. 

Windows (stained glass), 208-9. 

Writers to the Signet. See Aytoun, Bogle, 
Gartshore, Gordon, Grant, Guthrie, 
Henrysone, Home, Linning, Richard- 
son, Tod, Wilson, Wylie, Young. 

Wylie of Cockrig, 99, ij 8, 172, 211. , 


Yellowstruther, ^t^ 177, 188, 193-4. 
Young, Alex., of Harburn, 11, 40, 129. 
Dr Jas., of Kelly, 187, 190-1. 

Turnbull <5r» Spears^ Printers^ Edinburgh, 


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